ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

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25 September 2021, Volume 53 Issue 9

Reports of Empirical Studies
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Reports of Empirical Studies
 Evidence for neural re-use hypothesis from the processing of Chinese emotional words SUN Tianyi, HAO Xiaoxiao, HE Anming, WANG Caiyu, XU Yuanli, GUO Chunyan, ZHOU Wei 2021, 53 (9):  933-943.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00933 Abstract ( 343 )   HTML ( 43 )   PDF (1816KB) ( 207 )   The neural re-use hypothesis postulates that the emotional effects of words can be produced without semantic formation, which is more helpful for human adaptation to the environment. To test this hypothesis, electroencephalogram (EEG) and behavioral experiments were designed to record the processing characteristics of negative and neutral Chinese words. The results showed that ERPs of disgust words were dissociated from neutral words at about 170ms. The EPN which was associated with visual attention of emotional stimulus appeared in the occipital region. The N400 difference between disgust and neutral words originated in the insula. The maximum activation point time window started at 380 ms. These results indicate that the emotional effect appears before the semantic analysis of emotional words, which supports the neural re-use hypothesis.
 Language evolution and ethnic group/dialect name affecting ethnic information processing: Three major Chinese dialects in Guangdong WU Limei, ZHANG Jijia, MENG Le, ZHANG Xiaolin, HUANG Nanxin, ZHANG Jinqiao 2021, 53 (9):  944-959.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00944 Abstract ( 207 )   HTML ( 23 )   PDF (287KB) ( 143 )   Language is one of the important cultural characteristics of ethnic groups. Based on the historical facts that the three dialects in Guangdong are immigrants from the Central Plains, the paper discusses the differences of language evolution among the three dialects and the influence of ethnic / dialect names on the information processing of the three dialects. Guangdong college students who use dialect as Hakka, Cantonese and Teochew dialect were selected as subjects. Experiment 1 used the R/K model of group reference to investigate the memory of the information of the Central Plains ethnic groups by different dialect speakers; Experiment 2 used the Stroop paradigm to investigate the attention bias of different dialect speakers to the information of the Central Plains ethnic group. The results show that the differences of language evolution and the names of ethnic groups / dialects affect the information retention of different dialects speakers to the Central Plains ethnic groups, and the Hakka dialect groups who tenaciously maintain the ancestral language have group reference effect on the information processing of the Central Plains ethnic groups. The differences of language evolution and the names of ethnic groups / dialects affect the attention bias of dialect speakers to the information of the Central Plains ethnic groups, while the Hakka dialect groups have a tendency to pay attention to the information processing of the Central Plains ethnic groups. The whole study shows that the differences of language evolution and the influence of ethnic / dialect names on the information processing of the same ancestor group can fully preserve the characteristics of the Han ancestral language, strengthen the relationship between dialect and Han ancestral language, and enhance the sense of root ancestor and the identity of the same root group. The results of the study have important implications for the construction of the consciousness of the Chinese community.
 Dynamic adaptation of the Inventory of Piaget’s Developmental Task (IPDT) and the application for children with low socioeconomic status ZHANG Lijin, BAO Qing, CHEN Lei, LIANG Yuan 2021, 53 (9):  960-975.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00960 Abstract ( 230 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (248KB) ( 200 )   The conservation and relationship domain of the Inventory of Piaget’s Developmental Tasks (IPDT) has been dynamically adapted to assess the potential of children in the first grade of primary school. On this basis, the purpose of this study is to construct a dynamic test in the domain of IPDT images, classification, and laws, and to assess the cognitive potential of children with low socioeconomic status (SES) using the constructed IPDT dynamic test; after the inferential cognitive intervention for the children with low SES, the effect of cognitive intervention on the cognitive ability and mathematical achievement of the children with low SES was further investigated. The results showed that: (1) the dynamic test in the domain of characterization, classification, and laws of IPDT includes four steps of “pretest-intervention-migration-posttest”, and the proposed step-by-step intervention scheme is reasonable and appropriate, effectively distinguishing the children with different cognitive potential levels, especially the disadvantaged children; (2) reasoning cognitive intervention has different effects on the low SES children with different cognitive potential levels which were carefully distinguished by IPDT dynamic test; despite improvements in both cognitive ability and mathematical achievement, children with low SES and high potentials benefited more from the intervention than children with low SES and low potentials.
 The relationship between positive parenting and adolescent prosocial behavior: The mediating role of empathy and the moderating role of the oxytocin receptor gene ZHANG Wenxin, LI Xi, CHEN Guanghui, CAO Yanmiao 2021, 53 (9):  976-991.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00976 Abstract ( 395 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (516KB) ( 299 )   Plenty of studies have shown that maternal positive parenting promotes adolescents’ prosocial behavior, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The participants were 1082 mother-offspring dyads (adolescents’ mean age: 12.32 ± 0.48 years, 50.3% females) recruited from the community which was followed for two years. Under the framework of “gene-environment-endophenotype- behavior”, this study investigated the mediating role of empathy in the relationship between maternal positive parenting and adolescents’ prosocial behavior, and the moderating role of OXTR gene rs53576 polymorphism. The results showed that cognitive empathy, but not emotional empathy, mediated the association between positive parenting and prosocial behavior. Specifically, positive parenting was positively associated with cognitive empathy, which in turn was positively associated with adolescents’ prosocial behavior. Further, this mediation was moderated by the OXTR gene rs53576 polymorphism. For adolescents with AA and GG genotypes, positive parenting was related to higher levels of cognitive empathy, which increased prosocial behavior. However, this mediation effect was not observed among adolescents with AG genotype. In addition, the results revealed evidence for an overdominance model for OXTR rs53576 polymorphism. Moreover, the G×E interaction predicted cognitive empathy but not prosocial behavior. These findings add to our understanding of how empathy and genetic factors contribute to adolescents’ prosocial behavior within the family context.
 The double-edged-sword effect of empathy: The secondary traumatic stress and vicarious posttraumatic growth of psychological hotline counselors during the outbreak of COVID-19 LAI Lizu, REN Zhihong, YAN Yifei, NIU Gengfeng, ZHAO Chunxiao, LUO Mei, ZHANG Lin 2021, 53 (9):  992-1002.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00992 Abstract ( 482 )   HTML ( 26 )   PDF (235KB) ( 343 )   It is of great theoretical and practical significance to pay attention to the mental health of psychological hotline counselors during the epidemic period of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19), and to explore the internal mechanisms of the negative and positive impacts of empathizing with trauma clients for trauma workers. In this study, Participants were 776 counselors (with an average age of 42.57 years and an average counseling experience of 12.44 years) who worked on the online mental health service platform which was established in Central China Normal University by the Ministry of Education (MOE-CCNU) during the epidemic period of COVID- 19 in China. Empathy, mindfulness, searching for meaning, secondary traumatic stress (STS), and vicarious posttraumatic growth (VPTG) were measured by questionnaires. The results of latent variable structural equation model show that: (1) the empathy of counselors positively predicts STS and VPTG; (2) mindfulness partially mediates the relationship between empathy and STS, while searching for meaning partially mediates the relationship between empathy and VPTG; (3) empathy also positively predicts VPTG through the mediating paths of STS, STS-searching for meaning, mindfulness-STS, and mindfulness-STS-searching for meaning, respectively. The results suggest that we should treat the negative and positive effects of empathy dialectically and pay attention to the transformation from negative reactions to positive growth, which can not only deepen the theory of empathy and its influence, but also provide enlightenment for related research and implication.
 Psychological structure of social mindfulness in Chinese culture TIAN Yi, WANG Li, XU Yan, JIAO Liying 2021, 53 (9):  1003-1017.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01003 Abstract ( 301 )   HTML ( 24 )   PDF (737KB) ( 179 )   In order to explore the psychological structure of Chinese social mindfulness, this paper adopted the personality vocabulary method, selected the mental words which represent social good thoughts from the vocabulary collected by the open investigation, and established the social mindfulness lexicon. Through two exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, the social mindfulness vocabulary scale with 18 personality traits and the social mindfulness self-report scale with 17 descriptions were obtained. Through lexical analysis and psychometric analysis, we explored the psychological structure of social mindfulness in Chinese culture, which contains two second-order factors and four first-order factors. In this model, the two second-order factors were agreeableness and extraversion, and the four first-order factors were kindness and respect, humility, inclusive and understanding, and positive and open.
 The double-edged sword effects of leader workaholism on team performance SHE Zhuolin, LI Quan, YANG Baiyin, YANG Bin 2021, 53 (9):  1018-1031.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01018 Abstract ( 293 )   HTML ( 32 )   PDF (244KB) ( 331 )   With the escalation of industry competitive pressure, workaholic leaders are prevalent in the workplace. However, the effectiveness of workaholic leaders in organizations remains controversial both in practice and in academia. Drawing on social information processing theory, this study examined the double-edged sword effects of workaholic leaders on team performance and revealed the underlying mechanism. Based on a multi-time and multisource survey of a property management service company, the results showed that, on the one hand, leader workaholism was positively related to team job involvement, resulting in higher team performance; on the other hand, leader workaholism heightened team negative affect, thus decreasing team performance. Team task significance moderated the above two mediating paths. Specifically, when team task significance was higher, the negative mediating effect of team negative affect was attenuated, and the positive mediating effect of team job involvement was enhanced. Our findings contribute to the dialectical understanding of the effectiveness of leader workaholism and provide insights for organizations to cultivate qualified managers.
 Nonparametric methods for cognitive diagnosis to multiple-choice test items GUO Lei, ZHOU Wenjie 2021, 53 (9):  1032-1043.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01032 Abstract ( 192 )   Cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) focuses on evaluating students' advantages and disadvantages in knowledge mastering, providing an opportunity for individualized teaching. Therefore, CDA has attracted attention of many scholars, teachers, and students at domestic and overseas. In CDA and a large number of standardized tests, multiple-choice (MC) are typical item types, which have the advantages of not being affected by subjective errors, improving test reliability, being easy to review, scoring quickly, and meeting the needs of content balance. To fulfil the potential of MC items for CDA, researchers proposed the MC-cognitive diagnosis models (MC-CDMs). However, these MC-CDMs pertain to parameter methods, which need a large sample size to obtain accurate parameter estimation. They are not suitable for small samples at class level, and the MCMC algorithm is very time-consuming. In this study, three nonparametric MC cognitive diagnosis methods based on hamming-distance are proposed, aiming at maximizing the diagnostic efficacy of MC items and being suitable for the diagnosis target of a small sample. Simulation study 1 considered four factors: sample size (30, 50, 100), test length (10, 20, 30), item quality (high and low), and the true model (MC-S-DINA1, MC-S-DINA2). Three nonparametric MC methods and two parametric models were compared. The results showed that in most conditions, the pattern accuracy rates and average attribute accuracy rates of the nonparametric MC method(${{d}_{\text{h}-\text{MC}}}$) were higher than those of parametric models, especially when the test length was short or item quality was low.In a real test situation, the quality of different items in a test may vary greatly. Based on this, simulation study 2 set the first half of the items at high quality and the remaining items at low quality. The results showed that the pattern accuracy rates and average attribute accuracy rates of the nonparametric MC method (${{d}_{\text{ph}-\text{MC}}}$) were higher than those of the parametric models in all conditions. In an empirical study, the nonparametric MC methods and the parametric models were used to analyze a set of real data simultaneously. The results showed that nonparametric MC methods and parametric models presented high classification consistency rates. Furthermore, the ${{d}_{\text{ph}-\text{MC}}}$ method had satisfactory estimations.In sum, ${{d}_{\text{h}-\text{MC}}}$ was suitable in most conditions, especially when the test length was short or the item quality was low When the quality of different items was quite diverse, ${{d}_{\text{ph}-\text{MC}}}$ was a better choice compared with parameteric approaches.
 Two new termination rules for multidimensional computerized classification testing REN He, CHEN Ping 2021, 53 (9):  1044-1058.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01044 Abstract ( 128 )   Computerized classification testing (CCT) is a subset of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), and it aims to classify examinees into one of at least two possible categories that denote results such as pass/fail or non-mastery/partial mastery/mastery. Therefore, CCTs focus on increasing the accuracy of classification which is different from CATs designed for precise measurement. The termination rule is one of the key components of CCT. However, as pointed out by Nydick (2013), most CCTs (i.e., UCCTs) were designed under unidimensional item response theory (IRT), in which the unidimensionality assumption is easily violated in practice. Thus, researchers then began to construct multidimensional CCT termination rules (i.e., MCCT) based on multidimensional IRT. To date, however, these rules still have some deficiencies in terms of classification accuracy or test efficiency.Most current studies on termination rules of MCCT are based on termination rules of UCCT. In UCCTs, termination rules require setting a cut point, ${{\theta }_{0}}$, of the latent trait to calculate the statistics; and when they are extended from UCCT to MCCT, the cut point will become a classification bound curve or even a surface (i.e., $g(\theta )=0$). At this time, a question is how to convert the curve or surface into ${{\theta }_{0}}$. To this end, the projected sequential probability ratio test (P-SPRT), constrained SPRT (C-SPRT; Nydick, 2013), and multidimensional generalized likelihood ratio (M-GLR) were respectively proposed to solve the problem in different ways. Among them, P-SPRT and C-SPRT choose specific points on g(θ) as the approximate cut point, ${{\hat{\theta }}_{0}}$, by projecting into Euclidean space or constraining on g(θ) respectively; as for M-GLR, because the generalized likelihood ratio statistic can be calculated without a cut point, it can be directly employed in MCCT. To overcome the limitation that P-SPRT may lead to unstable results at the beginning of the test, this study proposed the Mahalanobis distance-based SPRT (Mahalanobis-SPRT).In addition, stochastic curtailment is a technique for shortening the test length by predicting whether the classification of participants will change as the test continues. This article also combined M-GLR with the stochastic curtailment and proposed M-GLR with stochastic curtailment (M-SCGLR). A full-scale simulation study was conducted to (1) compare both the Mahalanobis-SPRT and M-SCGLR with the P-SPRT, C-SPRT, M-GLR, and multidimensional stochastically curtailed SPRT (M-SCSPRT) under varying conditions; (2) compare the classification performance of the above six termination rules for participants with specific abilities to explore whether there is a significant difference in the sensitivity of various rules to classify specific participants. To achieve the first research objective, three levels of correlation between dimensions (ρ=0, 0.5, and 0.8), two item bank structures (within-item multidimensionality and between-item multidimensionality), and two kinds of classification boundary (compensatory boundary and non-compensatory boundary) were considered; to achieve the second objective, 36 specific ability points $({{\theta }_{1}},{{\theta }_{2}})$ were generated where ${{\theta }_{1}},{{\theta }_{2}}\in \{-0.5,-0.3,-0.1,0.1,0.3,0.5\}$. The results showed that: (1) when the compensatory classification function was used, the Mahalanobis-SPRT led to higher classification accuracy and similar test length to the rules without stochastic curtailment; (2) under almost all conditions, the M-SCGLR not only possessed higher precision but also maintained the short test length, compared to M-SCSPRT that also uses stochastic curtailment; (3) the six termination rules showed a consistent change in the sensitivity of the precision and test length to specific participants.To sum up, two new MCCT termination rules (Mahalanobis-SPRT and M-SCGLR) are put forward in this article. Although the simulation results are very promising, several research directions merit further investigation, such as the development of MCCT termination rules for more than two categories, and the construction of MCCT termination rules by incorporating process data like the response time.