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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

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    25 November 2021, Volume 53 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    Reports of Empirical Studies
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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    Effects of endogenous spatial attention and exogenous spatial attention on multisensory integration
    TANG Xiaoyu, TONG Jiageng, YU Hong, WANG Aijun
    2021, 53 (11):  1173-1188.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01173
    Abstract ( 374 )   HTML ( 41 )  
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    This paper adopted the endogenous-exogenous spatial cue target paradigm, and three independent variables were manipulated: endogenous validities (valid, invalid), exogenous validities (valid, invalid), and target modalities (visual, auditory, audiovisual). Two experiments of different task difficulty (Experiment 1: Simple Orientation Task and Experiment 2: Complex Discrimination Task) were conducted to investigate the effects of endogenous and exogenous spatial attention on multisensory integration. The results of both experiments showed that exogenous spatial attention significantly decreased the effect of multisensory integration, while endogenous spatial attention did not significantly enhance the effect. In Experiment 2, we also found that endogenous spatial attention has an effect on the process by which exogenous spatial attention attenuates the effect of multisensory integration. The results showed that, different from endogenous spatial attention, the effect of exogenous spatial attention on multisensory integration was not easily regulated by task difficulty. When the task is difficult, endogenous spatial attention affects the process by which exogenous spatial attention decreases the effect of multisensory integration. It is inferred that the regulation of endogenous and exogenous spatial attention to multisensory integration is not independent of each other, but affects each other.

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    Same-category advantage on the capacity of visual working memory
    SUN Yanliang, SONG Jiaru, XIN Xiaowen, DING Xiaowei, LI Shouxin
    2021, 53 (11):  1189-1202.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01189
    Abstract ( 240 )   HTML ( 20 )  
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    Visual working memory (VWM) is a limited-capacity cognitive system that is responsible for temporarily storing up to three or four items, maintaining their availability for current cognitive processing. Although VWM capacity is limited, the limit is not fixed. Factors such as complexity, statistical regularity, real-world spatial regularity, and perceptual grouping principles of memory objects can modulate this capacity. However, the potential influence of higher-order conceptual regularities, such as categorical relationships among memory objects, remains an open and controversial issue. The effect of object category on VWM capacity, if any, has two possibilities: a mixed-category advantage and a same-category advantage. Hence, in the present study, we used behavioral and electrophysiological methods to explore this issue. A 2 (memory load: two or four) × 2 (category: same or different) × 2 (posture: high similarity or low similarity) within-subject design was used in Experiment 1. The results showed that category knowledge modulates the capacity of the VWM and leads to a same-category advantage. In Experiment 2, we changed the presentation of memory items from simultaneous to successive and replicated the findings from Experiment 1, demonstrating that category knowledge leads to larger memory capacity in the same-category rather than in the different-category condition, even if the memory items are sequentially presented. In Experiment 3, in addition to Cowan’s K, the contralateral delay activity (CDA, an electrophysiological index of VWM capacity) was measured to further explore the processing mechanism underlying the same-category advantage. The CDA results show for the first time that same-category objects can induce a smaller CDA than different-category objects. The CDA results combined with behavioral results indicated that category knowledge can help compact the representations of same-category objects and therefore enlarge the total information capacity of VWM. In conclusion, our data clearly demonstrate an advantageous same-category effect on the capacity of VWM, which indicates that categorical relationships among objects play an important role in expanding the capacity of VWM by enabling the grouping of same-category objects.

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    The influence of dispositional mindfulness on the academic affective forecasting biases of middle school students
    SUN Lin, DUAN Tao, LIU Wei, CHEN Ning
    2021, 53 (11):  1203-1214.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01203
    Abstract ( 240 )   HTML ( 21 )  
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    Based on real tests and laboratory simulations, the effect and mechanism of dispositional mindfulness on academic affective forecasting biases of junior high school students were investigated. The results showed that: (1) there were affective forecasting biases in academic field; (2) dispositional mindfulness affected the affective forecasting biases, and the affective forecasting biases of junior high school students with a high level of dispositional mindfulness were smaller, and vice versa; (3) attentional focus mediated the effect of dispositional mindfulness on affective forecasting biases. This study put forward the “amplification-bonding” interpretation model of mindfulness, which promoted the research of affective forecasting in academic field, and had good ecological validity and practical educational value.

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    Effects of family affective involvement on aging self-stereotypes: An analysis based on latent growth model
    XU Ran, ZHANG Baoshan, LIN Yao
    2021, 53 (11):  1215-1227.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01215
    Abstract ( 266 )   HTML ( 18 )  
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    In this study, a total of 257 older adults were followed up for one year, and the latent growth model and cross-lagged panel analysis were used to examine the developmental trajectories of family affective involvement and aging self-stereotypes in older adults and the causal relationship between the two. The results were as follows: (1) older adults’ perceptions of family affective involvement decreased linearly during the follow-up period while aging self-stereotypes increased linearly; (2) the initial level of family affective involvement negatively predicted the initial levels and increases in aging self-stereotypes; (3) the rate of decrease in family affective involvement predicted the increases of aging self-stereotypes over time; (4) cross-lagged panel analysis showed that family affective involvement negatively predicted aging self-stereotypes after six months. This study expands the existing research on family affective involvement and aging self-stereotypes. A better understanding of the causal effects of older adults’ affective involvement from family members on aging self-stereotypes can also help ameliorate intervention programs designed to reduce the internalization of aging stereotypes and improve negative aging self-stereotypes.

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    Relationship between narcissism and aggression: A meta-analysis
    ZHANG Lihua, ZHU He
    2021, 53 (11):  1228-1243.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01228
    Abstract ( 492 )   HTML ( 26 )  
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    Aggression and violence are prevalent public health problems, tremendously harming individuals, families and society. Supposedly, low self-esteem is an important cause of aggression. However, some researchers have suggested that aggression may be attributable to threatened egoism, that is, the inflated and narcissistic view of self that is threatened, rather than low self-esteem itself. Numerous studies have explored the relationship between narcissism and aggression. However, these results appear somewhat inconsistent in different studies. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to explore the strength and moderators of the relationship between narcissism and aggression.
    We included Chinese and English literature from 1965 to 2021. A total of 177 independent effect sizes (121 studies, 73687 participants) were found within the criteria of the meta-analysis. On the basis of the characteristics of studies, we selected the random-effects model. After the data was coded, independent effect sizes were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 3.3 program.
    The results of the funnel plot and Egger test showed no publication bias. Results showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.27, 95% CI [0.25, 0.29]) between narcissism and aggression. Additionally, the moderation analyses revealed that the strength of the relationship was moderated by gender and the modes of reporting narcissism, but not by the modes of reporting aggression or culture. Meanwhile, different types of narcissism related differently to aggression, in that covert narcissism was more positively correlated with aggression compared with overt narcissism, and maladaptive narcissism was more positively correlated with aggression compared with adaptive narcissism.
    Based on the meta-analysis, narcissism and aggression were closely related. The mechanisms of aggression must be identified to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies to alleviate the public health problems caused by aggression. Future research could: (1) The present study found that the modes of reporting narcissism play a moderating role in the relationship between narcissism and aggression. Therefore, to gain insights into the reporters’ bias and obtain accurate and complete information regarding narcissism, the data of multiple reporters can be employed. (2) Overt narcissism and covert narcissism are distinct structures, and the existing studies on the relationship between narcissism and aggression have paid less attention to covert narcissism. The present study found that covert narcissism is more likely to be a risk factor for aggression than overt narcissism. Therefore, future research could strengthen the exploration of covert narcissism.

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    The influence of culture on wise reasoning in the context of self-friend conflict and its mechanism
    WEI, Xindong, WANG, Fengyan
    2021, 53 (11):  1244-1259.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01244
    Abstract ( 237 )   HTML ( 15 )  
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    In contrast to dealing with personal conflicts, westerners who are mainly independent self are wiser in dealing with their friends’ personal conflicts (Solomon paradox). Will Solomon’s paradox have different characteristics among Chinese people who are mainly interdependent self? In Study 1, Chinese and American participants were recruited through an online platform and randomly assigned to a self/friend conflict group to examine their levels of wise reasoning and the influence of self-type. The results of alignment and ANOVA showed that the friend group had significantly higher wise reasoning than the self group among Americans, while the two groups had no significant difference among Chinese. Further analysis found that the interaction between independent self and conflict type significantly predicted wise reasoning in Chinese culture. Based on this study, through the priming of different self types, Study 2-4 examined the individual’s wisdom reasoning differences in self or friend-conflict groups in Chinese culture. The results showed that the wise reasoning of the friend-group was significantly higher than that of the self-group when independent self was primed; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups when interdependent self was primed. Research suggests that the Solomon paradox may only exist in individuals with a high level of independent self and is not universal. Therefore, in addition to the issue of sample diversity, psychological research should pay more attention to researchers who use only Western samples and make inferences in an unreflective way.

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    Mechanisms of different purposes of social media usage on employees’ job performance
    LI Qiaoling, ZHAO Junzhe, QIAO Shiqi, GUO Tengfei, WANG Minghui, ZHAO Guoxiang
    2021, 53 (11):  1260-1270.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01260
    Abstract ( 205 )   HTML ( 15 )  
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    Based on the job demand-resource theory, this study explores the internal mechanism of the impact of two social media usage purposes on employees' job performance, and then analyzes the impact of two social media usage purposes on employees' job performance. Using 369 matching data on “leaders-subordinates”, the study found: (1) work- and social-based social media usage improved employees’ job performance; (2) work- and social-based social media usage affected job performance through work engagement, and social-based social media usage affected job performance through relationship conflict; (3) the effects of work- and social-based usage of social media on employees’ job performance were mutually substitutive. The results of this study not only theoretically expand the research perspective of social media usage and provide a new theoretical framework for follow-up research, but also provide new ideas for organization management of social media usage through comparative analyses.

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    The polarization effect of project presentation in ranking list on project evaluation
    DUAN Shen, MENG Lu
    2021, 53 (11):  1271-1285.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01271
    Abstract ( 78 )   HTML ( 5 )  
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    Ranking lists are a way to help consumers quickly identify brands or products. Based on the spatial metaphor theory, this paper explores the polarization effect of different display modes (vertical vs horizontal) on the evaluation of consumer list items and its mechanism. Through five experiments, we find that consumers have a greater evaluation polarization effect on items in a vertical ranking list than in a horizontal ranking list, and verify the mediating role of item perceived difference in the above relationships; that is to say, the evaluation polarization effect of a vertical ranking list is driven by the perceived differences of individual higher ranking list items. In addition, when the evaluability of attributes is low, the evaluation polarization effect of different list items will appear; on the contrary, when the evaluability of attributes of ranking list items is high, the evaluation polarization effect disappears.

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    A high-efficiency and new online calibration method in CD-CAT based on information gain of entropy and EM algorithm
    TAN Qingrong, WANG Daxun, LUO Fen, CAI Yan, TU Dongbo
    2021, 53 (11):  1286-1298.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01286
    Abstract ( 133 )  
    Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) includes the advantages of both cognitive diagnosis (CD) and computerized adaptive testing (CAT), which can offer detailed diagnosis feedback for each examinee by applying fewer test items and time. It has been a promising field. An item bank is a prerequisite for the implementation of CD-CAT. However, its maintenance is a very challenging task. One of the effective ways to maintain the item bank is online calibration. Till now, there are only a few online calibration methods in the CD-CAT context that can calibrate Q-matrix and item parameters simultaneously. Moreover, the computational efficiency of these methods needs to be further improved. Therefore, it is crucial to find more online calibration methods that jointly calibrate the Q-matrix and item parameters.
    Inspired by the SIE (Single-Item Estimation) method proposed by Chen et al. (2015) and information gain feature selection criteria in feature selection, an information gain of entropy-based online calibration method (IGEOCM) was proposed in this study. The proposed method can jointly calibrate Q-matrix and item parameters in a sequential manner. The calibration process of the new items was described as follows: First, for the new item j, the q-vector can be calibrated by maximizing the information gain of entropy-based on the basis of the attribute patterns of examinees and the examinees’ responses to item j. Second, the item parameters of the new item j are estimated by the EM algorithm based on the posterior distribution of examinees’ attribute pattern, the examinees’ responses to item j, and the q-vector estimated in the first step. The first and second step are repeated for all other new items to obtain their estimated Q-matrix and item parameters item by item. Two simulation studies were conducted to examine whether the IGEOCM could accurately and efficiently calibrate the Q-matrix and item parameters of the new items under different calibration sample sizes (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200), different attribute pattern distributions (uniform distribution, higher-order distribution, and multivariate normal distribution), the different number of new items answered by examinee (4, 6, and 8), and different item selection algorithms (posterior-weighted Kullback-Leibler, PWKL; the modified PWKL, MPWKL; the generalized deterministic inputs, noisy and gate model discrimination index, GDI; and Shannon entropy, SHE). Furthermore, the performance of the proposed method was compared with the SIE, SIE-R-BIC, and RMSEA-N methods.
    The results indicated that (1) The IGEOCM worked well in terms of the calibration accuracy and estimation efficiency under all conditions, and outperformed the SIE, SIE-R-BIC, and RMSEA-N methods overall. (2) The accuracy of the item calibration increases as the sample size increases for all calibration methods under all conditions. (3) The SIE, SIE-R-BIC, RMSEA-N, and IGEOCM performed better under the uniform distribution and higher-order distribution than under the multivariate normal distribution. (4) The number of new items answered by the examinee had a negligible impact on the calibration accuracy and computation efficiency of the SIE, SIE-R-BIC, RMSEA-N, and IGEOCM. (5) The item selection algorithm in CD-CAT affects the Q-matrix calibration accuracy of the SIE and IGEOCM methods. Under the higher-order distribution and multivariate normal distribution, the SIE method and IGEOCM had higher Q-matrix calibration accuracy when the item selection algorithms were MPWKL and GDI.
    On the whole, although the proposed IGEOCM is competitive and outperforms the conventional method irrespective of the calibration precision or computational efficiency, the studies on the online calibration method in CD-CAT still need to be further deepened and expanded.
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