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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

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    25 June 2022, Volume 54 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    Reports of Empirical Studies
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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    The influence of language and context on sensorimotor simulation of concrete concepts
    SHI Rubin, XIE Jiushu, YANG Mengqing, WANG Ruiming
    2022, 54 (6):  583-594.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00583
    Abstract ( 391 )   HTML ( 51 )  
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    Sensorimotor simulation in concrete concept processing is the core process of concept representation. In our study, the influence of linguistic factors (language type: first language and second language) and situational factors (perceptual situation: spatial perceptual situation and semantic perceptual situation) on sensorimotor simulation in concrete concept processing were investigated.
    In Experiment 1, the semantic relevance judgment paradigm is used to test whether sensorimotor simulation is involved in the second language processing and whether there is any difference between the first language and second language processing. The results of Experiment 1 show that sensorimotor simulation has participated in the second language processing. However, there is an accuracy advantage in the sensorimotor simulation in the first language. In Experiment 2, two experiments are conducted to test the influence of the perceptual situation on sensorimotor simulation. Experiment 2a tests the influence of perceptual situations on sensorimotor simulation by changing the intensity of individual perception in the vertical spatial axis. The results show that the sensorimotor simulation was found in both strong and weak spatial perception. The effect of semantic processing level on perceptual motion simulation is tested in Experiment 2b. The experiment manipulates the level of semantic processing by using the semantic relevance judgment task and true-and-false word judgment task. The results show that sensorimotor simulation participates in the processing of concepts, while semantic situations did not modulate this effect. The results of Experiment 2 suggest that sensorimotor stimulation may be automatic in conceptual processing.
    The present study conducted two experiments to test the role of sensorimotor simulation in conceptual processing. Results found that sensorimotor simulation participates in the conceptual representation, supporting the perceptual symbol theory. Furthermore, sensorimotor simulation takes place in both Chinese and English. This finding extends the perceptual symbol theory. Finally, results found that sensorimotor stimulation may be automatic in conceptual representation and is not affected by spatial information and semantic processing.

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    The influence of uncertainty and validity of expectation on the perceptual decision of motion direction
    PAN Yuean, JIANG Yunpeng, GUO Maojie, WU Xia
    2022, 54 (6):  595-603.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00595
    Abstract ( 173 )   HTML ( 34 )  
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    Motion stimuli in the environment are often changeable, and better direction perception needs to rely on both current information and prior information. However, it is not clear how the uncertainty of current stimuli and the expected validity of prior cues are integrated in the decision-making of motion direction perception. The research adopted the random dot motion paradigm, which requires the participants to judge the overall motion direction of the dots. The dots with the same direction are coherent dots, and the lower the proportion, the higher the uncertainty. Experiment 1 compared the perception accuracy under different coherence dots ratios. According to the results of Experiment 1, 20% and 60% of coherent dots are selected to correspond to the high and low uncertainty levels of scattered dots in Experiment 2, respectively. Experiment 2 compared the perception accuracy under high and low uncertainty and high and low expectation validity (the probability that cues correctly predict targets). The results showed that with the decrease of uncertainty and the increase of expectation validity, the perception accuracy was significantly improved; the expectation effect (the difference of perception accuracy between high and low validity) increased with the increase of uncertainty. The results prove that prior information and sensory information can be integrated in motion direction perception decision. The research provides empirical support for the viewpoint that predictive and reactive control work together under the dual mechanisms of control (DMC) theory, and also provides theoretical basis for the explanation and prevention of traffic accidents.

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    Sustained hyperarousal induced by acute stress in tryptophan-hydroxylase-2 genetic deficient male mice
    ZHOU Ping, XIAO Hua, LI Yonghui, DONG Xinwen
    2022, 54 (6):  604-612.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00604
    Abstract ( 92 )   HTML ( 26 )  
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    Severe stress stimulation will cause persistent hyperarousal state, which is the core symptom of various stress disorders and promotes the occurrence and development of other symptoms. This study focused on the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the occurrence and development of stress-induced hyperarousal. By measuring the auditory startle reflex level to reflect the state of hyperarousal, we investigated the changes of hyperarousal in tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene deficient mice before and after predator exposure or electric footshock stress. Studies have found that male genetically deficient mice showed hyperarousal performance lasting for more than one week after stress, while wild-type mice showed a hyperarousal state that recovered quickly. The results suggest that the decrease of serotonin caused by gene deficiency may be a susceptible factor of persistent hyperarousal induced by severe stress.

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    Influence of reputational concern and social distance on moral decision-making under the harmful dilemma: Evidence from behavioral and ERPs study
    ZHAN Youlong, XIAO Xiao, TAN Qianbao, LI Jin, ZHONG Yiping
    2022, 54 (6):  613-627.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00613
    Abstract ( 180 )   HTML ( 17 )  
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    Reputational concern has been suggested as an important determinant of human cooperative behavior and moral judgment in social interactions. Previous studies have examined how reputational concern or social distance alone influences moral decision-making. However, little is known about how reputational concern and social distance interact to affect moral decision-making, particularly about the underlying cognitive neural mechanism under proscriptive morality (i.e., harming behavior). In this study, participants were instructed to decide whether to deliver a certain intensity of painful electric shocks toward the target others (i.e., friends, acquaintances, or strangers) to receive the matched money for themselves, while the behavioral and neural responses were recorded. The behavioral results showed that participants made fewer electric shocks to friends than to both acquaintances and strangers, which suggested an obvious “egoistic altruism” tendency in anonymous situations [F(2, 58) = 11.06, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.28]. Participants spent more time making choices [F(2, 58) = 20.06, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.41] and experienced greater disgust [F(2, 58) = 5.21, p = 0.01, η2p = 0.21] in dilemmas involving acquaintances relative to those involving either friends or strangers, which showed an obvious “acquaintance effect”. However, these differences were weakened in public situations [F(2, 58) = 0.11, p = 0.16, see Figure 1]. Moreover, ERP results showed that the dilemmas involving acquaintances elicited a larger P260 component [F(2, 58) = 6.91, p = 0.002], which is associated with emotional responses, and late positive potential (LPP, 300~450 ms), which is associated with cognitive reasoning [F(2, 58) = 6.53, p = 0.003]. However, these differences in ERP indices were disappeared in public situations [F(2, 58) = 1.74, p = 0.19, see Figure 2]. The results supported the hypothesis that individuals follow the moral principle of egoistic altruism to conduct moral decision-making involving reputational concern and social distance. These findings suggest that the uncertainty of acquaintance relationships induces stronger negative emotions and cognitive load during moral decision-making, and reputational concern effectively weakens the aversion and dilemma conflict by weakening self-interest tendencies and interpersonal uncertainties.

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    Influence of cognitive control based on different conflict levels on the expression of gender stereotypes
    CHEN Li, SHI Xiao-ke, LI Wei-na, HU Yan
    2022, 54 (6):  628-645.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00628
    Abstract ( 110 )   HTML ( 5 )  
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    With the development of society, the division of gender roles in the family has changed, but the traditional “male-dominated and female-dominated” stereotype still exists. Although a large number of studies have focused on the consistent effect of gender stereotype activation, the effect of cognitive control induced by different conditions on the expression of gender stereotype is not clear in the context of different conflict levels, therefore, based on the previous studies, this study explores the effects of different task conflict ratio on the expression of gender stereotypes, based on the classic dual control theory and conflict monitoring theory. The results were as follows: (1) there was no difference in the expression of gender stereotype when the target information was the image stimulus; (2) When the target information was the semantic stimulus, the task with a high conflict ratio tended to inhibit the expression of gender stereotypes, while the task with a low conflict ratio tended to enhance the expression of gender stereotypes, moreover, the cognitive control processing at high conflict level can be maintained in different tasks. These results suggest that the cognitive control induced by tasks with different conflict ratios can inhibit the expression of gender stereotypes, but it is affected by the information presented

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    The effect of spouse emotional intelligence on employee work engagement: The mediating role of employee life well-being and the moderating role of gender
    ZHENG Xiaoming, YU Yu, LIU Xin
    2022, 54 (6):  646-664.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00646
    Abstract ( 143 )   HTML ( 15 )  
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    This paper focuses on the interpersonal influence of spouse emotional intelligence on employee work engagement from the family to the work domain. Based on the effort-recovery model and emotional intelligence literature, this paper proposes that spouse emotional intelligence can promote employee work engagement by enhancing employee life well-being. In addition, by integrating the gender role theory, this paper further discusses the moderating role of employee gender. We tested our hypotheses in two field studies and found that: Spouse emotional intelligence was positively related to employee life well-being; Employee life well-being was positively related to employee work engagement; Employee life well-being served as a mediator to transmit the effect of spouse emotional intelligence on employee work engagement; Moreover, employee gender moderated the relationship between spouse emotional intelligence and employee life well-being such that when employees were male, the positive effect of spouse emotional intelligence on employee life well-being was stronger; In addition, employee gender also moderated the indirect effect of spouse emotional intelligence on employee work engagement via employee life well-being. This study is among the first to establish a link between spouse EI and employee work engagement and supports the interpersonal effects of EI from the family to the work domain, which is of great significance in both theory and practice.

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    Benefits and costs of employee boundary-spanning behavior: A meta-analytic review
    LAN Yuanmei, LI Chaoping, WANG Jiayan, MENG Xue
    2022, 54 (6):  665-683.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00665
    Abstract ( 135 )   HTML ( 14 )  
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    Employee boundary-spanning behavior is critically important for organizations. Through a literature search, a meta-analysis of 52 independent samples (total sample size N = 14366) from 50 studies on employee boundary-spanning behavior shows that employee boundary-spanning behavior has benefits and costs. The benefits show that employee boundary-spanning behavior improves job satisfaction, organizational commitment, performance, and innovation, and the costs show that boundary-spanning behavior triggers role stress. The relationships between employee boundary-spanning behavior and outcome variables are moderated by employee types (knowledge workers-non-knowledge workers), individualism-collectivism, and power distance. Job attitude plays a mediating role in the relationship between employee boundary-spanning behavior, performance, and innovation, but it has a suppressing effect on the relationship between boundary-spanning behavior, stress, and exhaustion. The meta-analysis provides a comprehensive and reliable conclusion for employee boundary-spanning behavior, which provides evidence for future research on employee boundary-spanning behavior.

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    Emotional or rational? The impact of culturally-derived power on the preference for advertising appeals
    JIANG Hongyan, ZHANG Jing, SUN Peizhen, JIANG Xianjin
    2022, 54 (6):  684-702.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00684
    Abstract ( 164 )   HTML ( 21 )  
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    The effectiveness of advertising depends to a large extent on the consistency between the consumers’ characteristics and the advertising appeals. Previous studies have neglected the match-up effect between advertising appeals and culturally-derived power, which is considered as one of the key psychological traits. This paper examined the impact of culturally-derived power (i.e., personalized vs. socialized power) on the preference for advertising appeals and its inner mechanism. The current research proposed that consumers with personalized power (vs. socialized power) perceived high (vs. low) arousal, which led to the preference for emotional (vs. rational) advertising appeal. Furthermore, the indirect effect of culturally-derived power on the preference for advertising appeals through elevating consumers’ arousal was significant when consumers needed to justify their choices and not significant when consumers had no need to justify their choices. Our research provided empirical support for these predictions and ruled out action orientation and empathy as alternative mediators.
    In the pre-study, a total of 36 consumers were recruited to report their perceptions of culturally-derived power and their preferences for 300 random advertisement images. The results showed that culturally-derived power (personalized vs. socialized) significantly predicted consumers’ preferences for advertising appeals (emotional vs. rational), which initially verified H1.
    Experiment 1 included a pretest and a formal experiment. In the pretest, two advertisement pictures were selected and were verified as stimuli for different advertising appeals (emotional vs. rational). Meanwhile, we adopted the same layout and text length in the emotional ad and the rational ad to minimize the confounding of experimental results. In the formal experiment, a group of 101 undergraduates were randomly assigned to a condition in a one-factor (culturally-derived power: personalized vs. socialized) between-subjects design. Culturally-derived power was manipulated through reading the stimuli containing personalized vs. socialized power themes. Then, Experiment 1 investigated the mediating role of arousal in the impact of culturally-derived power on the preference for advertising appeals.
    Before Experiment 2, we conducted a pretest to verify that the two cup advertisements could be used as different advertising appeals stimuli. Then, 143 undergraduates were recruited from a large university in China. Participants were first randomly assigned to either the personalized power or socialized power condition, in which they completed a task identical to Experiment 1. Then, participants were asked to complete the measurement of empathy and covariates (i.e., rational-experiential thinking style and hedonic/utilitarian motivation). In Experiment 2, we verified H1 to H4 and ruled out empathy as a possible rival explanation by controlling the above-mentioned covariates.
    In Experiment 3, we conducted two independent pretests to select the appropriate stimuli for the main study. Specifically, the first pretest was to ensure that the two earphone advertisements with a fictitious brand could be adopted as the advertising appeals stimuli; the second pretest was to verify that the manipulation of need for justification was effective. Then, 595 undergraduates were recruited to participate in a 2 (culturally-derived power: personalized vs. socialized) × 2 (need for justification: no need to justify vs. need to justify) between-subjects design experiment. Culturally-derived power was primed via a recall-and-writing task. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results confirmed that the need for justification could moderate the mediating effect of arousal in the relationship between culturally-derived power and the preference for advertising appeals by controlling the hedonic/utilitarian value and the promotion/prevention focused. In Experiment 3, we also excluded action orientation as a possible rival explanation.
    In Experiment 4, we recruited 618 adult consumers with different cultural backgrounds to participate in a 2 (power: high vs. low) × 2 (advertising appeal: emotional vs. rational) × 4 (individual-level cultural orientation: VI vs. VC vs. HI vs. HC) mixed experimental design. The results confirmed a significant interaction between power and cultural orientation on the preferences for different advertising appeals.
    This research provides some theoretical contributions. First, the study investigated the important role of power in the effectiveness of advertising information on the basis of the two-dimensional perspective of cultural orientation, which provided a new research perspective. Second, the current research explored the construct of arousal as the mediating role to explain the influence of culturally-derived power on the preference for advertising appeals. Finally, our study further expanded the application scope of Decision Justification Theory by introducing the need for justification as the boundary condition. In addition, this research provides important practical enlightenment for managers to design appropriate advertising information and formulate advertising marketing strategies according to the variance of consumers’ culturally-derived power.

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    Standard errors and confidence intervals for cognitive diagnostic models: Parallel bootstrap methods
    LIU Yanlou
    2022, 54 (6):  703-724.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00703
    Abstract ( 101 )   HTML ( 19 )  
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    The model parameter standard error (SE; or variance-covariance matrix), which provides an estimate of the uncertainty associated with the model parameter estimate, has both theoretical and practical implications in cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs). The drawbacks of the analytic methods, such as the empirical cross-product information matrix, observed information matrix, and “robust” sandwich-type information matrix, are that they require the positive definiteness of the information matrix and may suffer from boundary problems. Another method for estimating model parameter SEs is to use the computer-intensive bootstrap method, and consequently, no study has systematically explored the performance of the bootstrap in calculating model parameter SEs and confidence intervals (CIs) in CDMs.
    The purpose of this research is to present two new highly efficient bootstrap methods to calculate model parameter SEs and CIs in CDMs, namely the parallel parametric bootstrap (pPB) and parallel non-parametric bootstrap (pNPB) methods. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the pPB and pNPB methods. Five factors that may influence the performance of the model parameter SEs and CIs were manipulated. The two model specification scenarios considered in this simulation were the correctly specified and over-specified models. The sample size was set to two levels: 1, 000 and 3, 000. Three bootstrap sample sizes were manipulated: 200, 500, and 3, 000. Three levels of item quality (IQ) were considered: high IQ $[P(\mathbf{0})=0.1, P(\mathbf{1})=0.9]$, moderate IQ $[P(\mathbf{0})=0.2, \quad P(\mathbf{1})=0.8]$, and low IQ $[P(\mathbf{0})=0.3, \quad P(\mathbf{1})=0.7]$. The pPB and pNPB methods were used to estimate model parameter SEs and CIs.
    The simulation results indicated the following.
    (1) The coverage rates of the pNPB-based or pPB-based 95% CIs of the item and the structural parameter SEs are shown in Figures 1 and 2, respectively. In general, for the correctly specified CDMs, under the high- or moderate-item-quality conditions, the coverage rates of the 95% CIs of the model parameter SEs based on the pNPB or pPB method were reasonably close to the expected coverage rate. And the simulation results revealed that the estimated SE was almost identical to the empirical SE. The increase in the bootstrap sample size had only a slight effect on the performance of the pNPB or pPB method. Under the low-item-quality condition, the pNPB method tended to over-estimate SE, whereas a contrary trend was observed for the pPB method.
    (2) For the over-specified CDMs, as illustrated in Figures 3 and 4, most of the permissible item parameter SEs and almost all of the permissible structural parameter SEs exhibited good performance in terms of the 95% CI coverage rates. The 95% CI coverage rate results of the permissible and the impermissible of the structural parameter SEs are shown in Figures 5 and 6. Under most of the simulation conditions, the impermissible model parameter SEs did not exhibit good performance in approximating the empirical SEs.
    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the performance of the bootstrap method in estimating model parameter SEs and CIs in CDMs is systematically investigated. The pNPB or pPB appears to be a useful tool for researchers interested in evaluating the uncertainty of the model parameter point estimates. As a time-saving computational strategy, the pNPB or pPB method is substantially faster than the usual bootstrap method. The simulation and real data studies showed that 3, 000 re-samples might be adequate for the bootstrap method in calculating model parameter SEs and CIs in CDMs.

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