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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 19 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    THE INFLUENCE OF LUMINANCE CONTRAST OF VDT ON VISUAL PERFORMANCE
    Zhu Zu-xiang Hangzhou University
    . 1987, 19 (03): 3-9.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 90 )
    This Experiment was carried to investigate the effects of theluminance contrast between the symbols and background of VDT. Usingaccommodation and convergence time of eyes and the performance ofreading symbols, eight luminance contrasts ranging from 3: 1 to 18: 1 werecompared. It was confirmed that when the luminance of background wasabout 20cd/m~2, the optimum contrast range was about from 8: 1 to 12: 1and the permitted luminance contrast range was from 4: 1 to 18: 1.
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    AUDITORY TUNING CURVES OF HUMAN SUBJECTS
    Fang Zhi,Yang Yu-fang,Jing Ling-juan Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1987, 19 (03): 10-16.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 99 )
    The frequency selectivity of the auditory system can be identifiedby the tuning curve and its Q value. The present study, using the para-digm of simultaneous masking, measured both the psychophysical and thephysiological tuning curves i? 10 subjects with normal hearing and 5subjects with degenerative hearing loss. To facilitate comparison, thetwo kinds of tuning curves were obtained by using the same acousticstimuli, i. e. 500Hz and 4000 Hz pip tone set at the same sensation level.The electrophysiological data adopted to determine the physiologicaltuning curve was the amplitude of P~6-SN_(10) complex of brainstemresponse. Results showed that (1) there was no significant difference betweenthe Q values of these two kinds of tuning curves, (2) at 4000Hz, the Qvalues of the two curyes in the degenerative group were significantly?ess than those of the normal group. It may be concluded that withproper selection of acoustic stimuli and electrophysiological data, thephysiological tuning curve can reflect the frequency selectivity andchanges of the auditory system with approximately equal-value, thesame sensitivity and the same frequency-specificity as the psychophy-sical tuning curve does.
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    SAFETY LIMIT OF AUDITORY FATIGUE
    Wang Nai--yi Jnst1fufe of PsycholOgy, Acadimeo SI'nl'ca
    . 1987, 19 (03): 17-20.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 144 )
    The articla investigated the bounce appearing 2 minutes afterexposure to 500-1000Hz octave band noise at 80-110dB SPL, and itsrelation to the transferring of maximum TTS to high frequency alongwith the level of exposure. The results indicated that when exposureintensity exceeded 90dB SPL, the bounce at 2000Hz and 4000Hz increasedsharply with the level of exposure. When the exposure intensity reached98dB SPL, the bounce no longer increased with the level of exposure.The critical intensity of maximum TTS which began to transfer to highfrequency was 95dB SPL, which was just the time when the bounce wasin the process of sharp increase at high frequency. Therefore 90dB SPLmay be regarded as the maximum tolerable sound pressure level of 500-1000Hz octave band noise.
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    ROLE OF STRUCTURAL TOYS IN CULTIVATING PRESCHOOLER'S CREATIVE ABILITY
    Chen Hui-chang,Wang Ling-wang,Gong Li-li,Mao Cheng-ying,Cao Li Institute of Educatonal Research of Shanxi Province, Taiyuan Kindergarten of the China Welfare Institute, Shanghai
    . 1987, 19 (03): 21-27.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 215 )
    Natural experiment was used in this study to explore the effects ofusing structural toys in teaching preschoolers, arousing their imaginationand developing their creative ability. The subjects were 50 boys andgirls in a boarding kindergarten whose mean age was 4 years and 8months. The variables in the experiment were four different teachingmethods: (1) imitation-transform method; (2) changing imitative objectsmethod; (3) imitating life-prototype method; (4) transforming life-proto-type method. In teaching the control group, only the imitation methodwas used. After 7 months of experimental teaching, the general intell-igence and creative ability of the experimental group obviously exceededthat of the control group. The data have proved that there is a positivecorrelation of 0.4 between the preschoolers' general intelligence and theircreativity.
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    INITIAL STUDY OF THE LITERARY PSYCHOLOGICAL IDEAS IN THE "B00K OF SONGS"
    Zou Da-yan Educational Department, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang
    . 1987, 19 (03): 28-36.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 100 )
    This article is a preliminary study of the literary psychologicalideas contained in the earliest book on poems in China-the "Book ofSongs" (Shi Jing). It discusses (1) literary imagination and associ-ation of ideas; (2) description of human sentiments, (3) portrayal ofpersonalities.
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    A CROSS—CULTURAL STUDY ON THE CONCEPTION OF INTELLIGENCE
    Fang Fu-xi D. Keats (Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1987, 19 (03): 37-44.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 90 )
    The study was conducted with the collaboration and guidance ofDr. D. M. Keats of the Department of Psychology, Newcastle University,Australia. The porpose of this study was to explore how Chinese and Austra-lian adults and children, who have different social and cultural backgro-unds, understand the cenception of intelligence. Children (aged 11 or 12), college students, teachers and other adultswere questioned. In the first stage of the study, the responses wereinduced by the question: What is an intelligent child (or an adult) likeThe answers were classified into three categories: general ability,thinking ability and personality. There were 10 or 11 items in eachcategory. The subjects were then asked to rate and rank the itemswithin each category in terms of the extent of approval and priority ofimportance in the second stage of study. A comparison of the views between the two cultural groupsindicated: 1. There were some common views shared by Chinese and Australi-ans for the characteristics related to intellegence, such as "general abili-ty" and "personality", yet there were substantial discrepancies in thepriority of characteristics in "thinking ability". 2. The construction of intelligence was significantly consistentwithin all Chinese groups as it is within Australian adult groups, b?views differed between Australian adults and children. 3. Generally, the subjects included personality in interpreting andconsidered that personality had a strong effect on the development ofintelligence.
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    COMPARISON OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN BEIJING AND H0NG KONG:ANALYSlS OF ITEM ENDORSEMENT DISCREPANCIES ON THE MMPI
    Song Wei-zhen and Cui Qiu-geng,Fanny M. Cheung and Kong Ying-yi Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Department of Psychology, Chinese University of Hong Kong
    . 1987, 19 (03): 45-51.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 130 )
    The purpose of the study was to analyze the differences in theresults of the tests on university students in Beijing and Hong Kongareas by using the Wiggins Content Scale, one of the Content Scales ofMMPI. Based on rational methods and internal consistency statistics inwide application, it consisted of 13 subscales. The results showed that the scores of male students tested by sub-scales of HOS and FEM in Beijing area were higher than those in HongKong area. Conversely, the scores of REL in Beijing area was lowerthan that in Hong Kong. The scores of female students tested by the scalesof FEM REL AUT HOS HYP in Hong Kong area were higherthan those in Beijing area. These cultural and subcultural differences in MMPI item responsesshould be noted when making test interpretations.
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    A STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE SIZE 0F THE VISUAL TASK DETAIL,TASK CONTRAST AND TASK BACKGR0UND ILLUMINATION AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE LEVEL OF VISUAL PERF0RMANCE
    Ge Lie-zhong,Zhu Zu-xiang (Department of Psychology, Hangzhou University)
    . 1987, 19 (03): 52-63.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 97 )
    In the study, the probability of correctly identifying the directionof the gap of landolt was measured. The results were compared withthose of similar experiments. The main conclusions were as follows: (1) The increase of any one of the three variables: the size of thevisual task detail, task contrast and task background illuminance wouldresult in an increase of the level of visual performance, but theincreasing effect on the level of visual performance was reduced as thevalue of the variables increased. (2) When the level of visual performance wes kept constant, therewere compensatory relationships between the size of the visual taskdetail, task contrast and task background illuminance, but thiscompensatory effect was reduced as the compensatory factor wasincreased. (3) The relative contrast sensitivity function of luminance forChinese subjects was very much similar to that recommended by theCIE, but there were some discrepancies in quantity occurring mainlyat the low level of illuminance.
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    THE PROCESSING OF PRON0UNCING CHINESE CHARACTERS BY PROFICIENT MATURE READERS
    Shu Hua,Zhang Hou-can (Beijing Normal University)
    . 1987, 19 (03): 64-72.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 93 )
    Using the naming method, this study investigated the cognitiveprocess in the pronouncing of Chinese characters by undergraduatestudents. Materials mostly consisted of grapheme-phoneme characters. In experiment 1, the pronouncing of signal characters of differenttypes and frequency was studied. The result showed three ways ofgrapheme-phoneme conversion, namely: direct retrieval, phoneticcomponent reasoning and analogical reasoning. For higher frequencycharacters, direct retrieval was the way mostly used. As frequencydecreased, the role of phonetic component and analogical reasoningincreased. Experiment 2 showed that the consistency of phoneticcomponent pronunciation played an important role in pronouncinglowor frequency characters,
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    AUTOMATIC SEMANTIC PROCESSING AND INFLUENCE OF SELECTIVE ATTENTION UPON THE STROOP PHENOMENON
    Ji Gui-ping,Jiao Shu-lan Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1987, 19 (03): 73-78.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 432 )
    Both normal and deaf-mute subjects were recruited to participate inthe experiment in order to explore the generality of the Stroop pheno-menon. Four Chinese characters: "red", "yellow ", "green" and "blue", eachwritten in the three colors other than the color delloted by the worditself, were exposed to the subjects who were asked to respond byidentifying the character or the color according to the instructions. Inone situation, the instruction was given before the stimulus wasdisplayed. In other situations, the instruction was given after exposureof the stimulus, allowing different lengths of time in between. The results show: 1. There is no significant difference in the perfor-mance of the color-word interference task between the normal subjectsand the deaf-mute subjects, which reveals the generality of the auto-matic semantic processing. 2. The subjects' performance can beimproved by selective attention, but the color-naming task is harderthan the word-reading task. 3. The Stroop effect varies with the lengthof delay in giving the instruction, which suggests that the Stroop effectmay be connected with the memory process.
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    MAIN VIEWP0INTS IN DAI ZHEN'S PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHT
    Yan Guo-cai Shanghai Normal University
    . 1987, 19 (03): 79-83.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 103 )
    Dai Zhen (1723-1777) was one of the most famous scholars and thin-kers of the Qin dynasty in China. The paper focused on the main view-points contained in his psychological thought, i. e., (1) views on spiritand form; (2) views on mind and matter; and (3) the theory of humannature. His four doctrine on human nature contained four points: (1)human nature is endowed by heaven; (2) human beings are the mostprecious of all living creatures; (3) Men are born good; and (4) humannature is cultivated through practice.
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    CHAOS AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Li Wei,Xu Lian-cang Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1987, 19 (03): 89-93.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 127 )
    Deterministic mathematical models of nonlinear systems can giverise to complex aperiodic (chaotic) dynamics, which have been studiedby scientists in many fields. This paper presents considerations onchaotic dynamics of direct relevance to physiological psychology. Anelementary review of the onset and numerical analysing methods ofchaos is given. We took the computation experimental facts in neuralsystem as an example to show that there are more significance infinding some new statistical implements in psychology.
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    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ITEM—ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE ITEM RESPONSE THEORY AND THE CLASSICAL TEST THEORY
    Li Wei-ming,Cheng Fu-guo Department of Educational Management, Shanghai Normal University
    . 1987, 19 (03): 94-100.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 129 )
    The item response theory (IRT) has been considered by some scho-lars as one of the three prime directions of current psychological measu-rement theory. In several respects it is more reasonable than the classi-cal test theory (CTT). This paper, using the 1986 data of the entrance-examinations of Teachers' Colleges in Shanghai, and taking the frame ofCTT, computes the indexes of five multiple-choice items in the mathem-atical papers of science students. Then, basing on IRT, the item charac-teristic curves are plotted and the item parameters are estimated under-logistic models. Thus, a comparative study of the results of item-analysis is made. Some comments are made on the application of IRT and CTT inour practice.
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    CHARACTERISTICS OF SCH00LCHILDREN'SIDEAS ABOUT VOLUNTARY LABOUR FOR PUBLIC GOOD
    Chen Guozhen (Shanghai Teacher's University)
    . 1987, 19 (03): 103-110.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 123 )
    A Study was made on the children's judgements undes four differentsituations: judgement of good or bad on the behaviour itself without beinginfluenced by adult'ssanction, judgement based on the children's subjec-tive intention with no consideration of the consequences, judgementsbased on different action inclinations in voluntary labour, and judgem-ents based on different feelings to ward voluntary labour. The researchis aimed at makinga comprehensive exploration of schoolchildren's ideasabout voluntary labour for public good. The results indicate: schoolchildren's idea for such labour takesshape at the age of 9.5; the critical formulative period is between theages of 7.5 to 9.5; there is still some doubt as to whether or not theviewpoint of the value clarification school, which holds that prizingund declaring one's choice and feeling is one of the important indicatorsin the forming of related moral ideas, is suitable to the study of thedevelopmental trend of moral ideas in Chinese children.
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