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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

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    25 February 2021, Volume 53 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    Reports of Empirical Studies
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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    Meaningful contingent attentional orienting effects: Spatial location-based inhibition and capture
    WANG Hui-Yuan, CHEN Ai-Rui, ZHANG Ming
    2021, 53 (2):  113-127.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00113
    Abstract ( 343 )   HTML ( 15 )  
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    In the present study, three experiments were conducted to investigate the attentional orientation effect of meaningful cues in different spatial locations using a cuing paradigm. The results showed that the inhibition effect appeared in the lower visual field and was more significant in the lower visual field and that the capture effect appeared in the upper visual field and was more significant in the higher visual field. Furthermore, the results showed that (1) the meaningful contingency between the objects guided the visuospatial attentional orienting, thereby highlighting the inhibition and capture effects in different visuospatial fields; (2) the nature of the object modulated the meaningful-contingent attentional orienting, thereby showing that the more vivid the object was, the more modulated it was, whereas the more abstract the object was, the less modulated it was; and (3) the meaningful-contingent attentional orienting was performed regularly in different visual fields, thereby highlighting the location-based inhibition and capture from the lower to the upper fields.

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    Changes in the level of conflict trigger conflict adaptation
    ZHANG Mengke, LI Qing, YIN Shouhang, CHEN Antao
    2021, 53 (2):  128-138.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00128
    Abstract ( 362 )   HTML ( 21 )  
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    Conflict adaptation is an important phenomenon, as the interference effect on the current trials is reduced following incongruent versus congruent trials. Moreover, conflict adaptation effect (CAE) is thought to measure adaptive control on a trial-by-trial basis. There are two main theories explaining the mechanisms underlying CAE: conflict monitoring theory and adaptation by binding theory. However, both theories have not explicitly proposed a clear relationship between conflict strength and cognitive control adjustment. Previous studies have mostly focused on the type of conflict that triggers CAE, which reflected qualitative analysis. Hence, it remains unclear whether changes in the level of conflict of the same conflict type affect conflict adaptation.

    To address the above issue, the present study recruited 31 healthy participants with a mean age of 19.74 years to perform the variant of the letter flanker task without feature repetitions. Each stimulus was composed of “F/H/N/P” letter components and arranged in a way that a central target letter was flanked by symmetric arrays of two distracter letters. Experiment manipulated the level of conflict by parametrically varying the target-distracter compatibility. Flankers were 100% compatible with the central target for no-conflict condition (e.g., NNNNN), 50% for low-conflict condition (e.g., HNNNH), and 0% for high-conflict condition (e.g., HHNHH). Congruent stimuli were presented on 50% of trials with each incongruent condition occurring equally often on the remaining 50% of trials.

    Results showed that reaction times (RTs) increased with the number of incompatible flankers, suggesting a correlation with the level of conflict. Moreover, the interaction between previous trial congruency (no-conflict/low-conflict/high-conflict) and current trial congruency (no-conflict/low-conflict/high-conflict) was significant, which suggested that congruency of previous trials affected the interference effect of current trials. Follow-up analyses revealed that there were classic conflict adaptation phenomena between no-conflict and low-conflict, no-conflict and high-conflict, and low-conflict and high-conflict conditions. These results showed that conflict adaptation was also triggered by the level of conflict in addition to the occurrence of the conflict. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the conflict strength of previous trials was related to the cognitive control level of current trials, showing that larger conflict led to stronger cognitive control adjustment. In addition, the function of conflict-induced cognitive control may be realized by attentional focusing.

    In conclusion, the present study emphasizes that changes in the level of conflict could trigger conflict adaptation, which provides more direct support for attention adjustment mechanism of conflict monitoring theory. Combining the existing researches, we infer that conflict monitoring is sensitive to the type and level of conflict, and adjusts the level of cognitive control to facilitate conflict resolution.

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    The influence of feature integration and processing depth on metaphorical association between moral concepts and container space
    WANG Congxing, YANG Yuqing, XIONG Meng, YE Yiduo
    2021, 53 (2):  139-154.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00139
    Abstract ( 232 )   HTML ( 14 )  
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    How to understand abstract concepts has always been a research focus in cognitive linguistics. The viewpoint, which is represented by conceptual metaphor theory and perceptual symbol theory, demonstrates that abstract concepts are acquired and grasped through the experience of perceptual movement of the body, and through the understanding and construction of metaphor. As a typical abstract concept, the acquisition of a moral concept's meaning is also based on relevant experience. We propose and test a general hypothesis, which we call the metaphorical retrieval hypothesis (MRH). According to this hypothesis, metaphor mapping is bidirectional, and feature integration and processing depth affect the retrieval of metaphor association. In Chinese, there are some psychological metaphors in moral concepts and container space, but there are no linguistic metaphors. Therefore, this metaphorical association is weak, which helps us to verify the metaphor retrieval hypothesis. To explore these questions, the metaphorical association between moral concepts and container space is investigated through three Experiments in this study.

    All Experiments were performed using E-Prime 2.0. The Stroop paradigm was adopted in Experiment 1 to explore the metaphorical association between Chinese moral concepts and container space. Participants were asked to make moral judgments about words appearing inside and outside the circle. The purpose of Experiment 2a was to investigate the mapping from the target domain to the source domain at low or deep levels of perceptual processing. A priming paradigm was used in which participants were asked to judge the position of the letters in one block task and the category of the letters in another block task, respectively, when a letter was shown inside or outside the container, then the words appeared in the position of the letter and participants judged whether it was moral or immoral. Experiment 2b utilized the same paradigm as Experiment 2a, but the order of the letter judgment and the moral judgment was reversed in order to explore the mapping from the source domain to the target domain at low and deep levels of perceptual processing depth. Experiment 3a used the same paradigm as Experiment 1, during which participants were required to make moral judgments by pressing different buttons based on whether the Chinese words appeared inside or outside the circle. The aim of Experiment 3a was to explore the influence of the feature integrational degree on the orientation mapping from the target domain to the source domain. Similarly, to explore the influence of feature integrational degree on the orientation mapping from the source domain to the target domain, Experiment 3b adopted the same paradigm as Experiment 3a, but participants were asked to make container space judgments by pressing different buttons based on whether the Chinese words were moral or immoral.

    Repeated ANOVA analysis was used to analyze the data in the Experiments. In Experiment 1, we collected the reaction time of lexical judgment of participants, and the results did not reveal a significant Stroop effect. In Experiment 2a, the reaction time of participants in the lexical judgment task was also recorded. The results showed that the effect of metaphorical consistency, which was incomplete, was only in the deeper perceptual processing depth. In Experiment 2b, the reaction time of participants in the letter judgment task was analyzed. Consistent with Experiment 2a, an incomplete metaphorical consistency effect was found only in the deeper perceptual processing depth. In Experiment 3a, the reaction time of participants in the lexical judgment task was collected, and a complete and strong metaphorical consistency effect was proved. Finally, in Experiment 3b, the reaction time of participants in the container space judgment task was recorded, and the results also suggested a complete and strong metaphorical consistency effect.

    In summary, the following conclusions were drawn from the three Experiments. First, there was a psychological metaphor between moral concepts and container space, which was represented as moral internally and immoral externally, respectively. The mapping between container space and moral concepts was bidirectional. Second, the metaphorical association and bidirectional mapping between container space and moral concepts were affected by the depth of perceptual processing and the degree of feature integration. Finally, this study also provided evidence to support the Metaphorical Retrieval Hypothesis.

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    Shyness prediction and language style model construction of elementary school students
    LUO Fang, JIANG Liming, TIAN Xuetao, XIAO Mengge, MA Yanzhen, ZHANG Sheng
    2021, 53 (2):  155-169.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00155
    Abstract ( 267 )   HTML ( 11 )  
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    The present study collected compositions, diaries and comments from 1306 elementary school students on an online teaching platform, analyzed the text using natural language processing technology, and constructed an automatic prediction model of shyness using machine-learning methods and a language style model of the behavior, cognition and emotion of shyness in elementary school students. The study found that (1) the expanded mental dictionary is suitable for analyzing elementary school students’ texts; (2) stu-dents with shy behavior and cognitive and emotional problems have both shared and unique features in language style, and they are different from ordinary students; and (3) each dimension of shyness achieves the optimal predictive effect on different classifiers, and the overall performance of the random forest model is the relative best.

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    Healthy Context Paradox in the Association Between Bullying Victimization and Externalizing Problems: The Mediating Role of Hostile Attribution Bias
    LIU Xiaowei, PAN Bin, CHEN Liang, LI Tengfei, JI Linqin, ZHANG Wenxin
    2021, 53 (2):  170-181.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00170
    Abstract ( 535 )   HTML ( 26 )  
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    Bullying victimization represents the experience of being the target of aggression by one or several peers while not being able to defend oneself. This phenomenon has a high prevalence among children and youth, approximately 32% for school-aged children across the world being bullied by their class- or school-mates. Exposure to bullying victimization puts children at risk for a variety of social-psychological maladjustment, both internalizing and externalizing. However, the likelihood of victimization leading to maladjustment might vary across contexts. Recent research found that victims were more likely to be maladjusted in relatively healthier contexts (i.e. classrooms with low overall levels of victimization) - a phenomenon that has been referred to as the “healthy context paradox (HCP)”. Specifically, extant studies found that victimized children were more likely to exhibit internalizing problems in classrooms with low levels of victimization. However, little is known about whether classroom-level victimization moderates the link between bullying victimization and externalizing problems.
    More importantly, no empirical study has specifically examined the underlying mechanisms of HCP. According to the social information processing theory and existing studies, it is reasonable to assume that in relatively healthier contexts, victimized children are more likely to feel targeted by peers and develop a hostile attribution bias, which in turn leads to more externalizing problems. Therefore, hostile attribution bias, a tendency to attribute hostile intent to another person in ambiguous and even neutral situations, can be a potential mechanism explaining the paradoxical effect of classroom-level victimization on victim's externalizing behaviors.
    The present study examined whether classroom-level victimization moderated such victimization-externalizing associations, and further examined the mediating role of children’s hostile attribution bias in the associations. The sample comprised 1764 fifth- to eighth- graders (956 boys, Mage = 14.46) from 47 classes in 5 schools in Shandong, China. Bullying victimization was assessed via the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Hostile attribution bias was measured through the Assessment of Intent Attributions for Ambiguous Provocation Situation. Externalizing problems were assessed on the Child Behavior Checklist-Youth Self-Report (CBCL-YSR). Classroom-level victimization was calculated by averaging individual bullying victimization scores for each classroom. All measures had good reliability and validity. Multi-level structural equation models were conducted to test the hypothesis.
    The results revealed that: (1) after controlling for sex, parental education, grade, and class size, classroom-level victimization moderated the association between bullying victimization and externalizing problems, such that the victimization-externalizing association was stronger in classrooms with a lower level of victimization compared with those in the classrooms with a higher level of victimization; and (2) low levels of classroom-level victimization strengthened victims' hostile attribution bias, which in turn was associated with externalizing problems.
    The present study has two major strengths. First, we extended the literature on the healthy context paradox by examining the role of classroom-level victimization in the victimization-externalizing association. In line with the hypothesis regarding the healthy context paradox, victimized children were more likely to exhibit externalizing problems in classrooms with a low level of victimization. Second, a mechanism regarding the healthy context paradox was identified, such that low classroom-level victimization had an impact on victims’ externalizing problems by increasing their hostile attribution bias. These findings highlight the importance of concentrating on specific victims and providing help for them in prevention/intervention practices. Specifically, to alleviate victims’ maladjustment, teachers and school counselors could take efforts to reduce their hostile attribution. Future studies would benefit from replicating these findings using a longitudinal design, and multiple informants to assess externalizing problems. Moreover, future studies need to test more possible explanations for the healthy context paradox.

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    The status quo and characteristics of Chinese mental health literacy
    JIANG Guangrong, LI Danyang, REN Zhihong, YAN Yupeng, WU Xinchun, ZHU Xu, YU Lixia, XIA Mian, LI Fenglan, WEI Hui, ZHANG Yan, ZHAO Chunxiao, ZHANG Lin
    2021, 53 (2):  182-198.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00182
    Abstract ( 500 )   HTML ( 21 )  
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    A systematic nationwide sampling survey was conducted for the purpose of understanding the mental health literacy of the Chinese adults. The results indicated that the mental health literacy levels among adults in different cities were low to moderate. The influences of the demographic variables (e.g., geographical distribution, gender, and age) on mental health literacy were small but significant. Regarding the structure of mental health literacy, mental health maintenance and promotion literacy was better than mental illness coping literacy, and self-help literacy was better than helping others literacy. The survey found that the knowledge had relatively high individual differences, whereas attitudes and behaviors had relatively low individual differences, concerning the contents of the mental health literacy. In addition, among the social influencing factors of mental health literacy, the socio-economic status was the most effective one, which showed a large effect size in the knowledge and a small to medium effect size in the attitudes and behavior tendency. These findings implicate that improving mental health literacy is an arduous task, and improving the literacy of coping with mental illness should be the focus and breakthrough point of the current practice of mental health literacy promotion.

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    The effects of employee mindfulness on spouse family satisfaction and work engagement
    NI Dan, LIU Chenlin, ZHENG Xiaoming
    2021, 53 (2):  199-214.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00199
    Abstract ( 344 )   HTML ( 17 )  
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    Based on the conservation of resources (COR) theory, the data of 114 employees of a commercial bank and their spouses were collected by experience sampling methodology. The results showed that, at the within-person level, employee mindfulness was positively related to their spouse family satisfaction and work engagement the next morning via employee strategic emotional connecting display. Spouse family negative emotional expression at the between-person level moderated the relationship between employee mindfulness and employee strategic emotional connecting display, and the mediating effect of employee strategic emotional connecting display; that is, the higher level the spouse family negative emotional expression, the weaker the effects of employee mindfulness on employee strategic emotional connecting display and the mediating effect of employee strategic emotional connecting display.

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    Effects of customer empowering behaviors on employees’ career growth: Perspective of self-determination theory
    GUO Gongxing, CHENG Bao
    2021, 53 (2):  215-228.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00215
    Abstract ( 333 )   HTML ( 26 )  
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    Focusing on the concept of customer empowering behaviors, based on the self-determination theory, and introducing organization-based self-esteem as a mediating variable and career centrality as a moderating variable, this study investigates the mechanism and the boundary of the influence of customer empowering behaviors on career growth of the front-line service employees. Through a three-stage time-lag research design, 245 valid samples were obtained, the results showed that: (1) customer empowering behaviors have a significant positive impact on employees’ career growth; (2) organization-based self-esteem plays a partial mediating role in the relationship between customer empowering behaviors and employees’ career growth; (3) career centrality plays a moderating role in the relationship between customer empowering behaviors and organization-based self-esteem: the positive effect of customer empowering behaviors on organization-based self-esteem is stronger when the level of employee career centrality is higher; (4) career centrality further moderates the indirect effect of customer empowering behaviors on employees’ career growth via organization-based self-esteem: the positive effect of customer empowering behaviors on career growth through organization-based self-esteem is enhanced when the level of employee career centrality is higher.

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