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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

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    25 October 2021, Volume 53 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    Reports of Empirical Studies
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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    The influence of the matching of modality presentation mode and perceptual learning style on the bidialectal switching cost of Cantonese-Mandarin
    XING Qiang, WU Xiao, WANG Jiawei, ZHANG Zhonglu
    2021, 53 (10):  1059-1070.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01059
    Abstract ( 276 )   HTML ( 41 )  
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    Proficient cantonese-mandarin bilinguals with different perceptual learning styles were compared on the performance of naming tasks in different channel presentation modes. In this study, the effects of perceived learning style and channel representation on the switching cost of skilled bilinguals were investigated. The results showed that the switching cost of visual cue was lower than that of auditory cue, and the switching cost of bilingualism was lower when the perceptual learning style matched the channel presentation. The results show that the fit between perceptual learning style and channel presentation can adjust the switching cost of bilingualism.

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    Effects of sentence structure and type of control verb on thematic role assignment: Evidence from eye movements
    LI Fang, LI Xin, ZHANG Manman, BAI Xuejun
    2021, 53 (10):  1071-1081.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01071
    Abstract ( 170 )   HTML ( 15 )  
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    The extended argument dependency model (eADM) suggests that readers adopt a position-based assignment for rigid word-ordering languages with case marking, and thematic reanalysis occurs when the verb’s argument representation contradicts with the argument cues, which induces additional processing costs. To test the model, this study used a 2 (sentence structure: centered, preposed) × 2 (type of control verb: subject control, object control) within-subject design and recorded the eye movements of 24 native Chinese speakers. By manipulating sentence structure, the reliance on word order information in the existence of case marking information in Chinese was investigated. Type of control verb was manipulated to examine the reanalysis of thematic roles when argument representation of the verb was in contradiction with cues of arguments in Chinese. The results were as follows: (1) the preposed structure sentences gained more duration and regression than the centered structure sentences in the first noun, second noun and verb regions; (2) more second-pass reading time and total regressions were found in the object control verb condition than in the subject control verb condition in the verb and post-verb regions; (3) For the centered structure sentences, there were more duration and regression in sentences containing object control verbs than those containing subject control verbs in the second noun and verb regions; However, for the preposed structure sentences, there were longer reading time in sentences containing object control verbs than those containing subject control verbs in the post-verb region. These findings are in line with the claim of the eADM model.

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    Gender difference in retrieval-extinction of conditioned fear memory
    CHEN Wei, LIN Xiaoyi, LI Junjiao, ZHANG Wenxi, SUN Nan, ZHENG Xifu
    2021, 53 (10):  1082-1093.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01082
    Abstract ( 211 )   HTML ( 37 )  
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    The retrieval-extinction paradigm based on the memory reconsolidation theory can effectively weaken the maladaptive fear memory. Gender difference is a key variable in the study of individual difference, but there are few studies on gender difference in the retrieval-extinction paradigm. In this study, stereoscopic geometry was used as the conditioned stimulus, electric shock as the unconditioned stimulus, skin conductance response as the fear response index. The results showed that all the participants in the retrieval-extinction group successfully inhibited the fear relapse in the fear spontaneous recovery test, but only the female participants inhibited the fear relapse in the reinstatement test. The results showed that the retrieval-extinction paradigm had a significant effect on inhibiting the spontaneous recovery of fear, and the fear reduction effect on reinstatement test of female was better than that of male.

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    The role of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on voluntary forgetting of negative social feedback in depressed patients: A TMS study
    CHEN Yuming, LI Sijin, GUO Tianyou, XIE Hui, XU Feng, ZHANG Dandan
    2021, 53 (10):  1094-1104.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01094
    Abstract ( 331 )   HTML ( 29 )  
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    The negative mood of depressed patients may result from their inhibition dysfunction. When patients voluntarily forget negative materials, they cannot effectively recruit the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and other frontal brain networks responsible for inhibition control. At the same time, patients have more obvious cognitive neurological barriers in the processing of social information than non-social information and have deficits in voluntary forgetting of social feedback information that is unfavorable to them. To improve the ability to voluntarily forget negative social feedback, we employed transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to activate the left DLPFC (n = 32) or the right DLPFC (n = 30) and examined the change of memory control ability for depressed patients. Results showed that the recall accuracy of social rejection was no significant difference between patients and healthy controls (n = 31) after we used the TMS to activate the left or right DLPFC of patients and activation of the right DLPFC also improved patients’ social attitude towards others. The main contribution of this study is the first attempt to improve the ability of depressed patients in voluntary forgetting by employing TMS. We not only demonstrated a causal relationship between the DLPFC and memory control function but provided a specific neural target for the clinical treatment of memory control deficits in patients with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and drug addiction.

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    The Complex Trial Protocol based on self-referential encoding: Discriminating the guilty from the knowledgeable innocent
    DENG Xiaohong, LI Ting, XUE Chao, J. Peter ROSENFELD, LU Yang, WANG Ying, ZHAN Xiaofei, YAN Gejun, OUYANG Dan
    2021, 53 (10):  1105-1119.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01105
    Abstract ( 160 )  
    The concealed information test (CIT) is a lie detection method, which can determine if a criminal suspect knows the crime-related information and then infer whether the suspect is guilty. The CIT has high internal validity but it is easy to misjudge an innocent person who knows the crime-related information as a guilty one. Therefore, it is necessary to improve CIT's detection accuracy for the guilty and the knowledgeable innocent persons. The complex trial protocol (CTP) is a modified CIT which can effectively resist countermeasures, but it hasn’t been successfully applied to discriminate the guilty from the knowledgeable innocent.
    The present study designed a novel CTP based on self-referential encoding, which measured the early posterior negativity (EPN) and P300. The probe or one of the irrelevant stimuli was randomly presented in the first phase of a trial, and the target (participant’s name) or one of the non-targets (others’ names) was randomly presented in the second phase of a trial. The participants needed to make self-related or self-unrelated responses in two phases when they saw the stimuli.
    The results revealed that: (1) the area under the curve (AUC) for P300 to discriminate the guilty from the unknowledgeable innocent was 0.922, which was significantly higher than 0.5 (the chance level). The AUC for P300 to discriminate the guilty from the knowledgeable innocent was 0.605, which was not significantly different from 0.5, and the false positive rate of the knowledgeable innocent was 75%. The AUC for P300 to discriminate the knowledgeable innocent from the unknowledgeable innocent was 0.859, which was significantly higher than 0.5. (2) The AUC for EPN to discriminate the guilty from the unknowledgeable innocent was 0.770, and the AUC for EPN to discriminate the guilty from the knowledgeable innocent was 0.721. The two AUCs were significantly larger than 0.5. The false positive rate of the knowledgeable innocent was 12.5%. The AUC for EPN to discriminate the knowledgeable innocent from the unknowledgeable innocent was 0.516, which was not significantly different from 0.5.
    In summary, the present study indicated that: (1) P300 can effectively discriminate the guilty from the unknowledgeable innocent, but can not effectively discriminate the guilty from the knowledgeable innocent. P300 is easy to misjudge the knowledgeable innocent as the guilty person. (2) The discrimination of EPN was weaker than that of P300 in discriminating the guilty from the unknowledgeable innocent. However, the discrimination of EPN was superior to that of P300 in discriminating the guilty from knowledgeable innocent. EPN is not easy to misjudge a knowledgeable innocent person as a guilty one. (3) When the CTP based on self-referential coding is applied to detect lies, P300 can be used to discriminate the guilty from the unknowledgeable innocent and EPN can be used to discriminate the guilty from the knowledgeable innocent.
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    The reciprocal relationships between head teachers’ negotiation management behavior, teacher-student relationship and primary school students’ externalizing problem behaviors from grade four to six: A cross-lagged study
    XIE Qili, ZHENG Huizhen, JIANG Guangrong, REN Zhihong, FAN Yanfei, LIU Jiahuai, ZHANG Wen
    2021, 53 (10):  1120-1132.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01120
    Abstract ( 201 )   HTML ( 23 )  
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    In order to explore the reciprocal relationships between head teachers’ negotiation management behavior and teacher-student relationship and students’ externalizing problem behavior, 1407 primary school students from grade 4 to grade 6 were investigated by questionnaires at three different periods in one school year. The results of cross-lag analysis show that: (1)Head teachers’ negotiation management behavior drove the positive interaction cycle; head teachers’ negotiation management behavior (T1) reduced students’ externalizing problem behavior (T2), improved the closeness of the teacher-student relationship(T2), and decreased the conflicts of the teacher-student relationship (T2), which further affected head teachers’ negotiation management behavior (T3), teacher-student relationship (T3) and students’ externalizing problem behaviors (T3). (2) Students’ externalizing problem behaviors drove the negative interaction cycle; students’ externalizing problem behaviors (T1) reduced head teachers’ negotiation management behavior (T2), decreased the closeness of the teacher-student relationship (T2), and increased the conflicts of the teacher-student relationship (T2), which further affected students’ externalizing problem behaviors (T3), teacher-student relationship (T3), and head teachers’ negotiation management behavior (T3). The results support the Transactional Model, and suggest that head teachers need to be aware of the negative “driver” role of students’ externalizing problem behaviors, and consciously use the positive “driver” role of negotiation management behavior to break the negative cycle driven by students’ externalizing problem behaviors.

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    The effect of the angry emoji position on consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger
    WU Ruijuan, CHEN Jiuqi, LI Yan
    2021, 53 (10):  1133-1145.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01133
    Abstract ( 517 )  
    Emoji are widely adopted in smartphones, for input methods, and on social networks. As ubiquitous characters, emoji transcend linguistic borders and are gaining worldwide popularity. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the position of the angry emoji in negative online consumer reviews on the consumers’ perceptions of the sender’s anger. The present study first proposed the main location effect of the position of the angry emoji on the consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger. That is, compared with the angry emoji at the end of a sentence, the angry emoji in the middle of a sentence led to a stronger perception of anger. Based on visual information processing of the location effect, the current research proposed that the position salience perception and the sentiment-strengthening perception of the angry emoji serially mediated the above main effect. Further, we hypothesized that word review extremity moderated the effect of the position of the angry emoji on the consumers’ perceptions of the sender’s anger.
    For this paper, we conducted one eye-tracking experiment and three laboratory experiments. In Study 1, we conducted a pretest, which was the eye-tracking experiment. The product used in the pretest was a thermos mug. Study 1 was a 3 (one emoji at the end of a sentence vs. one in the middle of a sentence vs. no emoji) × 2 (feature description: feature one precedes feature two vs. feature two precedes feature one) between-subjects design. The product used in Study 1 was a laptop. Study 2 was a 2 (the position of the angry emoji at the end vs. in the middle of a sentence) × 2 (feature description: feature one precedes feature two vs. feature two precedes feature one) between-subjects design. Study 2 used a gel-ink pen refill as the target product. In Study 2, we measured the consumers’ perceptions of the sender’s anger, the angry emoji sentiment-strengthening perception, and the position salience perception created by the angry emoji. Study 3 was a 2 (the position of the angry emoji at the end vs. in the middle of a sentence) × 2 (word review extremity: moderate vs. extreme) between-subjects design. Study 3 used a coat as the target product.
    The results of the pretest demonstrated the effectiveness of visual information processing on the location effect. The position of the angry emoji influenced the participants’ attention. The angry emoji in the middle of a sentence led to higher fixation counts and longer fixation durations. The results of Study 1 demonstrated the main effect in this paper, which was that an angry emoji in the middle of a sentence led to a stronger perception of the sender’s anger than did an angry emoji at the end of a sentence. The results of Study 2 replicated the results of Study 1 and tested the serial-mediating roles of the position salience perception and the sentiment- strengthening perception of the angry emoji. The results of Study 3 replicated the results of Study 2 and tested the moderating role of word review extremity in the relationship between the position of the angry emoji and the consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger. When we considered the extreme word review, the influence of the position of the angry emoji on the sender’s perception of anger was not significant; however, when we considered the moderate word review, the angry emoji in the middle of a sentence significantly enhanced the consumers’ perception of the sender’s anger.
    The current research extended the extant literature in several dimensions. First, it supplemented the literature in the field of marketing on the effects of the emoji on consumers’ responses. Second, it supplemented the literature of application contexts and the influence of the location effect. Third, the present research provided empirical evidence for emoji functions. Fourth, the present study supplemented the literature of online consumer reviews.
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    Spillover effects of workplace ostracism on employee family life: The role of need for affiliation and work-home segmentation preference
    DENG XinCai, HE Shan, LYU Ping, ZHOU Xing, YE YiJiao, MENG HongLin, KONG Yurou
    2021, 53 (10):  1146-1160.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01146
    Abstract ( 320 )   HTML ( 19 )  
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    Previous studies have shown that workplace ostracism harms many aspects of organizations, but little is known about the spillover effects of workplace ostracism on the outside of the organizations, especially in the family domain. Based on the conservation of resource theory, this study constructs a moderated mediation model to explore the spillover effects and specific mechanism of workplace ostracism on employee’s family depreciation and family satisfaction. The results show that: (1) workplace ostracism had a significant positive effect on family undermining and a significant negative effect on family satisfaction; (2) work stress mediated the relationship between workplace ostracism with family undermining and family satisfaction; (3) need for affiliation moderated the effect of workplace ostracism on work stress, and moderated the mediating effect between workplace ostracism and family undermining, family satisfaction; (4) work-home segmentation preference moderated the effect of work stress on family undermining and family satisfaction, and moderated the mediating effect of work stress on family undermining and family satisfaction.

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    How can successful people share their goodness with the world: The psychological mechanism underlying the upper social classes’ redistributive preferences and the role of humility
    BAI Jie, YANG Shenlong, XU Buxiao, GUO Yongyu
    2021, 53 (10):  1161-1172.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01161
    Abstract ( 251 )   HTML ( 24 )  
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    A large number of studies conducted in Europe and America have explored the negative relationships between social class and redistributive preferences. However, few studies have addressed the cross-cultural consistency or explored the internal mechanism and intervention strategies of the effects of social class on redistributive preferences. The results showed that as in Western society, upper social-class Chinese individuals also tend to have lower redistributive preferences than those from lower social classes. In addition, the effects of social class on redistributive preferences could be partly mediated through the attributions for rich-poor gap. Compared with individuals from a subjectively lower class, upper-class individuals tended to attribute the gap between rich and poor to internal causes. That is to say, they tended to attribute the rich-gap to personal factors, such as abilities, efforts, and ambition. This attitude lowered upper-class individuals’ redistributive preferences even further. Finally, priming a humble state lowered upper-class individuals’ tendency to attribute the gap between rich and poor to internal causes, and further improved their redistributive preferences to a significant extent. These findings provide supporting data for the inequality maintenance model of social class and shed light upon social governance in promoting wealth redistribution and the sharing of developmental fruits.

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