ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (12): 2204-2213.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.02204

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. (西南大学文化与社会发展学院, 重庆 400715)
  • 收稿日期:2013-04-26 出版日期:2013-12-15 发布日期:2013-12-15
  • 通讯作者: 石伟
  • 基金资助:


The Self-evaluation Bias in Rating One’s Ability: The Dunning-Kruger Effect

CHEN Yanjun;SHI Wei;YING Hu   

  1. (School of Culture and Social Development Studies, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China)
  • Received:2013-04-26 Online:2013-12-15 Published:2013-12-15
  • Contact: SHI Wei


邓宁-克鲁格效应是指个体在完成某项任务时对自己能力的评价产生的偏差, 特别是那些绝对能力低的人, 他们往往会对自己的能力做出高估的评价, 甚至超过平均水平, 相反, 绝对能力高的人却会做出较低的评价。元认知能力的缺陷使任务表现不佳的个体通常无法认知到自己能力低下这一事实, 而能力表现最好的人也会因为虚假一致性效应而无从获得准确的自我评价。一些研究者从不同角度对其进行了解释, 包括回归效应与优于平均启发式, 任务的性质和动机因素。自我中心, 锚定与不充分调整启发式, 习惯性的自我观念和接受社会反馈等都会对个体能力的自我评价产生影响。未来研究应更关注邓宁-克鲁格效应的探讨范围、实验范式、误差控制、文化差异及其对心理适应和绩效的影响等。

关键词: 邓宁-克鲁格效应, 能力, 自我评价偏差, 元认知能力


The Dunning-Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which people mistakenly evaluate their ability in a given task. This is especially true for unskilled individuals, who often overestimate their ability, and sometimes even falsely rate their ability much higher than average. On the other hand, more competent individuals often underestimate themselves. For unskilled performers, the inability to recognize their incompetence is due to the metacognition deficiency, while for the most competent performers, the false-consensus effect makes them unable to perceive their ability precisely. Different explanations for this phenomenon have been given from different perspectives, such as regression to the mean and better-than-average heuristic, nature of the task and motivational factors. Besides, factors like egocentric nature, anchoring and insufficient adjustment heuristic, social feedback, and chronic self-concept may also affect one’s self-evaluation. The future research about Dunning-Kruger effect should focus more on research scope, experimental paradigm, error control, cultural difference, its influence on psychological adaption and performance, and so on.

Key words: The Dunning-Kruger effect, ability, self-evaluation bias, meta-cognition