ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2022, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (11): 2570-2585.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.02570

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇


孙莎莎1, 李小兵2()   

  1. 1仲恺农业工程学院人文与社会科学学院, 广州 510225
    2中山大学体育部, 广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2022-02-14 出版日期:2022-11-15 发布日期:2022-11-09
  • 通讯作者: 李小兵

The safety of meditation

SUN Shasha1, LI Xiaobing2()   

  1. 1College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering Guangzhou, Guangdong 510225, China
    2Department of Physical Education, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2022-02-14 Online:2022-11-15 Published:2022-11-09
  • Contact: LI Xiaobing


大量研究表明冥想有助于身心健康的维持与幸福感的提升, 但与此同时, 飞速发展的研究与实践却严重忽略了对其安全性的考察。目前, 我们对冥想各群体(临床人群、修行人、正念冥想指导者、普通练习者及大学生等)不良反应的表现、影响因素及发生与转化机制等都知之甚少, 目前国内该领域的研究尚属空白, 这是迫切需要研究者和实践者重视和严肃对待的伦理问题。国外研究表明, 总体而言, 冥想不良反应率为8.3%, 表现在认知、感知觉、情感、躯体化、意志、自我意识与社会功能等7方面内容的不适或改变, 严重的甚至出现自杀意念与行为; 冥想不良反应的影响因素包括练习者、练习、关系及健康行为等4方面的内容。中国文化下本土化研究的开展以及冥想指导者胜任力等问题是未来研究的重要方向, 分解设计、纵向设计与个人中心取向是重要的研究方法。

关键词: 冥想, 正念, 安全性, 不良反应, 个人中心取向


So far, the large and expanding body of research on meditation has mostly focused on the benefits of meditation on health and well-being. However, the rapid growth of research and applications of meditation has raised questions regarding its safety, since the potential for harm has not been comprehensively studied. Very little is known about the prevalence and potential causes of adverse events of meditation. In the context of millions of meditators worldwide, even low rates of adverse events become an important concern not only for the nascent field of contemplative science but for public health more generally. It is a serious ethical issue that must be paid more attention to. So far, the field of adverse effects of meditation conducted on easterners and Chinese is still blank. According to a systematic review by Farias et al. (2020), the overall prevalence of meditation adverse effects was 8.3%. Seven domains of meditation-related challenges (cognitive, perceptual, affective, somatic, conative, sense of self, and social) and four domains of influencing factors (practitioner-level factors, practice-level factors, relationships, and health behaviors) were yielded by a content-driven thematic analysis (Lindahl et al., 2017). The following research directions can be considered in the future: (1) Research on the local Chinese culture can be realized through two approaches: First, through dialogue with Western studies, establishing whether individuals in Oriental and /Western cultures have different presentations of adverse meditation effects, and identifying the different presentations and mechanisms of these adverse effects. Second, through deepening the relevant discourses on meditation in texts from Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, exploring the philosophical basis of safe meditation practice, and focusing on the processes and mechanisms of adverse meditation effect and transformation. (2) In view of the important role of the instructor in ensuring meditation safety, examining the competency of the meditation instructor is also an important direction for future research, as well as the multi-level interactions between both individuals in the instructor-practitioner relationship on meditation outcomes, will help clarify the mechanism of the effects of the meditation instructor on the practitioner. (3) Regarding the study method, the person-centered approach was adopted to explain and respond to the adverse meditation effects in the context of the individual’s society, religion, and culture. A longitudinal study design was used to examine whether adverse meditation effects can be transformed, and under what particular conditions transformation can occur. According to the predictions of Monitor and Acceptance Theory (MAT, Lindsay & Creswell, 2017; Lindsay et al., 2019), attention monitoring increases the level of individual awareness and enhances emotional response, which is considered the reason for the occurrence of adverse mediation effects. With the development of acceptance in the individual, the intensity of emotional response decreases and adverse mediation effects are transformed, thereby achieving healing in the individual through this process. The dismantling design was used to identify the different components of attention monitoring and acceptance, and to explore in depth the role of these components in the process of adverse mediation effects and transformation.

Key words: meditation, mindfulness, safety, adverse effects, person-centered approach