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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

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    25 October 2023, Volume 55 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    Reports of Empirical Studies
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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    Test-retest reliability of EEG: A comparison across multiple resting-state and task-state experiments
    QIN Huiyi, DING Lihong, DUAN Wei, LEI Xu
    2023, 55 (10):  1587-1596.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01587
    Abstract ( 205 )   HTML ( 29 )  
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    Owing to its advantages in time resolution, electroencephalography (EEG) provides an important basis for studying the dynamic cognitive process of the human brain. To explore the electrophysiological mechanism of psychological processes, scalp EEG must have good test-retest reliability. Most studies explore the reliability of the resting-state EEG (rsEEG) or event-related potentials (ERP), lacking a comprehensive comparison of multiple states. We comprehensively compared the test-retest reliability of the two rsEEG with eyes-open (EO) and eyes-close (EC) states, and the ERPs of PVT and oddball tasks, from frequency, time, and spatial domains to identify more widely applicable indicators.

    A total of 42 healthy adults (age range = 18-26 years old; mean = 19.5 ± 1.4 years old; 14 males) underwent all three EEG recording sessions, including the present (Session 1), 90 mins later (Session 2), and one month later (Session 3). During each EEG recording session, all the participants completed the same five states including two resting states (eyes-open, eyes-closed, each with 5 minutes) and two task states (PVT and oddball task) (Figure 1). Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were computed to assess the test-retest reproducibility of the five states.

    This study compares and analyses the test-retest reliability of two resting-state and three task-state EEG from the perspectives of time, frequency, and spatial domains. Results revealed the following: (1) The test-retest reliability of rsEEG was generally better than that of ERP (Figure 2). (2) For rsEEG, the test-retest reliability of the EC resting-state was higher than that of the EO, with the ICC median value of approximately 0.6 (Table 1). Furthermore, the test-retest reliability of the alpha band was the highest in all frequency bands. (3) For the two task-states ERP (Figure 2), the overall ICC of the PVT paradigm was higher than that of the oddball paradigm, and the test-retest reliability was highest at about 200 ms after the stimulus onsets (Figure 3). (4) In the spatial domain, the test-retest reliability is higher in the central region than in the peripheral region (Figure 4/5, Table 2), which may be related to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

    Our research involves multiple resting-state and task-state experiments. Based on the characteristics of frequency, time, and space domains, we comprehensively compared the optimal retest characteristics of multiple EEG and suggest the possible reasons. Some suggestions for the selection of appropriate experimental paradigms and indicators for the follow-up study of EEG test-retest reliability are provided and guide the application of EEG in the basic and clinical fields.

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    Self-regulated learning advantage and blocked learning disadvantage on overlapping category structure
    YUE Fang, CHEN Jianping, GAN Kexin, WANG Yuqing, LIU Zhiya
    2023, 55 (10):  1597-1607.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01597
    Abstract ( 106 )   HTML ( 16 )  
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    The role of syntactic structure and verb overlap in spoken sentence production of 4- to 6-year-olds: Evidence from syntactic priming in Mandarin
    WANG Yang, ZHANG Linshuang, CUI Nannan, WU Yan
    2023, 55 (10):  1608-1619.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01608
    Abstract ( 112 )   HTML ( 17 )  
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    The period between the ages of 4 and 6 is crucial for children to develop their capacity for spoken sentence production. The interplay between syntactic and lexical information in children's sentence production has garnered attention in the field of language acquisition. We employed a syntactic priming paradigm with sentence repetition and image description tasks using the particular transitive structures of Chinese (SVO, SbaOV, and SbeiOV) as the corpus. A total of 77 preschool children with an average age of 4.4 years were enrolled in the experiment. The study involved the manipulation of Prime types (SVO, SbaOV, SbeiOV, and baseline) and Verb types (no-overlap versus overlap). The dependent variable was the ratio of syntactic choices. The results showed that abstract priming effects are induced by the three syntactic structures, irrespective of whether the verb overlaps or not. When children begin a specific sentence pattern, such as a SbaOV structure, they tend to formulate a SbaOV structure in the target sentence rather than an SVO or SbeiOV structure. This implies that the development of syntactic knowledge does not rely on lexical information. Additionally, it is worth mentioning that despite the absence of an increase in priming strength in SbaOV or SbeiOV structures with verb overlap, the probability of older children (5-6 years old) opting for an SOV structure during priming is augmented. To summarize, the acquisition of syntax in Chinese children aligns with the Implicit Learning Theory, whereby they exhibit abstract priming effects stemming from their anticipation of error estimates.

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    Associations among brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene, peer relationships, and depression across early adolescence: Dynamic genetic effects
    CAO Yanmiao, FANG Huici, ZHU Xinyue, JI Linqin, ZHANG Wenxin
    2023, 55 (10):  1620-1636.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01620
    Abstract ( 96 )   HTML ( 11 )  
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    There has been a dramatic rise in gene-environment interaction (G × E) studies of depression over the last two decades. These studies are pivotal to understanding the etiology of depression and individual differences in environmental sensitivity. However, these studies rarely take into consideration how the genotype by environment interactions change over development and how the interactions work on the developmental trajectories of depression. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene is a good candidate for the investigation of the dynamic genetic effects on depression because it is involved in several age-related changes in behavior and brain maturation. On the one hand, the effect of the BDNF gene may depend on the basal BDNF level. The BDNF level peaks during adolescence, so the effect of the BDNF gene on depression may change during development. Moreover, peer experiences change may alter epigenetic modifications of the BDNF gene, which may change the pattern of gene-environment interactions. On the other hand, according to the developmental cascades model, the differences in genetic effects on depression may increase over time in that initial depressive symptoms may evoke poor peer experiences. Taken together, this study aimed to investigate the age differences in the G × E interaction on depression and the G × E effect on the developmental trajectories of depression.

    One thousand and eighty-six adolescents (aged 11-12 years with a mean of 12.32, 50% girls) were followed up for three years. Saliva samples, self-reported depressive symptoms, and peer nomination were all collected. All of the measures showed good reliability. Concurrent hierarchical regression analyses and latent growth curve models (LGCMs) were conducted. We also completed re-parameterized regression and parallel LGCMs to understand the gene by environment interaction pattern and the dynamic association between peer relationships and depression.

    Both peer rejection and peer acceptance showed significant correlations with depressive symptoms, concurrently and prospectively (as shown in Table 1). As shown in Table 2 and Table 3, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism significantly moderated the influence of peer rejection—but not peer acceptance—on youth depressive symptoms at three time points; however, the susceptible genotype changed over time. In particular, the effect of peer rejection on depression was stronger in MetMet compared to ValMet carriers at 12 years of age; the effect of peer rejection on depression was stronger in MetMet and ValVal compared to ValMet carriers at 13 years of age; the effect of peer rejection on depression was stronger in ValVal carriers compared to ValMet carriers at 14 years of age (see Figure 1). The re-parameterized regression analyses showed that the pattern of the BDNF gene by peer rejection interaction also changed over time (Table 4, Table 5, and Table 6). The LGCMs suggested that adolescents’ depression increased in a linear trajectory from 12 to 14 years of age (Table 7). In addition, there were significant genotype differences in the change of depression over time, but this effect was not moderated by peer relationships (Table 7, Figure 2-4).

    These findings may move research in the field away from the simplistic notion of risk alleles, recognizing that an allele may be a risk factor during one period and a protective factor during another. Further, this study has progressed the conceptualization of how genes and the environment interact to influence the developmental trajectories of depression during early adolescence.

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    Developmental change and stability of social anxiety from toddlerhood to young adulthood: A three-level meta-analysis of longitudinal studies
    CHEN Bizhong, HUANG Xuan, NIU Gengfeng, SUN Xiaojun, CAI Zhihui
    2023, 55 (10):  1637-1652.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01637
    Abstract ( 121 )   HTML ( 21 )  
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    Differences in motor cortex synaptic plasticity associated with two forms of exercise in older adults: Evidence from TMS studies
    MENG Haijiang, CHEN Lei, WANG Gang, ZHANG Jian
    2023, 55 (10):  1653-1661.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01653
    Abstract ( 71 )   HTML ( 3 )  
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    Although studies have found that exercise can lead to changes in the plasticity of the motor cortex, little is known about the changes in primary motor cortex synaptic plasticity associated with different forms of exercise among older adults. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in motor cortex synaptic plasticity associated with a small hand muscle among older adults who regularly participated in table tennis or tai chi or who were sedentary.

    Based on inclusion/exclusion criteria and their answers to a self-reported questionnaire, 54 older adults (60~70 years) were selected who often participated in table tennis (n = 18) or tai chi (n = 18) exercise or who were sedentary (n= 18). The target muscle was the abductor pollicis brevis of the right hand. Motor cortex synaptic plasticity associated with the abductor pollicis brevis muscle was induced by a paired combination of peripheral nerve electrical stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation with an interval of 25 ms (PAS25). Single-pulse and double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied to the left primary motor cortex to measure changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and short-interval intracortical inhibition recorded in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle before and after PAS25, to compare the differences in primary motor cortex synaptic plasticity among the three groups.

    The results showed that mean MEP amplitudes immediately and 30 and 60 min after PAS25 in the table tennis group were significantly higher than those in sedentary group; mean MEP amplitudes immediately and 30 min after PAS25 in the tai chi group were significantly higher than those in the sedentary group; and mean MEP amplitudes immediately and 30 and 60 min after PAS25 in the table tennis group were significantly higher than those in the tai chi group. There were no differences in the short-interval intracortical inhibition at any time point after PAS25 among the three groups.

    These results indicated that regular participation in table tennis or tai chi can induce a sustained increase in primary motor cortex excitability in older adults and that there are differences in primary motor cortex synaptic plasticity in older adults associated with different forms of exercise. These results suggest that increased synaptic plasticity in the motor cortex may play an important role in the acquisition and promotion of motor skills during exercise in older adults.

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    Traditional pettism: The influence of pet ownership status, pet type, and pet properties on pet moral standing
    XU Kepeng, OU Qianqian, XUE Hong, LUO Dongli, ZHANG Shuyue, XU Yan
    2023, 55 (10):  1662-1676.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01662
    Abstract ( 166 )   HTML ( 11 )  
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    The bond between humans and their pets is becoming ever closer, and the ethical status of pets is also evolving. This article examines how pet owner identity, pet type, and pet properties affect pet moral standing through three studies by dividing pets into traditional and non-traditional categories. The results showed that : (1) Traditional pets are seen as having a higher moral standing than non-traditional pets, which is explained by agency, sensitivity, and harmfulness. (2) Traditional pet owners consider traditional pets to have a higher moral standing than non-traditional pet owners, though there is no major difference in the moral standing of non-traditional pets between the two. (3) Animal Empathy was identified as a mediator between traditional pet attachment and traditional pet moral standing. These findings suggest that pets are viewed differently in terms of morality, which is manifested in traditional petism; and the relationship between pet owners and their pets is a major factor in promoting it.

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    Give a man a fish or teach him to fish? Differences in donor behavior between high and low social classes
    SUN Qingzhou, HUANG Jingru, YU Xiaofen, GAO Qingde
    2023, 55 (10):  1677-1695.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01677
    Abstract ( 123 )   HTML ( 18 )  
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    The impact of product transparency on consumer brand perceptions
    XU Xiaobing, ZHANG Minshuo, ZENG Shuaifan, FAN Zhuoyi
    2023, 55 (10):  1696-1711.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01696
    Abstract ( 112 )   HTML ( 17 )  
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    In the current market, transparent appearance is becoming more popular and is increasingly used in product and packaging design (e.g., transparent frames). However, previous studies have focused on the effects of product transparency (transparent vs. opaque appearance) on food consumption quantity, product evaluation, purchase intention, and consumption decision. In comparison, there is a paucity of understanding of how consumers’ brand perceptions are affected by product transparency and the underlying mechanisms of these effects. In the current research, we extend the extant literature by examining consumer perceptions and attitudes toward brands when faced with the appearance of products with different degrees of transparency.

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    On the reliability of point estimation of model parameters: Taking cognitive diagnostic models as an example
    LIU Yanlou, CHEN Qishan, WANG Yiming, JIANG Xiaotong
    2023, 55 (10):  1712-1728.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01712
    Abstract ( 50 )   HTML ( 3 )  
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    The formation and consolidation of scientific paradigm in American psychology after World War Ⅱ: Analysis based on social character
    LIU Wenxin, YANG Ling, SHU Yueyu
    2023, 55 (10):  1729-1744.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01729
    Abstract ( 87 )   HTML ( 15 )  
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    A series of social changes in American society after World War II shaped its post-war social character through the inherent “pragmatism” and “individualism” characteristics of American culture. This social character is characterized by “one-dimensionalization, pursuing of instrumental rationality, and individual priority”, which correspond to the main characteristics of scientific psychology. The expectation of psychology in this social character is “the disenchantment of the spiritual world by scientism”, that is, “the secularization of the psyche”. In this sense, it further promoted the formation and consolidation of the post-war American psychological scientism paradigm, and then contributed to the dominance of scientific psychology in the United States and even the world today. The vigorous development of scientific psychology in the United States in turn has consolidated its social character, demonstrating the function of American scientific psychology as an integral part of its ideology to maintain the efficient operation of American society.

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