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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

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    25 May 2022, Volume 54 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    Reports of Empirical Studies
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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    Parafoveal processing of part-of-speech information in Chinese reading
    LU Zijia, FU Ying, ZHANG Manman, ZANG Chuanli, BAI Xuejun
    2022, 54 (5):  441-452.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00441
    Abstract ( 283 )   HTML ( 41 )  
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    In this study, the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm was used to explore whether the part-of-speech information of parafoveal words can be processed in Chinese reading by manipulating the part-of-speech consistency between the preview words and the target words. The experiment adopted a single factor 3-level design with three previewing conditions: identical preview, part-of-speech non-violation preview and part-of-speech violation preview. The linear mixed model and Bayesian analysis of the experimental data showed that there was no significant difference on fixation durations and fixation probability of the target words under the condition of part-of-speech violation and part-of-speech non-violation suggesting no preview effect of part-of-speech information. The results tended to support the sequential attention shift model, and the future development of eye movement control model should pay more attention to flexibility and universality of the model.

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    The influence of stimulus onset asynchrony on semantic effect in spoken word production: A picture-word interference paradigm study
    ZHOU Yuxi, LIU Yuhao, ZHANG Qingfang
    2022, 54 (5):  453-465.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00453
    Abstract ( 151 )   HTML ( 25 )  
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    A controversial in word production is that how speakers retrieve words from the mental lexicon. The picture-word interference (hereafter PWI) paradigm has been broadly used to investigate this issue. In this task, speakers are instructed to name pictures while ignoring written distractor words superimposed onto the pictures. A typical finding is the semantic interference effect, which is that categorically related distractors (e.g., bus) slow down picture naming (e.g., car) relative to unrelated distractors (e.g., pen). By varying stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between pictures and distractors, studies have reported semantic facilitation effect when semantically related distractors were presented before pictures such as 400 ms (-400 ms), and semantic interference effect when semantically related distractors were presented closely to pictures. Lexical competition hypothesis assumes that semantic interference reflects the lexical selection competition among co-activated semantically related lexical representations during lemma retrieval, while response exclusion hypothesis assumes that semantically related distractors are more difficult to exclude from the response buffer than unrelated ones. It assumes that semantic facilitation effect arises at the conceptual processing. However, little is known about the temporal courses of both effects. The present study aims to examine the influence of SOA on semantic effect with the PWI task using electrophysiological measures.

    Forty-five undergraduate and graduate students participate in the experiment (22 males, average 22.85 years). Forty-two black and white line pictures were chosen from a standardized picture database as targets with disyllabic names. Each target picture was paired with a semantically related distractor word and an unrelated distractor word. Context words in the semantically related condition were then recombined with the picture names to form unrelated conditions. Target pictures and context words are basic-level concepts selected from 14 semantic categories. The experimental design included relatedness (semantically related vs. semantically unrelated), SOA (-400 vs. 0 ms) and repetition (first vs. second) as within-participants factors.

    Behavioral results indicated a typical semantic interference effect at SOA of 0 ms while the semantic effect was absent at SOA of -400 ms. Electrophysiological results showed that at SOA of 0 ms semantically related distractors elicited a smaller modulated waveform than unrelated ones in the time window of 344~414 ms in the first repetition and 356~418 ms in the second repetition. There was a larger waveform in the semantically related distractors than unrelated ones in the time window of 462~594 ms in the first repetition and 460~544 ms in the second repetition. At SOA of -400 ms, results showed an early semantic effect in the time window of 0~76 ms in the first repetition but disappeared in the second repetition, and a late semantic effect in the time window of 284~390 ms in the first repetition and 274~382 ms in the second repetition.

    In sum, the present findings indicated that there is a semantic facilitation effect arising at the conceptual processing (0~200 ms) and a semantic interference effect arising at the lexical selection stage (250~450 ms) in Chinese spoken word production. Our findings firstly provide evidence for lexical competition hypothesis rather than response exclusion hypothesis. Furthermore, with high-time resolution measures, we firstly provide electrophysiological evidence for the trade-off of semantic facilitation and interference effect in spoken word production.

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    An effect of menstrual cycle phase on episodic memory
    LI Jianhua, XIE Jiajia, ZHUANG Jin-Ying
    2022, 54 (5):  466-480.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00466
    Abstract ( 279 )   HTML ( 28 )  
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    Evolutionary psychology research suggests that sex hormones may influence episodic memory, though the specific mechanisms of such an influence are not clear. In this study, we compared episodic memory performance in a What-Where-When (WWW) test (dependent variables) between the late follicular phase (late-FP) and mid-luteal phase (mid-LP) of the menstrual cycle (independent variable) in Experiment 1. We combined the WWW task with event-related potential (ERP) analysis in Experiment 2 to explore neurological mechanisms of menstrual cycle effects on episodic memory. In Experiment 1, 33 women with a stable menstrual cycle completed the WWW test in the late-FP and mid-LP (balanced order). The test included the O task (memorizing objects), P task (memorizing positions), OO task (memorizing objects and their presentation order), OP task (memorizing objects and their presentation position), and PO task (memorizing presentation order and position). PO task accuracy was significantly better in the mid-LP than in late-FP. In Experiment 2 (total N = 28, 16 with ERP data), frontal-lobe P300 and LPC amplitudes were found to be significantly larger during the mid-LP than in the late-FP. Sensitivity correlated directly with P300 amplitudes in right frontal electrodes. The ERP data suggested that good PO task performance in the mid-LP may benefit from enhanced cognitive control. In conclusion, the present study supports the possibility that the menstrual cycle may influence integration of spatial position and temporal sequence of objects in episodic memory, with memory performance being better during the mid-LP than during the late-FP. This effect on episodic memory may be due to enhanced cognitive control.

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    The impact of feedback on self-deception: Evidence from ERP
    FAN Wei, REN Mengmeng, ZHANG Wenjie, ZHONG Yiping
    2022, 54 (5):  481-496.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00481
    Abstract ( 215 )   HTML ( 13 )  
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    This study mainly discusses the influence of feedback type and feedback valence on self-deception. Experiment 1 uses prospective paradigm to explore the influence of different valence of fuzzy feedback on self-deception. The results show that compared with the group without answer prompt, the participant in the group with answer prompt significantly improve the prediction scores in the second stage of test 2 under the condition of positive fuzzy feedback (the degree of self-deception is aggravated). Experiment 2 explored the influence of accurate feedback with different valence on self-deception. The results showed that compared with the group without answer prompt, the participants in the group with answer prompt significantly reduced the prediction scores in the second stage of test 2 under negative accurate feedback conditions. Experiment 3 uses ERP technology to explore the internal mechanism of feedback type and feedback valence affecting self-deception. The results show that self-deception under fuzzy feedback conditions induces larger P2 components and smaller N1 and N400 components. The research found that self-deception has a greater effect in the frontal area. These results show that positive feedback may promote the generation of the self-deception, while negative feedback weakens the generation of the self-deception. Positive fuzzy feedback can further promote the generation of individual self-deception. These findings also indicate that the mechanism behind self-deception may be self-expansion.

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    The impact of individualism on the efficiency of epidemic control and the underlying computational and psychological mechanisms
    HUANG Liqin, SUN Yin, LUO Siyang
    2022, 54 (5):  497-515.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00497
    Abstract ( 180 )   HTML ( 11 )  
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    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global health crisis, and some countries experience difficulties in controlling the infection and mortality of COVID-19. Based on previous findings, we argue that individualistic cultural values are not conducive to the control of the epidemic. The results of the cross-cultural analysis showed that the individualistic cultural values positively predicted the number of deaths, deaths per million, and mortality of COVID-19, and the independent self-construct negatively predicted the efficiency of epidemic control in the early phase. The evolutionary game model and cross-cultural experiment further suggested that individualistic culture reduced the efficiency of overall epidemic control by enhancing individuals' fear of death in the context of the epidemic and increased individuals' tendency to violate epidemic control. Our results support the natural-behavioral-cultural co-evolution model, suggesting the impact of culture on the control of virus transmission and deaths during COVID-19, and provide an important scientific reference for countries to respond to global public health crises.

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    “Attraction of the like”: How does coworkers’ proactive behavior stimulate employees’ motivation and job performance?
    ZHANG Ying, DUAN Jinyun, WANG Fuxi, QU Jinzhao, PENG Xiongliang
    2022, 54 (5):  516-528.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00516
    Abstract ( 220 )   HTML ( 18 )  
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    Previous studies on proactivity usually focus on employees themselves, ignoring the important management practice and theoretical perspective that coworkers in teams or organizations will have an impact on employees’ behaviors. Therefore, based on social learning theory, this study explores the influence of coworkers’ proactive behavior on employees’ autonomous motivation and job performance, and the moderating effect of employees’ proactive personality. Through two studies, including a multi-time, leader-subordinate dyads questionnaire (Study 1) and a situational experiment (Study 2), this paper finds that coworkers’ proactive behavior can stimulate employees’ autonomous motivation, and then improve job performance. Moreover, employees’ proactive personality strengthens the positive effect of coworkers’ proactive behavior on employees’ autonomous motivation. This study not only shifts the existing research perspective on proactive behavior to coworkers in theory, but also provides practical guidance on how to better motivate employees.

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    The double-edged sword of employee authenticity in coworker interactions: The moderating role of relationship duration
    TANG Yipeng, JIA Rongwen, LONG Lirong, REN Zhiyu, PU Xiaoping
    2022, 54 (5):  529-548.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00529
    Abstract ( 192 )   HTML ( 17 )  
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    It is generally believed that employee authenticity in the workplace helps employees to build good relationships with their coworkers. This study suggests that the effect of employee authenticity on coworker relationships is likely to be both positive and negative, and its effect depends on the relationship duration of employees and their coworkers. Based on social penetration theory and the literature of attribution, this study suggests that coworker suspicion and coworker trust are the key mediating mechanisms for employee authenticity to affect coworker relationships. To test the hypotheses of the theoretical model, two studies were conducted using a round-robin survey and an experimental method respectively. The results showed that under the condition of short relationship duration, employee authenticity triggers suspicion of coworkers while reducing coworkers’ trust, thus decreasing interpersonal help and increasing interpersonal exclusion. Under the condition of long relationship duration, employee authenticity helps to clarify coworker suspicion and enhance coworker trust, thus increasing interpersonal help and decreasing interpersonal exclusion. By introducing relationship duration as the moderator, this study found that the effect of employee authenticity on coworker relationships can be transformed from negative to positive after a sufficient period of relationship duration.

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    The effects of leader power and status on employees’ voice behavior:The role of psychological safety
    RONG Yan, SUI Yang, JIANG Jing
    2022, 54 (5):  549-565.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00549
    Abstract ( 148 )   HTML ( 21 )  
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    Through two experiments (Studies 1 and 2), and one multi-source, multi-wave field survey (Study 3), we found that leader power has a negative effect on subordinates’ voice behaviors; leader status has a positive effect on subordinates’ voice behaviors; leader status moderates the influence of leader power on subordinates' voice behaviors. When leader status is low, the negative effect of leader power on subordinates' voice behaviors is strengthened; otherwise, it is not significant. The moderating effect of leader status on power is transferred to subordinates' voice behavior through subordinates' psychological safety. Our findings shed light on how organizational hierarchy bases, such as power and status, influence subordinates' voice behavior.

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    Mindfulness and trust: How to prevent the compensatory abusive behaviors of the low-status supervisors?
    MA Jun, ZHANG Rui
    2022, 54 (5):  566-581.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.00566
    Abstract ( 166 )   HTML ( 26 )  
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    The parallel system of position and rank enlarges the separation of power and status within the organization. The high position (power) without corresponding prestige (status) will limit leaders’ control in the workplace and potentially lead to adverse consequences. Based on the low-status compensation theory, this paper constructs a two-stage moderated mediation model and designs two studies to explore the negative leadership behavior induced by low-status leaders (i.e. leader with high power but lack of corresponding status) and its intervention mechanism. Study 1 revealed that leaders with inconsistent hierarchies are more inclined to implement abusive supervision than those with consistent hierarchies. Study 2 explored its causes, and found: (1) Leaders' ego-depletion mediates the relationship between low-status leader and abusive supervision; (2) The combination of leader mindfulness and trust from high-level leader can jointly and effectively moderate the mediation effect caused by ego-depletion. The research shows that the ego-depletion generated from low-status leaders to maintain their status is the crucial cause of abusive supervision. At the same time, the intensity of abusive supervision varies from person to person. Mindfulness and trust from high-level leader can help limit its spread as a means of bad compensation. The research extends the application of low-status compensation theory, and provides management implications for preventing the conflicts caused by the separation of power and status.

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