心理学报, 2019, 51(1): 128-140 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00128

研究报告

恶意报复还是认同驱动?新员工的角色社会化程度对其职场排斥行为的作用机制

王海波1, 严鸣1,*, 吴海波2, 黎金荣3, 王晓晖2

1 暨南大学管理学院, 广州 510632

2 中山大学岭南学院, 广州 510275

3 一汽-大众汽车有限公司佛山分公司, 广东 佛山 528237

Hostile retaliation or identity motivation? The mechanisms of how newcomers’ role organizational socialization affects their workplace ostracism

WANG Haibo1, YAN Ming1,*, WU Haibo2, LI Jinrong3, WANG Xiaohui2

1 Management School, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China

2 Lingnan College, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China

3 FAW-Volkswagen Automotive Co. Ltd Foshan Branch, Foshan 528237, China

收稿日期: 2017-09-11   网络出版日期: 2019-01-25

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金项目.  71772076
* 国家自然科学基金项目.  71502042
* 国家自然科学基金项目.  71702204
广东省哲学社会科学“十二五”规划2015年度学科共建项目.  GD15XGL19
广州市哲学社会科学发展“十三五”规划一般课题.  2016GZYB08

Received: 2017-09-11   Online: 2019-01-25

摘要

以往关于职场排斥形成机制的研究, 主要是基于冲突-报复的视角, 验证了人际冲突对职场排斥具有稳定的预测作用, 而这个解释逻辑很可能对新员工并不适用。本文基于角色认同理论, 考察新员工的角色社会化程度对其职场排斥行为的作用机制。通过对多阶段收集的249对新员工上下级匹配问卷分析发现, 在控制了经典的冲突报复机制之后, 角色认同机制能够解释新员工的职场排斥行为。具体来说, 结果显示:(1)新员工的角色社会化程度负向影响其职场排斥行为; (2)工作疏离感在新员工的角色社会化程度与职场排斥行为之间起中介作用; (3)发展性反馈在新员工的角色社会化程度与工作疏离感的关系中起调节作用; 进一步, (4)发展性反馈调节了工作疏离感对角色社会化程度-职场排斥行为关系的中介作用。本研究结果不仅从理论上拓展了职场排斥行为的研究视角, 为以后的进一步研究提供新的理论框架, 而且从角色认同的视角为组织管理新员工的职场排斥行为提供新思路。

关键词: 新员工 ; 职场排斥 ; 角色社会化 ; 工作疏离感 ; 发展性反馈

Abstract

The term "workplace ostracism" refers to the acts of ignoring or excluding others in a workplace. Most previous studies on workplace ostracism are based on the revenge perspective, arguing that revenge cognition triggered by interpersonal conflict is the main motivation of workplace ostracism. However, this logic may not be applied to the newcomers. This is because they are part of the relatively disadvantaged groups in the organization and are eager to involve themselves to the new settings rather than engage in interpersonal conflicts that can worsen their situation. Drawing on identity theory, we attempt to explore the mechanisms by which newcomers’ role organizational socialization contributes to their workplace ostracism. Specifically, our model integrates both mediating and moderating mechanisms into a single model, thus providing an explanation of how newcomers’ role organizational socialization affects their workplace ostracism through the mediating and moderating roles of work alienation and insiders’ developmental feedback, respectively.
To test the hypotheses in our model, we conducted a survey on 249 employee-supervisor dyads from four companies in Guangdong Province, China. The survey was conducted in three waves. In the first wave, newcomer participants were asked to complete a questionnaire, including demographic information (gender, age, tenure, education), role organizational socialization, and interpersonal conflict. In the second wave, newcomer participants reported their work alienation, revenge cognition, and developmental feedback. In the third wave, their leaders were required to rate the newcomers’ workplace ostracism. We examined our hypotheses with MPLUS 6.12 and SPSS 22.0.
Empirical results showed that the role identity mechanism can significantly explain newcomers’ workplace ostracism after controlling the traditional conflict-retaliation mechanism. Specifically, we found support for our arguments as follows: 1) newcomers’ role organizational socialization is negatively related to their workplace ostracism, 2) newcomers’ work alienation serves as a mediator in the relation between their role organizational socialization and workplace ostracism, and 3) developmental feedback moderates the relationship between newcomers’ role organizational socialization and work alienation. Specifically, the negative relation between newcomers’ role organizational socialization and work alienation is stronger when the level of developmental feedback they received is low. Furthermore, 4) developmental feedback moderates the negative and indirect effect of newcomers’ role organizational socialization on their workplace ostracism. Specifically, work alienation mediates the negative effect when developmental feedback is low, but not when it is high.
This study contributes to the theoretical and empirical literature in the following ways. First, we extend previous studies on workplace ostracism by demonstrating that newcomers and experienced employees can have different reasons for their workplace ostracism. The verification of the role identity mechanism for newcomers’ workplace ostracism significantly extends our understanding of the unique features of their behaviors during the organizational socialization period. Second, our findings deepen our understanding of the role identity mechanism by examining the mediating role of work alienation and the moderating effect of developmental feedback under a general theoretical framework. Finally, our work uses identity theory to build a comprehensive frame work for understanding the antecedents of workplace ostracism, thus providing a uniquely generative frame work for future research.

Keywords: newcomers ; workplace ostracism ; role organizational socialization ; work alienation ; developmental feedback

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本文引用格式

王海波, 严鸣, 吴海波, 黎金荣, 王晓晖. (2019). 恶意报复还是认同驱动?新员工的角色社会化程度对其职场排斥行为的作用机制. 心理学报, 51(1), 128-140

WANG Haibo, YAN Ming, WU Haibo, LI Jinrong, WANG Xiaohui. (2019). Hostile retaliation or identity motivation? The mechanisms of how newcomers’ role organizational socialization affects their workplace ostracism. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 51(1), 128-140

1 问题提出

职场排斥(workplace ostracism), 是指员工在职场中对他人的忽视或孤立行为(Ferris, Brown, Berry, & Lian, 2008)。常见的职场排斥包括避免眼神接触和交谈、漠视以及沉默对待等, 具有排斥人际互动的特征(谢俊, 严鸣, 2016)。职场排斥作为一种在职场环境中普遍存在的“冷暴力”现象(Robinson, O’Reilly, & Wang, 2013), 其潜移默化的伤害却可能比短暂而激烈的攻击对员工的心理行为造成更加长久的影响, 不但会对员工的心理产生长期的伤害, 如造成员工的自尊心、归属感、工作满意度和组织承诺等心理体验的下降(Hitlan, Cliffton, & DeSoto, 2006; Robinson et al., 2013), 而且还可能进一步引发嘲笑他人或者与他人争执、不愿帮助他人和反生产行为等不良行为(Mao, Liu, Jiang, & Zhang, 2018; Yang & Treadway, 2018)。然而, 由于职场排斥不像其他人际偏差行为那样激烈而明显, 所以在管理实践上比较容易被忽视。因此, 越来越多的学者开始强调要关注职场中的排斥行为, 尤其是对其产生机制进行探讨, 以更有效地进行预防和管理。

现有关于职场排斥形成机制的研究, 主要是基于冲突-报复的视角(Quade, Greenbaum, & Petrenko, 2017; Robinson et al., 2013; Wu et al., 2015)。然而, 冲突-报复的解释视角可能并不适用于所有员工, 因为报复的前提是个体在与他人互动中存在一定的冲突对抗, 而新员工作为刚进入组织的新雇员, 处于比较弱势的地位, 急需适应并融入组织, 没有能力也不敢和他人对抗。然而, 有研究却表明, 新员工在适应新的组织环境阶段往往容易表现出职场排斥行为(如, Fang, Duffy, & Shaw, 2011; Nelson, Quick, & Joplin, 1991)。

这一理论与现实上的不一致不禁让我们怀疑:新员工是否是基于其他原因而表现出职场排斥行为?角色认同理论可以为这一问题的解决提供一个新的视角。该理论描述了人们在角色认同发展过程中所发生的变化, 特别是阐述了由于认同缺失或发展程度低, 会导致相应的负面心理及行为的作用机制, 可以成为本研究的理论基础。现实中, 新员工进入一个新的组织环境后, 其承担的角色往往也会随之改变, 这要求他们建立相应的新角色认同, 以便与配对的角色进行互动, 来确定自己的角色定位(严鸣, 涂红伟, 李骥, 2011)。因此, 角色认同理论关于角色认同发展和角色互动的观点, 可以用来解释新员工的角色社会化程度如何影响他们与他人的互动。从角色认同理论的角度来看, 角色社会化程度较低的员工由于没有很好理解自己角色的意义, 不清楚如何与他人进行良好的互动, 从而导致人际互动程度低。此外, 由于他们急需明确自己的角色, 会在人际交往过程中进行选择性互动, 从而使其行为具有排斥行为的特征。

基于上述的理论逻辑, 我们提出来本文的研究模型(图1)。具体来说, 我们在控制冲突-报复导致职场排斥这条经典路径的基础上, 构建了一条基于角色认同理论的新员工职场排斥行为形成机制路径。通过对比这两条路径之间的关系, 本研究尝试阐释, 在控制了报复追求平衡的解释路径后, 基于角色社会化程度而产生的角色认同作用机制仍然可以引发新员工的职场排斥行为。在这个角色认同作用机制中, 新员工的职场排斥行为是其自身角色认同发展程度在角色互动中的一种外在表现。对于处在不稳定状态阶段的新员工, 这种角色社会化作用机制可能更加显著。因此, 本研究基于角色认同理论分析新员工的角色社会化程度对其职场排斥行为的影响机制, 不但可以拓展职场排斥行为的研究视角, 而且可以为新员工职场排斥行为的有效预防与干预提供新的理论支持。

图1

图1   本文的研究模型


1.1 新员工的角色社会化程度对其职场排斥行为的影响

根据角色认同理论的观点, 角色认同包含了与某一角色相对应的内在意义以及他人对该角色的期望, 从而指导人们在该角色中表现出恰当的行为(McCall & Simmons, 1978)。在角色认同理论的视角下, 角色社会化程度可以被定义为新员工发展与其在组织中所承担的新角色相对应的角色认同的程度(Yan, Peng, & Li, 2012)。新员工在组织社会化研究中是指在组织内任期不超过一年的新雇员(Kammeyer-Mueller & Wanberg, 2003; 严鸣 等, 2011)。对于新员工来说, 他们需要通过社会化这一过程来获取相应的角色认同, 对自己在组织中的角色进行定位, 以便与对应角色(如主管领导、工作导师或同事)进行互动, 从而开展与角色相关的工作(Van Maanen & Schein, 1979)。较高的角色社会化程度表明新员工对该角色的内在意义以及他人对该角色的期望有明确的了解, 知道如何与他人进行有效的互动, 他们与他人的互动程度就会高; 反之, 则表明他们对自己的角色认识不清, 不了解该如何与同事进行良好的互动, 其互动程度就会较低。

职场排斥行为属于角色互动的范畴, 无论是在职场中对他人的忽视还是对自己或他人的孤立, 都是在人际交往中拒绝和回避角色互动的表现(Robinson et al., 2013)。新员工的职场排斥行为, 如避免眼神接触和交谈等, 是一种在角色互动中拒绝互动的表现。根据角色认同理论的逻辑, 如果新员工的角色社会化程度较低, 这表明他们对于该角色的内在意义和互动模式没有形成有效的认识, 在工作角色的互动中, 容易产生一种无所适从的状态, 从而无法基于该角色与同事进行有效的互动。因此, 相比其他角色社会化程度高的新员工, 他们的角色互动会减少, 这表现为他们在人际交往中对他人的无视或忽视, 在他人看来, 就具备了职场排斥行为的特征。因此, 本研究提出以下假设:

假设1:新员工的角色社会化程度负向影响其职场排斥行为。

1.2 工作疏离感的中介作用

然而, 角色认同的发展状况首先会影响个体的心理反应, 从而进一步引发个体的行为(Burke & Stets, 2014)。我们认为, 新员工的工作疏离感可能是传递角色社会化程度对其职场排斥行为影响的一个关键因素。工作疏离感是指工作情境不能满足员工的需要或与期望不符, 而导致的员工在心理上与工作分隔的感知状态, 反映出个体在多大程度上投入到工作角色之中(Hirschfeld & Feild, 2000; Kanungo, 1979)。

根据角色认同理论, 人们需要理解自我概念在角色互动中的意义, 以便引导自己表现出恰当的行为(屠兴勇, 张琪, 王泽英, 何欣, 2017)。如果个人在该角色上的角色认同发展程度较低, 这意味着他们对该角色的内在意义和其他人对该角色的期望没有形成有效的认识, 从而无法基于该角色认同与他人进行恰当的互动。而角色需要与配对角色进行有效互动, 该角色才具有意义而成为自我概念的一部分(Stryker & Burke, 2000)。当新员工的角色社会化程度低时, 这表明他们对工作角色的内在意义和互动模式认识不清, 容易在与工作角色相关的人际互动中处于一种不知所措的状态, 从而导致他们无法基于该角色与他人建立良好的互动关系。当他们不断地经历这种无法有效互动的状态时, 该角色对他们来说, 就会逐渐失去其工作意义而无法融入自我概念, 最终形成与工作角色相疏离的心理状态(Van Maanen & Schein, 1979)。因此, 对于角色社会化水平较低的新员工来说, 他们更可能会对自己的工作产生疏离感。因此, 本研究提出以下假设:

假设2:新员工的角色社会化程度负向影响其工作疏离感。

当人们与某个角色疏远时, 他们不但会从认知上降低对该角色价值的评价, 而且会从情感上与基于该角色而建立的关系网络进行脱离(Burke & Reitzes, 1991)。这会降低他们维持该角色关系网络的积极性, 从而影响他们与配对角色的互动关系, 即, 导致他们在认知、情感和行为上与互动对象减少互动和交流(Stets & Burke, 2005)。因此, 工作疏离感高的新员工, 他们由于在认知和情感上与工作角色脱离, 对工作缺乏关心、兴趣和依恋(Yıldız & Alpkan, 2015), 很可能会降低他们主动发展角色关系网络的意愿, 导致他们减少与组织内其他同事的互动和交流。这种互动的减少, 意味着对某些互动对象的无视或忽视, 在他人看来, 就具备了职场排斥行为的特征。基于以上理论逻辑并结合前两个假设关系, 我们认为:

假设3:工作疏离感在新员工的角色社会化程度与职场排斥行为之间起中介作用, 即, 新员工的角色社会化程度的提升, 会降低他们的工作疏离感, 进而减少其职场排斥行为。

1.3 发展性反馈的调节作用

角色认同理论认为, 与角色相关的外部信息输入对于角色认同的发展有重要作用, 可以帮助我们评估和修改角色认同内容与角色行为(Burke & Stets, 2014)。如果新员工职场排斥行为的产生机制符合认同理论的逻辑, 那么发展性反馈将在新员工的角色社会化程度影响职场排斥行为的过程中起调节作用。

发展性反馈是指组织内部人员向新员工所提供的有用信息, 这些信息可以在角色内、角色外行为期望、文化规范和人际角色沟通等方面为新员工的角色发展提供信息补偿(Li, Harris, Boswell, & Xie, 2011; Zhou, 2003), 从而缓解由于认同发展程度低而对其心理带来的不利影响。对于角色社会化程度低的新员工来说, 如果他们可以从组织内部互动对象获得丰富而有效的角色反馈信息, 这有利于其从配对角色那里对自己的角色认同进行确认和修正, 从而缓解角色社会化不足所带来的工作疏离感。相反, 对于角色社会化程度低的新员工来说, 如果身边的领导和同事也无法提供有效的发展性反馈, 那么意味着他们既不能从组织得到该角色的合法定义, 也无法获得额外信息来确认和修正自己的角色认同, 从而加剧角色社会化程度不足而导致的角色工作疏离感。因此, 我们认为:

假设4:发展性反馈在新员工的角色社会化程度与工作疏离感的关系中起着调节作用, 减弱角色社会化程度对工作疏离感的负向影响。当发展性反馈较高时, 角色社会化程度对工作疏离感的负向效应较弱; 当发展性反馈较低时, 角色社会化程度对工作疏离感的负向效应较强。

1.4 被调节的中介作用

以上的分析表明:新员工的工作疏离感在角色社会化程度与职场排斥行为的关系中起着中介作用, 同时发展性反馈在新员工角色社会化程度与工作疏离感的关系中起着调节作用。因此, 根据方法论上关于被调节的中介作用逻辑(Edwards & Lambert, 2007), 发展性反馈也会调节工作疏离感对新员工角色社会化程度和职场排斥行为关系的中介作用。由此, 本研究进一步提出以下假设:

假设5:发展性反馈可以调节新员工的工作疏离感对角色社会化程度和职场排斥行为的中介作用。具体来说, 仅当发展性反馈低时, 工作疏离感对角色社会化程度和职场排斥行为的关系具有显著的中介作用; 而当发展性反馈高时, 工作疏离感对角色社会化程度和职场排斥行为关系的中介作用则不显著。

2 研究方法

2.1 研究样本和程序

本次问卷调查的样本来自珠三角地区的4家大型企业, 这些企业分布在广州、佛山、东莞, 涉及制造业和房地产业。为了避免共同方法偏差(common method bias)对研究结果的影响, 本次调研采取新员工和他们的直接主管进行一一配对的方式收集不同来源的数据, 即一个样本包含一份领导问卷和一份新员工自评问卷。在调查开始前, 根据人力资源部主管提供的新员工人员名单, 随机挑选参与此次问卷调研的新员工及其直接主管(每名直接上级只评价一位下属新员工), 并对问卷进行编号。在人力资源部的协助下, 被试均被告知自己的编号, 并且将完成填写的纸质问卷在信封中密封好, 现场交还给研究人员。

研究数据的收集工作分别在三个时间进行, 每个时间点间隔两个月时间。以往的组织社会化研究表明, 使用两个月左右的时间间隔进行数据收集, 组织社会化相关变量对结果变量具有相对稳定的预测效果(如, Delobbe, Cooper-Thomas, & De Hoe, 2016; Schaubroeck, Peng, & Hannah, 2013)。在第一轮的问卷调查中, 由被选中的新员工填写问卷, 报告自己的人口统计变量(年龄、性别、学历和入职期限)、角色社会化程度和人际冲突水平; 在第二轮问卷调查中, 新员工完成所获得的发展性反馈、工作疏离感和报复认知水平的自我评估; 在第三轮问卷调查中, 由直接主管对其下属新员工的职场排斥行为进行评估。为了保证所有调查对象的组织任期在为期4个月的调查期内不超过一年, 我们对参加调研的新员工进行了筛选, 确保第一轮问卷调查开始时所有参与者的组织任期都在8个月以内。在第一轮问卷调查中, 共发放431份问卷, 回收的有效问卷为384份, 问卷的有效回收率为89.1%; 第二轮调查中, 向上一轮中提供有效问卷的384位新员工发放问卷, 得到312份有效问卷, 有效回收率为81.25%; 第三轮调查中, 向第二轮中提供有效问卷新员工的直接主管发放312份问卷, 得到249份有效问卷, 有效回收率为79.81%。

在最终的249份新员工样本中, 男性员工有197名, 占总人数比例为79.1%; 在年龄方面, 21~ 25岁区间占57.8% (144人), 26~30岁区间占23.7% (59人), 其余年龄段的占18.5% (46人); 在学历方面, 大专学历占56.2% (140人), 本科学历占21.3% (53人), 其他学历水平占22.5% (56人); 在工作任期方面, 入职2个月以内的新员工占49.0% (122人), 入职2~4个月的新员工占35.7% (89人), 入职4~6个月的新员工占8.9% (22人), 入职6~8个月的新员工占6.4% (16人)。

2.2 测量工具

角色社会化程度 本研究采用Yan等(2012)的开发的8条目量表对新员工感知的角色社会化程度进行测量, 该量表的有效性也在国内的相关研究中得到了证实(如, 严鸣, 邬金涛, 王海波, 2018)。代表性题目如“我很懂得与同事合作所需要的沟通方式(如, 专业用语, 沟通习惯等)”。该量表采用Likert 7点量表, 数字1表示“完全不同意”, 数字7表示“完全同意”。该量表在第一轮调查中, 由新员工自评, 在本研究中的内部一致性系数为0.91。

人际冲突 本研究采用Spector和Jex (1998) 开发的4题目量表对新员工感知的人际冲突进行测量, 该量表在国内相关研究中得到了广泛的应用(如, 黄丽, 陈维政, 2015)。代表性题目如“你多久会与同事在工作上发生争辩?”。该量表采用Likert 7点量表, 数字1表示“绝对没有”, 数字7表示“一直都有”。该量表在第一轮调查中, 由新员工自评, 在本研究中的内部一致性系数为0.86。

工作疏离感 本文采用采用Hirschfeld和Feild (2000)开发的10条目量表对新员工的工作疏离感进行测量, 该量表的有效性也在国内的相关研究中得到了验证(如, 蒋建武, 赵珊, 2017)。代表性题目如“我根本不知道自己为什么工作”。该量表采用Likert 7点量表, 数字1表示“完全不同意”, 数字7表示“完全同意”。该量表在第二轮调查中, 由新员工自评, 在本研究中的内部一致性系数为0.95。

发展性反馈 本文采用Zhou (2003)Zhou和George (2001)开发的6题目量表对新员工感知到来自上级和同事的发展性反馈进行测量, 量表在国内相关研究中得到了广泛的应用(如, 张振刚, 李云健, 宋一晓, 2016), 具有良好的信度和效度。代表性题目如“我的直属上司经常向我提供关于个人发展的反馈信息”和“我觉得自己从同事那里得到的反馈信息非常有用”。该量表采用Likert 7点量表, 数字1表示“完全不同意”, 数字7表示“完全同意”。该量表在第二轮调查中, 由新员工自评, 在本研究中的内部一致性系数为0.96。

报复认知 本文采用Bradfield和Aquino (1999)的7条目量表对新员工的报复认知进行测量。代表性题目如“我想要报复某些同事”。该量表采用Likert 7点量表, 数字1表示“完全不同意”, 数字7表示“完全同意”。该量表在第二轮调查中, 由新员工自评, 在本研究中的内部一致性系数为0.96。

职场排斥行为 本文采用Ferris等人(2008)的10条目量表对新员工的职场排斥行为进行测量, 该量表的有效性在国内的相关研究中也得到了广泛的验证(如, 谢俊, 严鸣, 2016)。该原始量表是从被排斥者的角度评价受到排斥的感受, 而本文是从他人角度看待新员工的职场排斥行为, 因此, 我们将这些条目的表达修改为, 从新员工直接领导的角度对该行为表现进行评价, 代表性题目如“这个新员工在工作中对某些同事视而不见”。该量表采用Likert 7点量表, 数字1表示“绝对没有”, 数字7表示“一直都有”。该量表在第三轮调查中, 由直接上司进行评价, 在本研究中的内部一致性系数为0.97。

控制变量 相关研究表明, 人口统计变量因素会影响员工的工作疏离感和职场排斥行为。因此, 为了排除这些因素对研究结果的干扰, 本研究参考Scott, Restubog和Zagenczyk (2013)的做法, 将被试的性别(“男性” = 1, “女性” = 0)、年龄(“20岁及以下” = 1, “21~25岁” = 2, “26~30岁” = 3, “31~35岁” = 4, “36~40岁” = 5, “41~45岁” = 6, “46~50岁” = 7, “50岁以上” = 8)、学历(“初中及以下” = 1, “高中、中专” = 2, “专科(大专)” = 3, “大学本科” = 4, “硕士或以上” = 5)和组织任期(“2个月以内” = 1, “2~4个月以内” = 2, “4~6个月以内” = 3, “6~8个月以内” = 4, “8~10个月以内” = 5, “10个月及以上” = 6)作为控制变量。同时, 为了排除组织或团队层面因素对研究结果的影响, 本文在回归分析中加入了3个虚拟变量, 把受调查的4家企业作为控制变量控制起来。

2.3 统计分析方法

本研究采用SPSS 22.0和Mplus 6.12对数据进行统计分析。第一步, 通过验证性因子分析, 对检验潜变量间的区分效度进行检验; 第二步, 进行初步的描述性统计分析和相关分析检验; 第三步, 构建结构方程模型, 对研究假设进行检验, 按照Preacher和Hayes (2008)的建议, 采用重复抽样的bootstrap方法对模型中的中介作用和被调节的中介作用假设进行检验。

3 研究结果

3.1 验证性因子分析

我们通过验证性因子分析, 检验角色社会化程度、工作疏离感、发展性反馈、人际冲突、报复认知和职场排斥行为这6个变量的潜变量的区分效度。从表1的验证性因子分析结果可以看出, 相比其他模型里的因子组合, 六因子模型的拟合指数值最理想, χ2/df = 1.98, RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.92, TLI = 0.91, SRMR = 0.04, 表明本研究所涉及的 6个变量具有较好的区分度, 能够代表6个不同的构念。

表1   验证性因子分析结果

模型 χ2 df χ2/df RMSEA CFI TLI SRMR
七因子模型:OS; WA; EB; IC; RC; DF;CMV 1862.23 984 1.89 0.06 0.93 0.92 0.04
六因子模型:OS; WA; EB; IC; RC; DF 2018.75 1019 1.98 0.06 0.92 0.91 0.04
五因子模型:OS+WA; EB; IC; RC; DF 2985.40 1024 2.92 0.09 0.84 0.83 0.09
四因子模型:OS+WA; EB; IC+RC; DF 3408.66 1028 3.32 0.10 0.81 0.80 0.09
三因子模型:OS+WA +DF; EB; IC+RC; 4888.68 1031 4.74 0.12 0.69 0.67 0.12
二因子模型:OS+WA +DF +IC+RC; EB; 6429.44 1033 6.22 0.14 0.56 0.54 0.15
单因子模型:OS+WA +DF +IC+RC+EB; 8774.89 1034 8.49 0.17 0.37 0.34 0.19

注:OS代表角色社会化程度, WA 代表工作疏离感, EB代表职场排斥行为, IC 代表人际冲突, RC代表报复认知, DF发展性反馈, CMV 代表同源偏差, “+”代表两个因子合并为一个因子。

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此外, 在本文涉及的6个变量中, 除了新员工的职场排斥行为是上级主管评价的, 其余5个变量均来源于员工的自我报告, 这可能导致同源偏差的存在。因此, 本文根据Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee和Podsakoff (2003)的建议, 利用对非可测潜在方法因子(Unmeasured latent method factor)进行控制的办法, 达到对同源偏差问题进行检验的目的。具体来说, 这个方法是把同源偏差因子视为潜变量, 将其纳入到结构方程模型中, 并让所有涉及变量测量的条目在这个因子上有载荷。这样把同源偏差因子控制起来后, 如果控制后模型的各项拟合指标没有比控制前明显改善, 则说明研究模型中没有严重的同源偏差问题(周浩, 龙立荣, 2004)。如表1所示, 把同源偏差因子控制起来后, 七因子模型拟合良好, χ2/df = 1.89, RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.93, TLI = 0.92, SRMR = 0.04, 但是与六因子模型相比, 拟合指标RMSEA、CFI、TFI和SRMR的变化幅度均小于0.02, 表明控制后的模型并没有明显改善, 这说明本文涉及的变量的同源偏差问题并不明显(谢俊, 严鸣, 2016)。

3.2 描述性统计分析

本研究中各变量的均值、标准差以及变量之间的相关系数如表2所示。角色社会化程度与工作疏离感负相关关(r = -0.29, p < 0.01), 工作疏离感与职场排斥行为正相关(r = 0.37, p < 0.01), 人际冲突与报复认知正相关(r = 0.49, p < 0.01), 报复认知和职场排斥行为正相关(r = 0.34, p < 0.01)。这些检验结果为本文的相关假设提供了初步支持。

表2   变量的均值、标准差和相关系数

变量 M SD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1. 性别 0.79 0.41
2. 年龄 2.35 0.87 -0.22**
3. 学历 2.98 0.77 0.21** 0.06
4. 工龄 1.73 0.87 -0.22** 0.25** 0.16*
5. 角色社会化程度 5.59 0.84 -0.01 0.07 -0.06 -0.02 (0.91)
6. 工作疏离感 2.13 0.93 -0.02 -0.20** -0.11 -0.03 -0.29** (0.95)
7. 发展性反馈 5.58 1.15 0.12 -0.03 -0.04 -0.07 0.14* -0.30** (0.96)
8. 人际冲突 1.76 0.68 -0.02 0.03 0.03 0.10 -0.04 0.26** -0.20** (0.86)
9. 报复认知 1.42 0.59 0.00 -0.08 -0.14* 0.02 -0.09 0.49** -0.21** 0.49** (0.96)
10. 职场排斥行为 1.70 0.81 0.06 -0.09 -0.07 0.01 -0.25** 0.37** -0.24** 0.22** 0.34** (0.97)

注:N = 249; 表格里括号内的数据为信度系数; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 (双尾检验)。

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3.3 假设检验

为了检验研究假设, 我们用Mplus 6.12先构建了主效应结构方程模型。图2表明了角色社会化程度、人际冲突和职场排斥行为之间的主效应路径系数结果。如图2所示, 在控制了性别、年龄、受教育水平和组织任期等人口统计变量和企业类型虚拟变量之后, 新员工的角色社会化程度对职场排斥行为(β = -0.24, p < 0.01)具有显著的负向影响, 假设1得到支持。

图2

图2   主效应模型结果

注:N = 249; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 (双尾检验)


为了进一步检验中介效应和调节效应, 我们在主效应模型的基础上, 增加了中介和调节路径, 并得出了全模型的路径系数估计结果(图3)( 在这一全模型的路径系数估计中, 本文也将发展性反馈的调节作用在控制路径中进行了控制, 以排除其潜在的影响。针对在控制路径中去掉这一调节作用的全模型进行重新分析的数据结果表明, 该全模型中所有路径系数的显著性都没有发生改变。)。如图3所示, 在控制了人口统计变量和企业类型虚拟变量之后, 新员工的角色社会化程度显著地负向影响工作疏离感(β = -0.31, p < 0.01), 假设2得到支持。假设3是关于工作疏离感的中介作用假设。我们遵循MacKinnon, Lockwood和Williams (2004)的建议, 使用Bootstrap方法来估计新员工角色社会化程度通过工作疏离感影响职场排斥行为的间接效应。具体来说, 我们把本研究中的249个样本作为原始样本, 利用有放回的抽样方法从原始样本中随机抽取249个样本, 最后得到5000组新样本, 并根据这5000组样本计算得出间接效应的估计值。当得出的间接效应95%的置信区间没有包括零时, 中介效应假设得到数据统计结果的支持。具体的分析结果表明, Bootstrap = 5000的间接效应值为-0.09 (标准差为0.03), 95%置信区间为(-0.16, -0.04), 假设3得到验证。

图3

图3   全模型结果

注:N = 249; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 (双尾检验)


假设4提出了发展性反馈在新员工的角色社会化程度和工作疏离感二者关系中的调节作用假设。在调节作用检验中, 为了降低可能存在的多重共线性风险, 本文在角色社会化程度和发展性反馈分别进行中心化后, 再相乘构造乘积项。如图3所示, 角色社会化程度和发展性反馈的乘积项显著地正向影响工作疏离感(β = 0.14, p < 0.01), 表明发展性反馈正向调节了新员工的角色社会化程度和工作疏离感之间的关系, 因此, 假设4得到支持。

进一步地, 为了更直观地反映发展性反馈的调节效应, 我们根据Preacher, Curran和Bauer (2006)的建议, 分别在低于和高于均值一个标准差的水平下画出调节效应图。如图4所示, 对于获得发展性反馈水平较低新员工, 他们的角色社会化程度对疏离感的影响较强(β = -0.49, p < 0.01); 而对于获得发展性反馈水平较高的新员工, 他们的角色社会化程度对工作疏离感的影响则不显著(β = -0.15, ns)。

图4

图4   发展性反馈对角色社会化程度和工作疏离感关系的调节效应图


假设5是关于被调节的中介作用假设。根据Edwards和Lambert (2007)的建议, 我们进一步对该被调节的中介效应进行检验。如表3所示, 在低发展性反馈和高发展性反馈下, 两条间接路径的差异值显著(β = -0.08, p < 0.05), 且Bootstrap = 5000的95%置信区间为(0.03, 0.17), 不包含0。同时, 仅当发展性反馈低时, 工作疏离感对角色社会化程度和职场排斥行为的关系具有中介作用(间接路径效应值β = -0.11, p < 0.01); 而当发展性反馈高时, 工作疏离感对角色社会化程度和职场排斥行为关系的中介作用则不存在(间接路径效应值β = -0.03, ns), 假设5得到支持。

表3   被调节的中介路径Bootstrap分析结果

路径 角色社会化程度(X) → 工作疏离感(M) → 职场排斥行为(Y)
一阶效应PMX 二阶效应PYM 直接效应PYX 间接效应PMXPYM 总效应PMXPYM + PYX
低发展性反馈时的路径分析 -0.50** 0.22** -0.14* -0.11** -0.25**
高发展性反馈时的路径分析 -0.15 0.22** -0.14* -0.03 -0.18**
两条路径的差异 0.35** 0.00 0.00 0.08* 0.07*
两条间接效应路径差异的95%置信区间为[0.03, 0.17]。

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图5进一步展示了工作疏离感分别在高水平和低水平的发展性反馈时的中介效应。对于获得发展性反馈低水平较低的员工, 角色社会化程度的被中介效应对职场排斥行为有负向的影响; 而对于获得发展性反馈水平高的员工, 角色社会化程度的被中介效应对职场排斥行为则没有显著的影响。

图5

图5   发展性反馈对角色社会化程度与职场排斥行为之间中介效应的调节效应图


3.4 作为控制路径的经典冲突-报复视角

以往的研究表明, 人际冲突是导致职场排斥行为的一个重要因素(Robinson et al., 2013; Wu et al., 2015)。人际冲突表现为互动双方意见不一致和各自目标实现受阻而引发的对抗(Barki & Hartiwick, 2004), 会导致人际关系紧张, 并引发职场排斥这样的报复行为(Wall & Callister, 1995)。具体来说, Bies, Tripp和Kramer (1997)的报复发展理论模型很好地解释了人际冲突导致职场排斥的阶段性发展过程。第一阶段, 工作场所中的消极事件的发生, 如人际冲突, 引发了报复的需要。人际冲突是一种比较激烈的人际摩擦, 会破坏人际公正和平衡, 并进一步导致个体在认知和行为上的反应(Bradfield & Aquino, 1999)。第二阶段, 这些消极事件会引发个体强烈的情感反应(如愤怒), 并产生进行报复的想法和动机。人际冲突会引发愤怒、憎恨等消极情绪, 使个体思考如何恢复人际公正和平衡, 形成报复认知(Wall & Callister, 1995)。第三阶段, 实施报复行为。通过忽视或者孤立冲突对象这样的职场排斥行为, 达到惩罚或者报复冲突对象的目的(Quade et al., 2017)。以上的论述说明了人际冲突通过报复认知影响职场排斥的作用机制, 由于这种解释逻辑在排斥行为研究领域中被验证, 本文为了排除这一作用机制的潜在影响, 需要在实证分析中对其进行控制, 从而表明本文所提出的基于角色认同的理论框架对职场排斥行为具有额外的解释力。

然而需要指出的是, 报复机制与认同机制是基于两个不同的研究视角和理论逻辑而提出, 两个机制之间应该具有一定的区分性, 也有可能存在一定的关联性。例如, 新员工的角色社会化并不包含报复动机, 因此, 新员工的角色社会化程度和报复认知二者之间应该不具有显著的关系。而发展性反馈由于弥补的是新员工认同的不足, 而非缓和矛盾报复, 因此, 也应该不会对报复动机具有显著的调节作用。这表明两个作用机制之间具有一定的区分性, 意味着本文所提出的角色认同理论框架具有额外的解释力。然而, 从角色认同理论的逻辑来说, 人际冲突表明了新员工与配对角色在对该角色的理解上存在一定的差异, 如果差异得不到有效的解决或进一步加剧, 亦有可能引发新员工对该角色工作的疏离。这可以表明两个作用机制之间也具有一定的关联性, 可以共同解释职场排斥这一现象。

从分析结果来看, 图3中关于两个作用机制的对比分析结果和我们的预测一致, 新员工的角色社会化对报复动机没有显著的影响(β = -0.09, ns), 且发展性反馈对人际冲突和报复动机之间的关系不存在显著的调节作用(β = -0.07, ns), 这都表明了认同机制和报复机制之间具有一定的区分性; 而人际冲突对工作疏离感存在显著的正向影响(β = 0.23, p < 0.01), 表明了两个作用机制之间也具有一定的关联性。

4 讨论

本研究旨在基于角色认同理论, 探索新员工的角色社会化程度对其职场排斥行为的影响机制。针对249份多阶段收集的新员工上下级配对数据的分析结果表明:在控制了经典的冲突-报复路径之后, 工作疏离感在新员工的角色社会化水平和职场排斥行为的关系中起着中介作用; 发展性反馈对新员工角色社会化程度和工作疏离感的关系有调节作用, 当发展性反馈水平较高时, 角色社会化程度对工作疏离感的影响较弱; 进一步地, 发展性反馈对角色社会化程度和职场排斥行为之间的负向关系有调节作用, 仅当发展性反馈低时, 工作疏离感对角色社会化程度和职场排斥行为的关系具有中介作用。

以往关于新员工人际行为方面的研究主要是基于信息搜寻的视角, 发现随着新员工社会化程度的发展, 他们积累了越来越多关于组织文化和行为规范的信息, 这有助于他们与其他组织成员建立良好的人际关系, 提高他们在组织内的社会融入程度(如, Chan & Schmitt, 2000; Morrison, 1993)。但是, 这些新员工人际行为的相关研究视角相对单一, 而且对其中的作用机制和边界条件缺乏深入的分析。本文基于角色认同理论的视角, 将新员工的职场排斥行为视为一种由角色认同发展程度引发的人际互动反应过程, 并构建了一个被调节的中介模型对其中介机制和作用边界进行了探讨, 是对已有研究成果的重要补充和拓展。

4.1 理论贡献

第一, 本研究为职场排斥行为的形成机制研究提供一个新的理论视角。以往关于职场排斥形成机制的研究, 大多基于报复视角进行, 验证了人际冲突对职场排斥具有稳定的预测作用。与以往的报复导致职场排斥视角不同, 本文从角色认同的视角探讨了新员工职场排斥行为的形成过程, 发现在控制了报复动机作用机制后, 新员工的角色社会化程度对他们的职场排斥行为依然具有显著的负向影响。本文的研究结果回应了Robinson等人(2013)关于职场排斥可能是由其他非负面动机引发的观点, 这个观点在本文对新员工职场排斥行为的研究中上得到了明显的体现。本研究所应用的角色认同理论对职场排斥行为具有额外的解释力, 这表明如果新员工对新角色的认同发展不足, 很可能导致其降低工作中的互动, 因此, 本研究有利于拓展该领域的研究视角和研究内容, 为将来的研究提供了新的理论基础。

第二, 工作疏离感作为一个全新的中介机制, 其提出和验证能够丰富学界对于职场排斥形成过程的理解。以往的研究主要基于冲突报复视角, 关注消极情绪(如, 沮丧、愤怒和焦虑)或报复认知心理在人际冲突因素对职场排斥行为间的中介作用(Mao et al., 2018)。不同于以往的冲突报复视角, 本研究将新员工的职场排斥行为视为他们的角色认同发展状况在人际互动中的一种外在表现, 而工作疏离感作为反映新员工适应工作角色的一个重要指标, 是传递角色社会化程度对其职场排斥行为影响的关键因素。角色认同作用机制作为一种新的影响机制, 其提出和验证不仅支持了角色认同理论在中国情境下的适应性, 而且进一步其丰富了学界对职场排斥形成过程的理解。

第三, 本研究从理论上说明了发展性反馈的调节作用, 识别角色认同机制的作用边界。以往冲突报复视角的相关研究, 在探讨其边界条件时, 主要关注个人特质(如, 政治技能)或道德相关的情境因素(如, 道德规范)在人际冲突因素和职场排斥行为关系之间的缓冲作用(Mao et al., 2018)。本研究将发展性反馈作为反映角色认同机制边界的一个重要因素, 引入到新员工的角色社会化程度和其职场排斥行为的关系当中, 是对当前研究的一个有益补充。这一结果不仅拓展了角色认同理论的研究, 也进一步从角色认同的视角更好地诠释了新员工的角色社会化程度对其职场排斥行为的影响, 并对作用边界加以识别。同时, 发展性反馈调节作用的检验, 可以进一步验证发展性反馈为角色认同发展提供信息补偿这一理论假说(Zhou, 2003)。

第四, 本文基于角色认同视角构建了一个职场排斥行为形成机制的理论框架。虽然本文的研究模型采用了角色社会化、工作疏离感、发展性反馈和职场排斥这几个具体的变量, 但是其理论逻辑可以应用到其他类似变量关系上。例如, 角色投入(Role engagement)是一个与工作疏离感范畴一致但内涵相反的概念。角色投入指的是个体在身心、认知和情感上, 将自我全面投入到工作角色之中(Kahn, 1990), 因此, 在角色认同理论视角下, 角色投入度高的员工往往在心理上与工作角色紧密连接, 能够把注意力集中在工作角色相关活动之中。类似地, 人际一致性也可以发挥与发展性反馈相仿的作用。人际一致性是指其他评价者看待目标个体与目标个体自己看待自己相吻合的程度(Polzer, Milton, & Swarm Jr, 2002), 因此, 在认同理论视角下, 人际一致性反映的是个体与他人互动关系的质量, 可以为个体提供信息补偿以弥补角色认同发展的不足。基于角色认同理论, 新员工角色社会化程度的上升, 很可能会增加他们的角色投入, 进而降低其职场排斥行为; 同时, 可以预期人际一致性在新员工角色社会化程度与角色投入的关系中起着调节作用, 增强角色社会化程度对角色投入的正向影响。因此, 本研究可以为将来的后续研究提供基础的理论框架, 后续的研究可以在这个基本逻辑上探索更多的变量关系, 这对于丰富和发展职场排斥领域的研究具有重要的价值。

4.2 实践启示

本研究聚焦探讨新员工的角色社会化程度对其职场排斥行为的影响机制, 对于组织优化职场排斥行为管理实践具有重要参考价值。根据以往报复视角引发职场排斥的逻辑, 管理者需要采取措施来缓解员工之间的人际冲突, 然而, 如果新员工的职场排斥行为并不是单纯由人际冲突引发的, 而更多是受到他们的角色社会化程度的影响, 那么这种人际冲突管理可能就会因没有针对性而降低管理效能。

首先, 本研究启示组织在对职场排斥行为进行管理时, 要区分不同的主体, 并针对不同的主体采用不同的解决策略, 以提高管理效能。对于老员工群体的职场排斥行为, 管理者可以主要通过采取缓解人际冲突的措施来解决; 而在对新员工群体的职场排斥进行管控时, 管理者则应更多地关注他们对组织角色的适应情况, 通过各种措施提高他们的角色社会化水平, 帮助他们适应新角色, 以此来减少他们的排斥行为。其次, 在解决新员工的职场排斥问题时, 管理者要积极关注他们的工作疏离感。为了提高对新员工职场排斥行为的管理效能, 组织可以采取一些管理辅助手段来降低他们的工作疏离感。例如, 组织可以为新员工提供交流的机会, 通过工作分享、工作轮换和鼓励建言等形式, 加强员工之间的沟通与合作, 满足他们在归属感和安全感方面的需求, 从而缓解孤独无助的感受, 提高他们的角色投入(O’Donohue & Nelson, 2014)。最后, 组织内部人员的发展性反馈作为一种重要的资源, 能够有效地帮助新员工适应新环境和承担新角色。鉴于此, 组织管理者应适当转变传统的以绩效评估为主的反馈方式, 细心关注每个新员工的发展状况, 多向新员工提供有利于他们适应工作角色和未来发展的反馈信息。同时, 组织可以通过工作设计和流程重塑等措施来构建互助网络和促进员工之间的知识共享, 以及建立完善的启导(mentoring)机制来为新员工提供心理支持和生涯发展支持(Allen, Eby, Chao, & Bauer, 2017), 从而帮助他们更好地适应新环境和提升工作绩效。

4.3 不足与展望

本研究也不可避免的存在一些局限, 后续研究可以有针对性地进一步深入探讨。第一, 本研究具有进一步扩展的理论空间。由于本研究是基于角色认同理论进行的, 因此, 研究内容限制在新员工的角色社会化的影响上。然而, 以往的组织社会化文献表明, 组织社会化程度主要包括个人层面的角色社会化程度和团队层面的群体社会化程度这两方面的内容(Klein & Heuser, 2008; Van Maanen & Schein, 1979; 严鸣 等, 2011), 分别反映新员工在新工作角色上的角色认同, 以及在组织各团体成员身份上的社会认同的发展程度。将来的研究可以基于社会认同理论, 进一步研究新员工的群体社会化程度是否会导致其产生负面行为。此外, 新员工个体的一些性格特质因素也可能会影响他们的职场排斥行为, 但是由于角色认同理论视角的局限性, 本文没有进一步探讨这些性格特质因素对其职场排斥行为的具体作用机制。未来的研究可以结合其他的一些理论(如, 特质激活理论), 进一步挖掘员工个体特质对其人际互动行为的作用和影响。

第二, 本研究的调查研究设计和调查样本的选择还有进一步改善的空间。首先, 新员工的角色社会化实质上是一个持续发展的过程。虽然本研究采用多阶段和多数据来源的方法进行数据收集, 但这仍然有局限性, 不能反映新员工角色社会化的动态变化过程。未来的研究可以采取纵向追踪研究(longitudinal study)的调研方法, 对变量进行多次重复测量, 以更好地观察变量间的因果关系和发展变化趋势。此外, 由于新员工的角色社会化是一个对于时间比较敏感的变量, 入职时间长度不同的新员工, 他们的角色社会化程度受到时间的影响很可能是不同的。本研究的调查样本包括了入职时间长度不同的新员工, 这可能影响研究结论的准确性。因此, 未来的研究可以尝试对处于同一入职时间的新员工样本进行追踪调查, 以排除时间因素对研究关系的影响。其次, 本研究的调研样本全部来自珠三角地区的4家企业, 这难免会对研究结论的外部效度造成影响。为了增强研究结果的外部效度, 未来的研究可以扩大样本的地域范围, 使调查样本更加多样化。同时, 未来的研究还可以扩大调查样本的数量, 进一步检验本文研究结果的普适性。

第三, 干扰因素的控制。首先, 虽然我们在调查方法和调查程序上进行了一定的预防控制, 但是由于本研究的测量工具中涉及一些敏感问题, 依然可能因社会赞许性问题的存在而导致数据失真。未来的研究可以尝试通过将社会赞许性作为一个独立的变量进行测量和控制(Van de Mortel, 2008), 或者运用网络问卷测评以及交互式语音应答等调查方式, 进一步降低社会赞许性问题发生的可能性。其次, 组织层面的因素(如, 企业规模、企业文化、经营模式等)也可能会影响新员工的职场排斥行为, 未来的研究可以运用跨层模型设计, 进一步探讨这些因素对于新员工角色适应和人际行为的跨水平影响机制。

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Advances in Group Processes, 31( 1), 57-97.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Chan D.& Schmitt N. ,( 2000).

Interindividual differences in intraindividual changes in proactivity during organizational entry: A latent growth modeling approach to understanding newcomer adaptation

Journal of Applied Psychology, 85( 2), 190-210.

URL     PMID:10783536      [本文引用: 1]

Intraindividual change over time is the essence of the change phenomenon hypothesized to occur in the individual newcomer adaptation process. Many important adaption questions cannot be answered without an adequate conceptualization and assessment of intraindividual change. Using a latent growth modeling approach to data collected from 146 doctoral program newcomers over 4 repeated measurements spaced at 1-month intervals, the authors explicitly modeled interindividual differences in intradindividual changes in newcomer proactivities (information seeking, relationship building) and proximal adaptation outcomes (task mastery, role clarity, social integration) during organizational entry. Results indicated that changes in proactivity may be related to newcomer characteristics and adaptation outcomes in interesting ways that have not been previously examined.

Delobbe N., Cooper-Thomas H. D., & De Hoe R . ( 2016).

A new look at the psychological contract during organizational socialization: The role of newcomers' obligations at entry

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37( 6), 845-867.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Previous studies have demonstrated that the psychological contract is largely shaped during socialization. This study adopts a complementary perspective and analyzes how the psychological contract at the start of employment shapes the subsequent socialization process. Drawing upon social exchange theory, we propose that newcomers with a higher sense of their personal obligations at entry will perceive orientation training as more useful and develop better relationships with their supervisors and peers, which in turn will facilitate their work adjustment. Results of a longitudinal survey on a sample of 144 recruits from a European Army show that newcomers with a higher initial sense of their employee obligations toward their employer report higher perceived training utility, higher leader-member exchange (LMX) with their instructors, and higher team-member exchange (TMX) with their platoon peers. Moreover, perceived training utility and LMX predict the fulfillment of employers’ obligations; and training utility predicts the level of newcomers’ employee obligations. Finally, training utility, LMX, and TMX predict some of three indicators of newcomers’ adjustment, namely role clarity (training utility, LMX), group integration (TMX), and organizational values understanding (training utility). These results highlight how newcomers’ obligations at the start of employment contribute to the social exchange dynamic underlying organizational socialization.

Edwards J.R., & Lambert L.S . ( 2007).

Methods for integrating moderation and mediation: A general analytical framework using moderated path analysis

Psychological Methods, 12( 1), 1-22.

URL     PMID:17402809      [本文引用: 2]

Studies that combine moderation and mediation are prevalent in basic and applied psychology research. Typically, these studies are framed in terms of moderated mediation or mediated moderation, both of which involve similar analytical approaches. Unfortunately, these approaches have important shortcomings that conceal the nature of the moderated and the mediated effects under investigation. This article presents a general analytical framework for combining moderation and mediation that integrates moderated regression analysis and path analysis. This framework clarifies how moderator variables influence the paths that constitute the direct, indirect, and total effects of mediated models. The authors empirically illustrate this framework and give step-by-step instructions for estimation and interpretation. They summarize the advantages of their framework over current approaches, explain how it subsumes moderated mediation and mediated moderation, and describe how it can accommodate additional moderator and mediator variables, curvilinear relationships, and structural equation models with latent variables.

Fang R., Duffy M. K., & Shaw J. D . ( 2011).

The organizational socialization process: Review and development of a social capital model

Journal of Management, 37( 1), 127-152.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organizational socialization tactics, newcomers’ self-efficacy, proactive behaviors, and socialization outcomes. Based on a sample of 140 co-op university students who completed surveys at the end of their work term, the results indicated that newcomers’ self-efficacy and institutionalized socialization tactics were positively... [Show full abstract]

Ferris D. L., Brown D. J., Berry J. W., & Lian H . ( 2008).

The development and validation of the workplace ostracism scale

Journal of Applied Psychology, 93( 6), 1348-1366.

URL     PMID:19025252      [本文引用: 2]

This article outlines the development of a 10-item measure of workplace ostracism. Using 6 samples (including multisource and multiwave data), the authors developed a reliable scale with a unidimensional factor structure that replicated across 4 separate samples. The scale possessed both convergent and discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity was demonstrated through the scale's relation with basic needs, well-being, job attitudes, job performance, and withdrawal. Overall, the present study suggests that the Workplace Ostracism Scale is a reliable and valid measure and that the workplace ostracism construct has important implications for both individuals and organizations.

Hirschfeld R.R., & Feild H.S . ( 2000).

Work centrality and work alienation: Distinct aspects of a general commitment to work

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21( 7), 789-800.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

The authors tested the proposition that identification with the work role and engagement in the work role constitute different aspects of a general commitment to work. Whereas work centrality (a strictly normative attitude) represents the extent to which a person identifies with the work role, work alienation (an affect-inclusive attitude) represents the extent to which a person is engaged in the work role. Predicated on these conceptual distinctions, the authors tested whether work centrality and work alienation exhibited theoretically-meaningful, differential correlations with six variables reflecting various work-related commitments. Using data from 349 employed individuals, the results of Hotelling-Williams t tests revealed that, compared to work alienation, work centrality had stronger correlations with Protestant work ethic and leisure ethic. In contrast, compared to work centrality, work alienation was more strongly correlated with work locus of control, work self-discipline, and affective organizational commitment. Work centrality and work alienation did not differ in their correlations with job involvement-role. Taken together, the results suggest that people who are highly committed to work not only identify with the work role, they are also engaged in the work role.

Hitlan R. T., Cliffton R. J., & DeSoto M. C . ( 2006).

Perceived exclusion in the workplace: The moderating effects of gender on work-related attitudes and psychological health

North American Journal of Psychology, 8( 2), 217-236.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Research examining the nature and consequences of social exclusion indicates that such behavior is multifaceted and has deleterious effects on the intended targets. However, relatively little research has specifically assessed the impact of such behavior on employees who perceive of themselves as being excluded within their place of work. Even less has examined gender differences in relation to exclusionary behavior. The current research investigated the moderating effect of gender on the relation between perceived exclusion at work and work-related attitudes and psychological health. Participants included 223 working students (64 men and 159 women). Hierarchical moderated regression analyses on work attitudes (supervisor satisfaction, coworker satisfaction) and psychological health supported initial predictions. At higher levels of perceived exclusion men indicated lower satisfaction and psychological health compared to women. Findings are discussed in terms of potential workplace implications and limitations of the current research.

Huang L., & Chen W.Z . ( 2015).

The effects of interpersonal conflict orientation and interpersonal harmony orientation on employee’ work performance-leader-member exchange quality as mediator

Management Review, 27( 5), 178-187.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

本研究从人际取向视角与社会交换理论探讨了人际冲突取向、人际和谐取向对下属工作绩效的影响作用,以及领导-成员交换质量在两类人际取向与工作绩效之间的中介作用。对345套一对一直接主管与下属配对调查问卷进行分析,结果发现:(1)人际冲突取向对组织公民行为、任务绩效有显著负向影响,而对工作偏离行为有显著正向影响;(2)人际和谐取向对组织公民行为、任务绩效有显著正向影响,而对工作偏离行为有显著负向影响;(3)领导-成员交换质量在人际冲突取向与组织公民行为之间、人际冲突取向与任务绩效之间、以及人际冲突取向与工作偏离行为之间均起部分中介作用;(4)领导-成员交换质量在人际和谐取向与组织公民行为之间、人际和谐取向与任务绩效之间起部分中介作用,而在人际和谐取向与工作偏离行为之间起完全中介作用。

[ 黄丽, 陈维政 . ( 2015).

两种人际取向对下属工作绩效的影响——以领导-成员交换质量为中介变量

管理评论, 27( 5), 178-187.]

URL     [本文引用: 1]

本研究从人际取向视角与社会交换理论探讨了人际冲突取向、人际和谐取向对下属工作绩效的影响作用,以及领导-成员交换质量在两类人际取向与工作绩效之间的中介作用。对345套一对一直接主管与下属配对调查问卷进行分析,结果发现:(1)人际冲突取向对组织公民行为、任务绩效有显著负向影响,而对工作偏离行为有显著正向影响;(2)人际和谐取向对组织公民行为、任务绩效有显著正向影响,而对工作偏离行为有显著负向影响;(3)领导-成员交换质量在人际冲突取向与组织公民行为之间、人际冲突取向与任务绩效之间、以及人际冲突取向与工作偏离行为之间均起部分中介作用;(4)领导-成员交换质量在人际和谐取向与组织公民行为之间、人际和谐取向与任务绩效之间起部分中介作用,而在人际和谐取向与工作偏离行为之间起完全中介作用。

Jiang J.W., & Zhao S. , ( 2017).

A cross level study of the impacts of high performance work system on mobile knowledge workers’ alienation

Chinese Journal of Management, 14( 3), 364-372.

[本文引用: 1]

[ 蒋建武, 赵珊 . ( 2017).

基于高绩效工作系统影响的知识型移动工作者工作疏离感跨层研究

管理学报, 14( 3), 364-372.]

[本文引用: 1]

Kahn W.A . ( 1990).

Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work

Academy of Management Journal, 33( 4), 692-724.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study began with the premise that people can use varying degrees of their selves, physically, cognitively, and emotionally, in work role performances, which has implications for both their work and experiences. Two qualitative, theory-generating studies of summer camp counselors and members of an architecture firm were conducted to explore the conditions at work in which people personally engage, or express and employ their personal selves, and disengage, or withdraw and defend their personal selves. This article describes and illustrates three psychological conditions--meaningfulness, safety, and availability--and their individual and contextual sources. These psychological conditions are linked to existing theoretical concepts, and directions for future research are described.

Kammeyer-Mueller J.D., & Wanberg C.R . ( 2003).

Unwrapping the organizational entry process: Disentangling multiple antecedents and their pathways to adjustment

Journal of Applied Psychology, 88( 5), 779-794.

URL     PMID:14516244      [本文引用: 1]

This 4-wave longitudinal study of newcomers in 7 organizations examined preentry knowledge, proactive personality, and socialization influences as antecedents of both proximal (task mastery, role clarity, work group integration, and political knowledge) and distal (organizational commitment, work withdrawal, and turnover) indicators of newcomer adjustment. Results suggest that preentry knowledge, proactive personality, and socialization influences from the organization, supervisors, and coworkers are independently related to proximal adjustment outcomes, consistent with a theoretical framework highlighting distinct dimensions of organizational and work task adjustment. The proximal adjustment outcomes partially mediated most of the relationships between the antecedents of adjustment and organizational commitment, work withdrawal, and turnover.

Kanungo R.N . ( 1979).

The concepts of alienation and involvement revisited

Psychological Bulletin, 86( 1), 119-138.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

To clarify and operationalize the concepts of alienation and involvement, several current sociological and psychological approaches to the concepts are examined. Several common sources of confusion surrounding the treatment of the concepts are identified. A motivational formulation of the concepts is suggested to achieve greater parsimony and integration of the diverse sociological and psychological thinking on the issue. Finally, some implications of this motivational formulation for future empirical studies on alienation and involvement at work and in other situations (e.g., in the family, in the community, in leisure-time pursuits) are indicated. (45 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Klein H. J.& Heuser A. E.. ,( 2008).

The learning of socialization content: A framework for researching orientating practices

In J. M. Joseph (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management (pp. 279-337). UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract This chapter briefly reviews findings from recent socialization research to provide an updated view of the socialization literature. To help advance the literature, this chapter then takes an instructional system approach, viewing socialization fundamentally as a process of learning about a new or changed role and the environment surrounding that role. As such, attention will first be given to further understanding exactly what needs to be learned during socialization. In doing so, an expanded socialization content typology is presented. In addition, two other components are added to this typology to reflect the fact that (a) each of those content dimensions needs to be learned relative to different organizational levels (e.g., job, work group, unit, organization) and (b) socialization occurs over several months and there are temporal considerations relating to the different socialization content dimensions. This chapter then examines how to best facilitate the learning of that expanded socialization content. The Gagn -Briggs theory of instruction is used in connecting socialization content with the means of learning that content. The socialization and orienting activities commonly used by organizations to help new employees in the adjustment process are also identified and then mapped onto the learning outcomes they could best help facilitate. Finally, the conceptual, measurement, and research needs suggested by these extensions to the socialization literature are identified.

Li N., Harris T. B., Boswell W. R., & Xie Z . ( 2011).

The role of organizational insiders' developmental feedback and proactive personality on newcomers' performance: An interactionist perspective

Journal of Applied Psychology, 96( 6), 1317-1327.

URL     PMID:21688879      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Drawing from an interactionist approach and feedback research, we examine the role of developmental feedback and proactive personality on newcomer task performance and helping behavior. Data were collected from 2 high-tech joint-ventures within the information technology and manufacturing industries located in Shanghai, China. Results based on 151 newcomer-manager dyads showed that supervisor developmental feedback (SDF) positively related to newcomer helping behavior and that SDF and coworker developmental feedback interactively predicted newcomer task performance. We also found differential moderating effects of proactive personality: SDF more strongly related to helping behavior when proactive personality was lower; conversely, coworker developmental feedback more strongly related to helping behavior when proactive personality was higher. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

MacKinnon D. P., Lockwood C. M., & Williams J . ( 2004).

Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods

Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39( 1), 99-128.

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Mao Y., Liu Y., Jiang C., & Zhang I. D . ( 2018).

Why am I ostracized and how would I react? — A review of workplace ostracism research

Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 35( 3), 745-767.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Ostracism is an important issue in the workplace and studies on this issue are diverse and large. This paper comprehensively reviews the literature related to workplace ostracism in five aspects....

McCall G J. & Simmons J. L. ( 1978). Identities and interactions: An examination of human associations in everyday life New York: Free Press An examination of human associations in everyday life . New York: Free Press.

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Longitudinal study of the effects of information seeking on newcomer socialization

Journal of Applied Psychology, 78( 2), 173-183.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

In this study, the effects of information seeking on newcomer socialization are assessed. The results suggest that by seeking information, organizational newcomers can facilitate the socialization process. The frequency with which 135 new staff accountants sought specific types of information during their first 6 months of employment was related to how well they had mastered their job, defined their role, learned about their organization's culture, and become socially integrated. In contrast to findings from research focusing on the organization's role in socialization, these findings suggest that newcomers are proactive information seekers who take an active role in adjusting to their new environment.

Nelson D. L., Quick J. C., & Joplin J. R . ( 1991).

Psychological contracting and newcomer socialization: An attachment theory foundation

Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6( 7), 55-72.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Suggests that one vehicle for easing the stress of the transition into a new organization and facilitating newcomer adjustment is through effective psychological contracting on the part of both newcomers and insiders on behalf of the organization. Previous writings and research have treated the psychological contract as a singular agreement between the individual and the organization. The authors argue that psychological contracting is a dynamic process, which unfolds throughout a 3-stage socialization period and beyond. Instinctual attachment behavior is the foundation on which psychological contracts may be built. The process is analyzed in terms of the supportive attachments that can be formed between newcomers and insiders. Suggestions are made for both individuals and organizations in terms of developing effective psychological contracts. A research agenda is proposed for testing the attachment theory foundation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

O’Donohue W.& Nelson L. , ( 2014).

Alienation: An old concept with contemporary relevance for human resource management

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 22( 3), 301-316.

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Podsakoff P. M., MacKenzie S. B., Lee J-Y., & Podsakoff N. P . ( 2003).

Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies

Journal of Applied Psychology, 88( 5), 879-903.

URL     PMID:1451625114516251      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.

Polzer J. T., Milton L. P& Swarm Jr, W. B. ., ( 2002).

Capitalizing on diversity: Interpersonal congruence in small work groups

Administrative Science Quarterly, 47( 2), 296-324.

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We examine interpersonal congruence, the degree to which group members see others in the group as others see themselves, as a moderator of the relationship between diversity and group effectiveness. A longitudinal study of 83 work groups revealed that diversity tended to improve creative task performance in groups with high interpersonal congruence, whereas diversity undermined the performance of groups with low interpersonal congruence. This interaction effect also emerged on measures of social integration, group identification, and relationship conflict. By eliciting self-verifying appraisals, members of some groups achieved enough interpersonal congruence during their first ten minutes of interaction to benefit their group outcomes four months later. In contrast to theories of social categorization, the interpersonal congruence approach suggests that group members can achieve harmonious and effective work processes by expressing rather than suppressing the characteristics that make them unique.

Preacher K. J., Curran P. J., & Bauer D. J . ( 2006).

Computational tools for probing interactions in multiple linear regression, multilevel modeling, and latent curve analysis

Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 31( 4), 437-448.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Simple slopes, regions of significance, and confidence bands are commonly used to evaluate interactions in multiple linear regression (MLR) models, and the use of these techniques has recently been extended to multilevel or hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and latent curve analysis (LCA). However, conducting these tests and plotting the conditional relations is often a tedious and error-prone task. This article provides an overview of methods used to probe interaction effects and describes a unified collection of freely available online resources that researchers can use to obtain significance tests for simple slopes, compute regions of significance, and obtain confidence bands for simple slopes across the range of the moderator in the MLR, HLM, and LCA contexts. Plotting capabilities are also provided.

Preacher K.J., & Hayes A.F . ( 2008).

Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models

Behavior Research Methods, 40( 3), 879-891.

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Quade M. J., Greenbaum R. L., & Petrenko O. V . ( 2017).

“I don't want to be near you, unless…”: The interactive effect of unethical behavior and performance onto relationship conflict and workplace ostracism

Personnel Psychology, 70( 3), 675-709.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Examined through the lens of moral psychology, we investigate when and why employees' unethical behaviors may be tolerated versus rejected. Specifically, we examine the interactive effect of employees' unethical behaviors and job performance onto relationship conflict, and whether such conflict eventuates in workplace ostracism. Although employees' unethical behaviors typically go against moral norms, high job performance may provide a motivated reason to ignore moral violations. In this regard, we predict that job performance will mitigate the relationship between employee unethical behavior and workplace ostracism, as mediated by relationship conflict. Study 1, a multisource field study, tests and provides support for Hypotheses 1 and 2. Study 2, also a multisource field study, provides support for our fully specified model. Study 3, a time-lagged field study, provides support for our theoretical model while controlling for employees' negative affectivity and ethical environment.

Robinson S. L., O’Reilly J., & Wang W . ( 2013).

Invisible at work: An integrated model of workplace ostracism

Journal of Management, 39( 1), 203-231.

URL     [本文引用: 6]

Abstract This article offers a review, integration, and extension of the literature relevant to ostracism in organizations. We first seek to add conceptual clarity to ostracism, by reviewing existing definitions and developing a cohesive one, identifying the key features of workplace ostracism, and distinguishing it from existing organizational constructs. Next, we develop a broad model of ostracism in organizations. This model serves to integrate the relevant findings related to ostracism in organizations and to extend our theorizing about it. We take a decidedly organizational focus, proposing organizationally relevant factors that may cause different types of ostracism, moderate the experience of ostracism at work, and moderate the reactions of targets. We hope this article will provide a good foundation for organizational scholars interested in studying ostracism by providing a framework of prior literature and directions for future study.

Scott K. L., Restubog S. L. D., & Zagenczyk T. J . ( 2013).

A social exchange-based model of the antecedents of workplace exclusion

Journal of Applied Psychology, 98( 1), 37-48.

URL     PMID:22985114      [本文引用: 1]

We conducted 2 studies of coworker dyads to test a theoretical model exploring why and under what circumstances employees are the targets of workplace exclusion. Adopting a victim precipitation perspective, we integrate belongingness and social exchange theories to propose that employees who display workplace incivility are distrusted and therefore are targets of workplace exclusion. Highlighting the importance of the context of the perpetrator-target relationship, we also find support for the postulation that this mediated relationship is strengthened when the target employee is perceived to be a weak exchange partner and is attenuated when he or she is viewed as a valuable exchange partner. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Schaubroeck J. M., Peng A. C., & Hannah S. T . ( 2013).

Developing trust with peers and leaders: Impacts on organizational identification and performance during entry

Academy of Management Journal, 56( 4), 1148-1168.

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Spector P.E., & Jex S.M . ( 1998).

Development of four self-report measures of job stressors and strain: Interpersonal conflict at work scale, organizational constraints scale, quantitative workload inventory, and physical symptoms inventory

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 3( 4), 356-367.

URL     PMID:9805281      [本文引用: 1]

Despite the widespread use of self-report measures of both job-related stressors and strains, relatively few carefully developed scales for which validity data exist are available. In this article, we discuss 3 job stressor scales (Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale, Organizational Constraints Scale, and Quantitative Workload Inventory) and 1 job strain scale (Physical Symptoms Inventory). Using meta-analysis, we combined the results of 18 studies to provide estimates of relations between our scales and other variables. Data showed moderate convergent validity for the 3 job stressor scales, suggesting some objectively to these self-reports. Norms for each scale are provided.

Stets J.E., & Burke P.J . ( 2005).

Identity verification, control, and aggression in marriage

Social Psychology Quarterly, 68( 2), 160-178.

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Stryker S., & Burke P.J . ( 2000).

The past, present, and future of an identity theory

Social Psychology Quarterly, 63( 4), 284-297.

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Among the many traditions of research on "identity," two somewhat different yet strongly related strands of identity theory have developed. The first, reflected in the work of Stryker and colleagues, focuses on the linkages of social structures with identities. The second, reflected in the work of Burke and colleagues, focuses on the internal process of self-verification. In the present paper we review each of these strands and then discuss ways in which the two relate to and complement one another. Each provides a context for the other: the relation of social structures to identities influences the process of self-verification, while the process of self-verification creates and sustains social structures. The paper concludes with examples of potentially useful applications of identity theory to other arenas of social psychology, and with a discussion of challenges that identity theory must meet to provide a clear understanding of the relation between self and society.

Tu X. Y., Zhang Q., Wang Z. Y., & He X . ( 2017).

Trust climate, perceived insider status and employee’ in-role performance: A mediated moderator model

Acta Psychologica Sinica, 49( 1), 83-93.

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虽然已有研究从逻辑上推理内部人身份认知在信任氛围与角色内绩效之间起中介作用,但却极少给出实证的结果.本研究基于角色认同理论和自我认知理论,以31家生产型企业的330员工为调查对象,从心理安全感的视角对信任氛围是否以及如何通过内部人身份认知影响角色内绩效进行了实证研究.结果显示:1)信任氛围对员工角色内绩效具有正向影响;2)内部人身份认知部分中介信任氛围对员工角色内绩效的影响;3)心理安全感在信任氛围与内部人身份认知的关系中起调节作用;进一步,4)心理安全感调节了内部人身份认知对信任氛围-角色内绩效中介作用.研究证明了被中介的调节效应模型全新地解释了信任氛围对角色内绩效的作用机理,对员工创新绩效管理实践提供有益的启示.

[ 屠兴勇, 张琪, 王泽英, 何欣 . ( 2017).

信任氛围、内部人身份认知与员工角色内绩效: 中介的调节效应

心理学报, 49( 1), 83-93.]

URL     [本文引用: 1]

虽然已有研究从逻辑上推理内部人身份认知在信任氛围与角色内绩效之间起中介作用,但却极少给出实证的结果.本研究基于角色认同理论和自我认知理论,以31家生产型企业的330员工为调查对象,从心理安全感的视角对信任氛围是否以及如何通过内部人身份认知影响角色内绩效进行了实证研究.结果显示:1)信任氛围对员工角色内绩效具有正向影响;2)内部人身份认知部分中介信任氛围对员工角色内绩效的影响;3)心理安全感在信任氛围与内部人身份认知的关系中起调节作用;进一步,4)心理安全感调节了内部人身份认知对信任氛围-角色内绩效中介作用.研究证明了被中介的调节效应模型全新地解释了信任氛围对角色内绩效的作用机理,对员工创新绩效管理实践提供有益的启示.

Van de Mortel, T. F . ( 2008).

Faking it: Social desirability response bias in self-report research

Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25( 4), 40-48.

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Conflict and its management

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Wu L-Z., Ferris D. L., Kwan H. K., Chiang F., Snape E., & Liang L. H . ( 2015).

Breaking (or making) the silence: How goal interdependence and social skill predict being ostracized

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 131, 51-66.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Although ostracism can have devastating consequences for employees and organizations, our understanding of what contributes to ostracism is notably limited. Drawing on and extending goal interdependence theory, we integrate the goal interdependence and social skill literatures to predict when individuals are likely to be ostracized. Across two studies we found that cooperative goal interdependence reduced, while competitive goal interdependence facilitated, being ostracized; social skill strengthened the negative impact of cooperative goal interdependence on ostracism and neutralized the positive impact of competitive goal interdependence on ostracism. In a third longitudinal study, we found that relationship conflict mediated the interactive effect of goal interdependence and social skill on being ostracized. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Xie J.& Yan M. ,( 2016).

Active coping or avoidance? The effect of proactive personality on the relationship between workplace ostracism and organizational citizenship behavior

Acta Psychologica Sinica, 48( 10), 1314-1325.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

基于压力转换理论,考察主动性人格对职场排斥与组织公民行为的调节机制,尤其是应对策略对整个调节机制的中介作用。通过对9家企业的249对上下级匹配问卷分析发现,主动性人格对职场排斥与组织公民行为关系具有调节作用,对于高主动性人格的员工而言,职场排斥与组织公民行为负向关系更弱;主动性人格正向影响积极应对策略,负向影响逃避应对策略;积极应对策略对职场排斥与组织公民行为关系具有调节作用,当员工采用积极应对策略时,职场排斥与组织公民行为的负向关系更弱;积极应对策略中介了主动性人格对职场排斥与组织公民行为关系的调节作用。本文的研究结果不仅从理论上丰富和拓展了主动性人格、应对策略及职场排斥的关系研究,也从排斥应对的视角为实务界提供了实践指导。

[ 谢俊, 严鸣 . ( 2016).

积极应对还是逃避? 主动性人格对职场排斥与组织公民行为的影响机制

心理学报, 48( 10), 1314-1325.]

URL     [本文引用: 3]

基于压力转换理论,考察主动性人格对职场排斥与组织公民行为的调节机制,尤其是应对策略对整个调节机制的中介作用。通过对9家企业的249对上下级匹配问卷分析发现,主动性人格对职场排斥与组织公民行为关系具有调节作用,对于高主动性人格的员工而言,职场排斥与组织公民行为负向关系更弱;主动性人格正向影响积极应对策略,负向影响逃避应对策略;积极应对策略对职场排斥与组织公民行为关系具有调节作用,当员工采用积极应对策略时,职场排斥与组织公民行为的负向关系更弱;积极应对策略中介了主动性人格对职场排斥与组织公民行为关系的调节作用。本文的研究结果不仅从理论上丰富和拓展了主动性人格、应对策略及职场排斥的关系研究,也从排斥应对的视角为实务界提供了实践指导。

Yan M., Peng K. Z., & Li J . ( 2012, June).

The identity-based organizational socialization scale: Development and validation of a theory-based measure

Paper presented at the meeting of International Association for Chinese Management Research, Hongkong,China.

[本文引用: 2]

Yan M., Tu H. W., & Li J . ( 2011).

The definition, dimensionality and content of newcomer’s organizational socialization: A perspective from identity theory

Advances in Psychological Science, 19( 5), 624-632.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

The research on newcomer’s organizational socialization (OS) has been criticized for lacking a fundamental theoretical basis, thereby imitating the method of how to measure OS effect. Role Identity Theory and Social Identity Theory can provide OS research a substantial theoretical basis. Based on the theoretical discussion on the boundaries of OS concept, the identity nature of OS was explored as a newcomers’ role identity and social identity development process. The identity theory also revealed two dimensions of OS effect. The content of each dimension was further discussed. Future efforts are expected to develop new OS scale and conceptual model on the basis of identity theory. The identity theory also implies the advancement of research methodology in the future OS study.

[ 严鸣, 涂红伟, 李骥 . ( 2011).

认同理论视角下新员工组织社会化的定义及结构维度

心理科学进展, 19( 5), 624-632.]

URL     [本文引用: 3]

The research on newcomer’s organizational socialization (OS) has been criticized for lacking a fundamental theoretical basis, thereby imitating the method of how to measure OS effect. Role Identity Theory and Social Identity Theory can provide OS research a substantial theoretical basis. Based on the theoretical discussion on the boundaries of OS concept, the identity nature of OS was explored as a newcomers’ role identity and social identity development process. The identity theory also revealed two dimensions of OS effect. The content of each dimension was further discussed. Future efforts are expected to develop new OS scale and conceptual model on the basis of identity theory. The identity theory also implies the advancement of research methodology in the future OS study.

Yan M., Wu J. T., & Wang H. B . ( 2018).

An identity perspective of newcomer’s organizational socialization

Management Review, 30( 6), 149-162.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

以往的组织社会化研究因为缺乏坚实的理论基础而导致对基本概念上的认识不足。本文试图基于认同理论,进一步探讨组织社会化的本质及其作用机制。组织社会化本质上是新员工在承担新的组织角色、参与团队活动中认同的相应发展过程,不同类型的组织社会化发展会对组织和个人产生不同的影响。为了对本文的观点进行验证,本文采用纵向研究方法对127名新员工进行历时1年的配对跟踪调查,对组织社会化程度及相关结果变量均进行四次重复测量。结合探索性因子分析和验证性因子分析,采用潜增长模型对研究假设进行检验。研究结果表明,组织社会化可以分为角色社会化和群体社会化两维度结构,并且新员工的角色社会化程度的提升会积极促进其任务绩效和工作满意度,而他们的群体社会化程度的提升则会积极促进其组织公民行为和组织承诺,他们的角色社会化和群体社会化程度的提升可以降低其离职倾向。研究结论进一步证实认同理论在组织社会化研究领域中的应用合理性,弥补当前学习互动视角研究中的理论缺陷。

[ 严鸣, 邬金涛, 王海波 . ( 2018).

认同视角下新员工组织社会化的结构及其作用机制,

管理评论, 30( 6), 149-162.]

URL     [本文引用: 1]

以往的组织社会化研究因为缺乏坚实的理论基础而导致对基本概念上的认识不足。本文试图基于认同理论,进一步探讨组织社会化的本质及其作用机制。组织社会化本质上是新员工在承担新的组织角色、参与团队活动中认同的相应发展过程,不同类型的组织社会化发展会对组织和个人产生不同的影响。为了对本文的观点进行验证,本文采用纵向研究方法对127名新员工进行历时1年的配对跟踪调查,对组织社会化程度及相关结果变量均进行四次重复测量。结合探索性因子分析和验证性因子分析,采用潜增长模型对研究假设进行检验。研究结果表明,组织社会化可以分为角色社会化和群体社会化两维度结构,并且新员工的角色社会化程度的提升会积极促进其任务绩效和工作满意度,而他们的群体社会化程度的提升则会积极促进其组织公民行为和组织承诺,他们的角色社会化和群体社会化程度的提升可以降低其离职倾向。研究结论进一步证实认同理论在组织社会化研究领域中的应用合理性,弥补当前学习互动视角研究中的理论缺陷。

Yang J., & Treadway D.C . ( 2018).

A social influence interpretation of workplace ostracism and counterproductive work behavior

Journal of Business Ethics, 148( 4), 879-891.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

We used social network analysis to examine a theoretical model exploring why, and under what circumstances, the perpetrators’ ostracizing behaviors are accurately perceived by the target employees....

Yıldız B.& Alpkan L. , ( 2015).

A theoretical model on the proposed predictors of destructive deviant workplace behaviors and the mediator role of alienation

Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 210, 330-338.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Zhang Z.G Li Y. J.& Song Y. X. ., ( 2016).

The influencing mechanism of supervisor developmental feedback on subordinate change-supportive behavior

Science of Science and Management of Science and Technology, 37( 12), 136-148.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

“反馈”是上级与下属互动沟通的重要方式,不仅有助于促进上级对下属工作的监管,还能够帮助员工修正工作行为。基于社会交换理论,从上级反馈提供与下属反馈寻求双向视角出发,对265名在职员工进行问卷调查,研究结果显示:(1)上级发展性反馈有助于促进下属的反馈寻求行为和变革行为;(2)积极主动寻求反馈的下属会倾向于表现出更多的变革行为,并且下属反馈寻求在上级发展性反馈与员工变革行为之间起着显著的中介作用;(3)工作年限在“上级发展性反馈—下属反馈寻求—员工变革行为”中介模型的第一阶段起着显著正向调节作用,即工作年限越长,上级发展性反馈对下属反馈寻求的影响作用越强;而在直接效应和第二阶段起着显著负向调节作用,即工作年限越短,上级发展性反馈对员工变革行为的影响作用越强,下属反馈寻求对员工变革行为的影响作用越强。

[ 张振刚, 李云健, 宋一晓 . ( 2016).

上级发展性反馈对员工变革行为的影响研究——上级与下属双向沟通视角

科学学与科学技术管理, 37( 12), 136-148.]

URL     [本文引用: 1]

“反馈”是上级与下属互动沟通的重要方式,不仅有助于促进上级对下属工作的监管,还能够帮助员工修正工作行为。基于社会交换理论,从上级反馈提供与下属反馈寻求双向视角出发,对265名在职员工进行问卷调查,研究结果显示:(1)上级发展性反馈有助于促进下属的反馈寻求行为和变革行为;(2)积极主动寻求反馈的下属会倾向于表现出更多的变革行为,并且下属反馈寻求在上级发展性反馈与员工变革行为之间起着显著的中介作用;(3)工作年限在“上级发展性反馈—下属反馈寻求—员工变革行为”中介模型的第一阶段起着显著正向调节作用,即工作年限越长,上级发展性反馈对下属反馈寻求的影响作用越强;而在直接效应和第二阶段起着显著负向调节作用,即工作年限越短,上级发展性反馈对员工变革行为的影响作用越强,下属反馈寻求对员工变革行为的影响作用越强。

Zhou J. ( 2003).

When the presence of creative coworkers is related to creativity: Role of supervisor close monitoring, developmental feedback, and creative personality

Journal of Applied Psychology, 88( 3), 413-422.

URL     PMID:12814291      [本文引用: 3]

Study 1 was conducted to examine the contribution of the joint condition of supervisor close monitoring and the presence of creative coworkers to employees' creativity. In addition to replicating Study l's results, Study 2 examined (a) the joint condition of supervisor developmental feedback and presence of creative coworkers and (b) whether creative personality moderated the contributions of the 2 joint conditions. Converging results from the 2 field studies demonstrated that when creative coworkers were present, the less supervisors engaged in close monitoring, the more employees exhibited creativity. Study 2 also found that the contribution of this joint condition was stronger for employees with less creative personalities and that when creative coworkers were present, the more supervisors provided developmental feedback, the more employees exhibited creativity.

Zhou J., & George J.M . ( 2001).

When job dissatisfaction leads to creativity: Encouraging the expression of voice

Academy of Management Journal, 44( 4), 682-696.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study focused on the conditions under which job dissatisfaction will lead to creativity as an expression of voice. We theorized that useful feedback from coworkers, coworker helping and support, and perceived organizational support for creativity would each interact with job dissatisfaction and continuance commitment (commitment motivated by necessity) to result in creativity. In a sample of 149 employees, as hypothesized, employees with high job dissatisfaction exhibited the highest creativity when continuance commitment was high and when (1) useful feedback from coworkers, or (2) coworker helping and support, or (3) perceived organizational support for creativity was high.

Zhou H., & Long L.R . ( 2004).

Statistical remedies for common method biases

Advances in Psychological Science, 12( 6), 942-950.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The problem of common method biases has being given more and more attention in the field of psychology, but there is little research about it in China, and the effects of common method bias are not well controlled. Generally, there are two ways of controlling common method biases, procedural remedies and statistical remedies. In this paper, statistical remedies for common method biases are provided, such as factor analysis, partial correlation, latent method factor, structural equation model, and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed separately. Finally, suggestions of how to choose these remedies are given.

[ 周浩, 龙立荣 . ( 2004).

共同方法偏差的统计检验与控制方法

心理科学进展, 12( 6), 942-950.]

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The problem of common method biases has being given more and more attention in the field of psychology, but there is little research about it in China, and the effects of common method bias are not well controlled. Generally, there are two ways of controlling common method biases, procedural remedies and statistical remedies. In this paper, statistical remedies for common method biases are provided, such as factor analysis, partial correlation, latent method factor, structural equation model, and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed separately. Finally, suggestions of how to choose these remedies are given.

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