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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 December 1987, Volume 19 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    DAI ZHEN'S VIEWPOINT ON COGNITION AND EM0TI0N
    Yan Guo-cai Shanghai Normal University
    1987, 19 (04):  3-10. 
    Abstract ( 462 )  
    Dai Zhen's psychological thought on cognition and emotion /desirewas discussed in this article. His standpoints on cognition was reviewedin three areas, perception, mind and the relationship between perceptionand mind. His standpoints on emotion/desire was reviewed in twoareas, emotion, desire and attitude towards emotion/desire.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY IN SHANG AND WESTERN ZHOU DYNASTIES
    Ai Yong-ming,Zhu Yong-xin (Suzhou University)
    1987, 19 (04):  11-18. 
    Abstract ( 587 )  
    China was one of the world's leading countries that made significantcontributions to criminal psychology in ancient times. studies onhistorical classics such as Shangshu (The Book of History), Shi (TheBook of Songs), Zhouyi (The Book of Changes). This paper probes intothe concepts of criminal* psychology in Shang and Western Zhoudynasties (c. 16th century-771 B.C.) in four areas: (1) Causes that leadto criminal behaviour and prevention of crime through psychologicalmethods, (2) Psychology in the judicial process, (3) Penalty psychologyand (4) Psychology of confessed prisoners.
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    EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF EXTRINSIC REWARD UPON INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
    Zhou Guo-tao Northeast Normal University
    1987, 19 (04):  19-26. 
    Abstract ( 570 )  
    Within motivational theory, there have been several demonstrationswhich show that extrinsic reward for a task reduces intrinsic motivationOne explanation is that the subject attributes the performance of therewarded task to the reward. But this study provides evidence suggestingthat the changes in the intrinsic motivation are due to incentive contraseffects.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH IN CONCEPT FORMATION
    Chen Jia-lin East China Normal University
    1987, 19 (04):  27-32. 
    Abstract ( 574 )  
    Using Assumed Test Model of Chinese Characters, this articlestudies the formative process of concepts. The result shows that AssumedTest Model of Chinese Characters is a good way to study the formative-process of concepts; the degree of difficulty of a concept can affect itsformative process; the curve of concept formation is one that indicatessudden change; the different tactics taken by the testee and his or herscope of knowledge and experience can affect the formative process ofconcepts. As for the formative level of concepts, there is no differenceof statistical significance between male and female testees.
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    A SAMPLE STUDY OF MIDDLE—SCH00L STUDENTS' VALUE SYSTEM AND MORAL JUDGEMENT IN BEIJING
    Wang Xin-ling Institute of Sociology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
    1987, 19 (04):  33-42. 
    Abstract ( 663 )  
    This experiment is aimed at exploring the developmental conditionscharacteristics and regularities of Chinese middle school studentsideology and morality in the 1980's in terms of value systems and moraljudgements and their interrelationship. The research results indicate thatvalue systems of the middle school students are influenced mainly bysocial and personal psychological factors. The value systems across thefour grades manifest some identities and differences. The moral judgementlevels of the middle school students increase gradually with age.Grade 2 is the key period for the development of moral judgementsSubjects at different moral developmental stages attach importance todifferent values. Values are the basis, foundation and criterion of morajudgements.
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    A STUDY ON THE LATERALITY DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO HEMISPHERES IN HIGHER—ORDER COGNITIVE TASKS
    Luo Qing-xu,Shui Ren-de East China Normal University Hangzhou University
    1987, 19 (04):  43-48. 
    Abstract ( 516 )  
    This experiment studies the laterality difference in the execution ofthe higher-order cognitive task categorization, utilizing Chinese wordsand pictures as stimuli materials. The subjects were called upon tojudge whether the two stimuli simultaneously presented in the right orleft visual field came under the same category. The results suggestedthat: (1) when using the nonverbal pictures as stimuli materials, thesuperiority of the right hemisphere in higher-order cognitive tasks wasevident, and when using the Chinese words as stimuli materials, thesuperiority of the left hemisphere in higher-order cognitive tasks wasevident; (2) the two hemispheres had no laterality difference in the"same" judgment and the "different" judgment modes.
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    ON ESTIMATION OF CRITICAL N0ISY VALUES CORRESPONDING TO TRANSITION OF ADJACENT ANNOYING CATEGORIES
    Ma Mou-chao,He Cun-dao Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica, China Department of Psychology, East China Normal University
    1987, 19 (04):  49-53. 
    Abstract ( 556 )  
    In this paper a new kind of category scales called MultistageEvaluation Method has been applied to estimate the possibility of noisyannoyance, and a definition about determination of critical noisy valuescorresponding to intersection of adjacent categories of annoyance hasbeen proposed. which indicated that the critical noisy values showingtransitions of annoying category from light quiet to noisiness, heavynoisiness and severe noisiness are 53, 63, 82dB (A) respectively. Thisstudy also explores the relationship between annoyance and noislevels.
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    LEXICAL EFFECTS ON PHONEME PERCEPTION IN POLYSYLLABIC WORDS
    Yang Yu-fang Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1987, 19 (04):  54-61. 
    Abstract ( 486 )  
    Phoneme perception in Abstract fluent speech is constrained andfacilitated by higher-level processing. The experiments used the paradigmof phoneme categorization to investigate the role of the lexicon and thesyllable in speech perception. In particular, they examined whether thelexical effect on phoneme perception found previous?y by Ganong (1980)could also be found in polysyllabic words, and whether such an effectwas influenced by the presence of shorter words embedded within thepolysyllabic words. The experiments also investigated how the lexicaleffect in polysyllabic words was influenced by stimulus repetition andsubjects' expectations. The results of experiments 1 and 2 showed a significant effect ofthe lexical status of the whole stimulus on phoneme categorization,but revealed no influence of the subjects' expectation on the higher-levelconstraints. The results of experiment 2 demonstrated the decay of thelexical effects with stimulus repetition. The implications of these results are discussed for speechand phoneme perception theories.
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    A CRITICISM ON THE TRADITIONAL EQUATI0N CONNECTING TIME NEEDED FOR REACTI0N AND INTENSITY OF STIMULATION
    Chen Wen-xi Shanxi Mining College
    1987, 19 (04):  67-73. 
    Abstract ( 674 )  
    The relation between time needed for simple reaction and intensityof stimulation was formerly derived from an assumed mathematicalmodel similar to that of the process of learning or growth. However, theequation so derived often fails to fit in with experimental data, showingthat the traditional theory was quite untenable. This paper applies the author's model of stimulation and effect,resulting in an equation which reasonably agrees with experiments, afact confirming this new model in a more general sense. Inspection of the derived equation gives evidence that a durationabout 40-60 ms is probably indispensable for the brain to accumulateenough energy to set up a commanding nervous impulse for anyphysical reaction.
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    OBSERVATI0NS ON NERUOPHYSI0LOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTI0NS OF THE SIMULATED HELI0X SATURATION DIVE TO 302 METRES
    Jin Yan-lin,Tang Ze-min,Zhao De-ming,Jin Zhong-sheng Institute of Underwater Technology, Shanghai
    1987, 19 (04):  74-79. 
    Abstract ( 638 )  
    During the simulated heliox saturation dive at the depth of 302 m.,some neurophysiological and psychological functions of the 3 subjectswere observed through the senses of the subjects and psychological tests.The results showed that simple visual reaction-time was prolonged by7.3%, 4.5% and 6.5% during the compression from surface to 200m, 250mand 302m respectively. The error ratio of mental test in book-answerway increased by 156.4% at the interim stop of 200m. During compressionto 250m, the ballbearing rate decreased by 12.2% and the error ratioincreased by 27.6%. After staying at 302m. for 1 day, the simple visualreaction-time was prolonged by 6.1%, the ballbearing rate decreased by11.3% and the error ratio increased by 56.2%, the sorting card timewas prolonged by 8.7% and the error ratio of mental test in book-answerway increased by 113.8%. All the changes mentioned above returned tothe control levels after the beginning of decompression or reaching thesurface. The symptoms of HPNS of the subjects were light, which mightbe related to the slow compression rate and interim stops.
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    THREE SYMBOLS OF THE ANGLE—OF—ATTACK ERROR TRADE—OFF STUDIES
    Cui Dai-ge Institute of Psychology:Academia Sinica
    1987, 19 (04):  80-87. 
    Abstract ( 904 )  
    The experiment was carried out by using a computer system, aHead-up Display (HUD) system, and the analog control cabin of Fighter-5. The symbols of the angle-of-attack error and the picture of thebackground were all distinctly simulated with the situations of the Head-up Display in dynamic state. By means of measuring the signal-responding competence of the subjects, an optimal display pattern wasselected among several options. On the basis of the experiment, a surveywas carried out in several air force units with similar results.
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    THE EFFECTS ON EMG BI0FEEDBACK AND AUTOGENIC TRAINING IN RELIEVING THE ANXIETY OF PREGNANT WOMEN
    Yang Li-neng Department of Physical Education, East China Normal University
    1987, 19 (04):  88-94. 
    Abstract ( 498 )  
    Three experimental groups of pregnant women in anxiety statewere given EMG biofeedback training, Autogenic training and EMGbiofeedback plus Autogenic training respectively. A control group wasinstructed to relax but not trained with any of the three methodsmentioned above. Each group had 6 30-minute sessions. The averagevariations in EMG, GSR and STAI scores showed that all the three kindsof methods produced significant effects on the three groups of experimental subjects after training but the differences among the three groups hadno statistical significance. The control group showed no relief in thestate of anxiety as indicated in EMG, GSR and STAI data. A follow-upstudy showed that there were differences of statistical significancebetween the experimental groups and the control group. Autogenic trainingwas suggested to be a convenient way of relieving anxiety in pregnantwomen.
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    PR0GRESS IN THE STUDY OF THE NEUR0BIOLOGICAL BASIS 0F LEARNING AND MENIORY IN INVERTEBRATES
    Xu Bing-xuan Shanghai Brain Research Institute, Academia Sinica
    1987, 19 (04):  107-113. 
    Abstract ( 516 )  
    The work of Kandel and his colleagues is reviewed. It shows theprogress made in the study of the neurobiological basis of learning andmemory in invertebrates. This article is divided into four parts:Behavioral observation, neural mechanism, studies at the molecular leveland comparison between sensitization and classical conditioning. Eachpart is subdivided into several sections. The author of this articleconsiders their work a breakthrough in the study of the neural cellmechanism of learning and memory.
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