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## 强势品牌广告竞争的溢出效应

1,2, ,1, 4, ,3, 5, 6, 3

1 武汉大学经济与管理学院, 武汉 430072

2 华中师范大学人文社会科学高等研究院, 武汉 430079

3 华中师范大学心理学院, 武汉 430079

4 湖北大学发展规划处, 武汉 430062

5 信阳师范学院教育科学学院, 河南 信阳 464000

6 中南财经政法大学工商管理学院, 武汉 430073

## Spillover effects of strong brands competition

1,2, ,1, 4, ,3, 5, 6, 3

1 Economics and Management School, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China

2 Institute for Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China

3 School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China

4 Development and Planning Office, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China

5 College of Education Science, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000, China

6 School of Business and Administration, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073, China

Abstract

Although there are many studies focusing on competitive advertising, brand advertising, category advertising, advertising clutter, and advertising interference, there has been little research focusing on strong brands competition. The extent literature focuses on Product Crisis Spillover Effect, Umbrella Branding Spillover Effect, Advertising Spillover Effect, and Corporate Social Responsibility Reputation Spillover Effect. However, what is the spillover effect for competition taking place among strong brands on weak brands? What will happen to the weak brands when two strong brands competing in the same category? Is it explained by the spillover effect theory? And what is the mechanism? These are a series of interesting questions that have both theoretical and practical value.

A total of 855 college students (mean age = 22.6 years, SD = 3.4 years) participated in the experiments. First, advertising repetition and advertising length were used as the stimuli indicating competition strength, and perceived competition was used to represent competition strength. Then, the following focus question was investigated: will there be spillover effect on weak brands when two strong brands competing in the same category? Finally, the moderating role of product involvement and product attribute similarity for the main effect was tested. Experimental methods were adopted in these studies and fictitious brands were used to test the research hypotheses.

The results of the present study indicates that, advertising repetition is closely related to perceived competition, and the more repetitions of two brand advertisements, the higher the competition level perceived by the subjects is, which indicated that advertising repetition can be used as a specific means of operating the advertising competition. However, the advertisement length has no effect on the perceived competition. Strong brand advertising competition has a spillover effect on weak brands. With the increase in the competition strength of strong brand advertising, the spillover effect on weak brands has also increased accordingly. The degree of product involvement and similarity of product attributes have a moderating effect on the main effect, and the lower product involvement and the higher similarity of product attributes tended to produce the greater spillover effect.

The current study enriches the existing spillover theory and discovered the spillover effect of strong brand advertising competition within the same category on weak brands for the first time. At the same time, the study found that the product involvement and product attribute similarities have a moderating effect on the spillover effect. The conclusions of the research can be used to guide advertising practice and brand owners and market managers in different market positions.

Keywords： advertising repetition ; advertising length ; spillover effects ; product involvement ; product attribute similarity

JIN Xiangdong, ZHANG Guangling, CAO Jing, GU Chuanhua, WEI Hua, DUAN Zhaohui, . Spillover effects of strong brands competition[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(6): 678-692 doi:10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00678

## 1 问题的提出

### 2.1 研究假设

H1：同一品类两个品牌短时间内在同一媒体上广告重复的频率越高,导致消费者感知到的广告竞争水平越高。

2.1.2 广告长度与感知到的广告竞争

H2：同一品类内部两个品牌短时间内在同一媒体上轮番播放广告长度越长, 消费者感知到的广告竞争水平越高。

### 2.2 实证研究

2.2.1 实验1A：检验广告重复对感知到的广告竞争的影响作用

2.2.2 实验1B：检验广告长度对感知到的广告竞争强度的影响

### 3.1 研究假设：两个强势品牌广告竞争对弱势品牌具有溢出效应

H3：在成熟期的产品市场上, 随着强势品牌广告竞争强度提高, 消费者对于弱势品牌的品牌态度降低, 导致负面溢出效应。

### 3.2 实证研究

1次(n = 25) 3次(n = 29) 5次(n = 28)
M SD M SD M SD

### 4.1 研究假设

4.1.1 产品涉入度的调节作用

H4：在两个强势品牌广告竞争的情况下, 相对于高涉入度的产品而言, 低涉入度产品的弱势品牌更容易受到强势品牌广告竞争溢出效应的影响。

4.1.2 产品属性相似性的调节作用

Feldman和Lynch (1988)提出了可获得—可诊断理论用于解释溢出效应, 该理论指出, 如果消费者认为产品A的信息对于产品B具有信息价值(可诊断), 那么消费者就会用对产品A的质量感知来推测产品B的质量。但是这种推测有个前提条件, 那就是这两种产品和对他们的质量感知可以同时从消费者记忆中提取(可获得)。Collins和Elizabeth (1975)指出, 关于产品和产品态度的信息以知识结点或者网络结点的方式存在于消费者知识网络中, “可获得”就是由于结点之间相互具有链接。如果两种产品在同一品类, 这种链接就是指两种产品都具有很强的行业典型性、代表性, 或者是两种产品的功能属性非常相似。以往研究还发现品牌间属性层面的相似性比整体层面的相似性更具可诊断性, Roehm和Tybout (2006)研究发现在产品发生危机的时候, 与危机品牌产品属性具有相似性的产品更容易受到产品危机溢出效应的波及, 相反, 与危机品牌属性差异很大的产品, 没有受到产品危机的负面溢出效应影响(Janakiraman, Sismeir, & Dutta, 2009; Dahlén & Lange, 2006; 范宝财, 杨洋, 李蔚, 2014)。

H5：两个强势品牌广告竞争对弱势品牌的溢出效应大小, 取决于弱势品牌与强势品牌的产品属性相似性高低, 弱势品牌与强势品牌产品属性相似性越高, 那么溢出效应越大, 反之, 溢出效应越小。

### 4.2 实证研究

4.2.1 实验3A：检验涉入度的调节作用

M SD M SD M SD

### 图2

4.2.2 实验3B：检验产品属性相似性的调节作用

M SD M SD M SD

### 5.1 主要结论

5.1.1 广告重复对感知到的广告竞争的影响作用

5.1.2 强势品牌广告竞争对弱势品牌具有溢出效应

5.1.3 产品涉入度、产品属性相似性具有调节作用

5.2.1 理论贡献

5.2.2 管理启示

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