ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (4): 684-696.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00684

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    


张宁(), 王安然   

  1. 浙江大学医学院公共卫生学院和附属第二医院, 杭州 310058
  • 收稿日期:2022-08-31 出版日期:2023-04-15 发布日期:2022-12-30
  • 通讯作者: 张宁
  • 基金资助:
    *中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(519600 17222022203);浙江省教育厅一般科研项目(人文社科类Y202248593);浙江省领军型创新创业团队(2019R01007);浙江大学公共卫生学院院长基金科研预研项目(188021-171257702/004/019)

Behavioral intervention strategies to nudge smoking cessation

ZHANG Ning(), WANG Anran   

  1. Department of Social Medicine School of Public Health and Center for Clinical Data Analytics of the Second Affiliated Hospital of School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
  • Received:2022-08-31 Online:2023-04-15 Published:2022-12-30
  • Contact: ZHANG Ning


烟草危害是人类所面临的重大公共健康挑战之一。传统的控烟策略主要依赖健康宣教、烟草税和控烟条例等手段, 但是较少考虑到吸烟行为的“非理性因素”及其心理机制, 因此仍不能有效帮助吸烟者成功戒烟。行为科学的发展为助推吸烟者成功戒烟提供了新视角。以实施主体和干预的影响机制为划分标准, 可将助推戒烟的行为干预策略分为由政府和公共健康服务部门执行的情境型干预策略和认知型干预策略以及吸烟者可自主执行的情境型和认知型干预策略, 一方面便于吸烟者和相关部门选取可执行的戒烟行为干预策略, 另一方面为进一步开发和验证助推戒烟的行为干预策略提供参考。虽然基于行为科学的助推干预策略已经取得了一定的进展, 未来研究仍有必要进一步在真实世界中验证和评估戒烟助推干预策略的效果。未来也有必要进一步将行为改变技术融入到数字化的戒烟服务或应用小程序中去以提升其效果。未来也需要考察如何应用戒烟助推干预策略防止电子烟产品的负面影响并减少这类策略的误用和滥用。

关键词: 戒烟, 控烟行动, 助推, 行为干预, 行为公共健康


Smoking is one of the major public health challenges around the world. Traditional tobacco control strategies, which include health education, taxes on tobacco products, and restrictions on smoking in public spaces, have greatly contributed to the reduction of smoking behavior around the world. However, these strategies are not always effective in helping smokers successfully quit smoking. As the traditional strategies do not consider the “irrational characteristics” of smoking behavior and its underlying mechanisms, their effects are usually discounted in real-world contexts. Recent advances in applied behavioral sciences during the past several decades provide new approaches for nudging smokers to quit smoking, which could be used to develop more effective tobacco control strategies at both the individual and population level. This article systematically reviews recent empirical research on behavioral intervention strategies to nudge smoking cessation according to the framework developed by Duckworth and colleagues for improving self-control. Specifically, behavioral nudge interventions for promoting smoking cessation could be classified by the people or organization implementing the intervention (e.g., smokers versus governments and public health agencies) and their underlying mechanisms (e.g., cognitively oriented versus context oriented). Context oriented interventions implemented by governments and public health agencies include reducing the accessibility of tobacco retail outlets in residence areas, restricting the display of tobacco products in stores and supermarkets, so as to reduce exposure of tobacco products, offering smaller size of cigarette products, and establishing separate smoking areas and removing tobacco-related irritants from the environment; cognitively oriented interventions implemented by governments and public health agencies include printing prominent warning pictures on cigarette packets, removing marketing information from cigarette packs, and increasing the usage of smoking cessation services; context oriented interventions implemented by smokers include making a public commitment to stop smoking and inviting important others to monitor one’s smoking behavior, using loss aversion to motivate quitting behavior among smokers; cognitively oriented interventions implemented by smokers include making specific, actionable smoking cessation programs, promoting a future-oriented time perspective, and cultivating incremental theories of smoking behavior. This framework makes it easier for governments and smokers to select appropriate behavioral nudge interventions. It also has implications for informing the development of culturally sensitive and adaptive behavioral intervention strategies for promoting smoking cessation in China, improving the efficiency and effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions, and contributing to the achievement of the “Tobacco Control Initiatives” of the “Healthy China 2030 Initiatives”. Although there is progress in developing effective behavioral nudge interventions for smoking cessation, future research is warranted to comprehensively evaluate the effects of these interventions, including both positive and negative effects, short-term and long-term effects, especially in real-world contexts. Future research is also needed to adopt behavioral change strategies in the development of stop-smoking APPs and digital smoking cessation services. By fully understanding the irrational characteristics of smoking behavior and its underlying mechanisms, we can develop tailored, targeted, context adaptable, and applicable smoking cessation intervention strategies. These types of interventions can greatly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of smoking cessation services. Future research is also needed to preclude the negative impacts of e-cigarettes and prevent the misuse of these behavior nudge strategies, especially among young children and adolescents who are vulnerable to the attraction of e-cigarettes. We believe that behavior science-informed interventions, if successfully implemented with the collaboration of governments, public health agencies, and smokers, can greatly contribute to safeguarding the health of both smokers and the general public.

Key words: smoking cessation, tobacco control initiative, nudge, behavioral intervention, behavioral public health