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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 1 Issue 00 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY IN THE GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
    CHEN LI AND TSAO JIH-CHANG (Pedagogical Institute, Chekiang, Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica)
    . 1957, 1 (00): 4-13.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 64 )
    Industrial psychology in the German Democratic Republic was described by the authors under the following four headings: 1. General account, 2. Aim and methodology, 3. Research work, 4. Conclusions.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE INTERACTION OF THE FIRST AND SECOND SIGNAL SYSTEMS
    WOO CHIANG LIN ET AL
    . 1957, 1 (00): 14-30.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 32 )
    The aim of this study was to investigate how temporary connection is transmitted from the first signal system to the second signal system and vice versa. 147 school children, aged 8-10, were used as subjects. The experiment was conducted by the method of verbal reinforcement which was devised by Prof. A. G. IvanovSmolensky and standardized by the present writers. The pressing movement of the subject upon the responding apparatus was used as the indicator of the occurence of the phenomenon called selective generalization.The experiment was divided into 3 parts (experiments with single stimulus, differential stimuli and complex stimuli), each of which was subdivided into 2 sections. In the first section, 24 subjects were engaged in the experiment of dynamic transmission from the first to the second signal system, and subsequently in the experiment of transmission from the second to the first signal system. Conversely, in the second section, another 24 subjects started with the experiment of transmission from the second to the first signal system and ended with the experiment of transmission from the first to the second signal system.It was fouud that in the first sections of all parts of the experiment, the percentage of cases in which the phenomenon of "selective generalization" occurred ranged from 75. 0% to 88. 9% and that in all the second sections, the percentage ranged from 66. 7% to 83. 3%. Further analysis of the verbal reports of the subjects after the experiments indicated that in the process of experimentation the subjects, including those in whom "selective generalization" failed to occur, formulated a certain "principle of responding" (i. e. verbal system) which regulated their mode of response to a given experimental situation.The writers are in favor of the theoretical viewpoint of Prof. A. R. Luria in explaining the phenomena of dynamic transmission of temporary connections from the first to the second signal system and vice versa.
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    THE EFFECT OF WORDS IN CHILDREN'S GENERALIZED COGNITIONS
    CHANG SHU TZU, CHAN LUNG TSE AND SHEN TE LI Pedagogical Institute, Tientsin, Hopei
    . 1957, 1 (00): 31-39.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 30 )
    8 school children took part in an experiment on the interaction of the first and the second signal systems. Ivanov-Smolensky's method was used. The results shown that there were more transfer from the first to second signal system than from the second to the first. The amount of transfer from the second to the first system has no correlation with age and grade, and a rather negative correlation with school scores and records. The results were discussed with reference to the aim and method of teaching in elementary-schools.
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    PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON PREDICTION OF MOTION
    TSAO JIH-CHANG, CHING CHI-CHENG, AND LIN CHUNG-HSIEN Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1957, 1 (00): 40-54.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 44 )
    Forty-seven adults and thirty-six children were used as Ss in an experiment in prediction of motion. A visual stimulus, after moving at constant speed in a linear course for 40 cm., passed out of sight and continued its. movement behind a shutter. The Ss were required to make motor reactions with the right hand when the stimulus reached a target at a distance of 18 cm. from the point of concealment.Structure of the movement field, methods of prediction, practice, knowledge of results, transfer of training and other conditions were investigated as to their effects on the prediction. The results show:(1)Variation of the structure field by adding vertical lines at equal intervals on the path of movement exercised little or no influence on the Ss' prediction scores.(2)Oral counting done by the Ss showed no iniluence on the prediction scores.(3)Predictions accompanied with movements made by the Ss with the left hand along a metal bar in accordance with the visual moving stimulus showed positive results, effecting an increase in the accuracy of prediction up to 40 per cent. (4)Demarkating intervals on the movement path accompanied by the Ss' oral counting during the prediction exercised positive influence, raising precision scores of 50 per cent or more.(5)Knowledge of results as a kind of incentive promoted the Ss' predictions.(6)Among children Ss, the accuracy of prediction manifested a tendency to increase with age, the 11-12-year-olds reaching almost the level of adults.(7)In the preliminary stages of prediction, practice had no marked effect, only after a certain number of trials (after 50 trials) improvements occurred.(8)Practice made with the prediction of one speed had an effect of positive transfer to another similar speed. A stationary stimulus in the form of a coloured light exposed simultaneously with the practice speed had no influence on the amount of transfer, but influenced the directions of erroneous responses. It seems that the Ss confused the tested speeds with the practiced speeds, thus affecting unilateral deviation in the direction of over-estimation or under-estimation.(9)When the Ss were being informed about the order among the different speeds, marked positive transfer was observed. This is especially the case if the tested speeds were of considerable difference with the practiced speeds.This investigation being a preliminary one was made with rather small groups of Ss and a limited number of trials, the results, with particular exceptions, were not statistically treated. The results indicated only a general trend and further study is required.
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    EXPERIMENTELLER STUDIENBEITRAG ZU DEN VISUELLEN BEWEGUNGSSCHWELLEN
    CHING CHI-CHENG UND YEH HS(?)AN Institut füt Psychologie, Academia Sinica
    . 1957, 1 (00): 55-61.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 44 )
    Die visuellen Bewegungsschwellen sind hier mittels der Grenzmethode an 9 Vpn festgestellt worden, um als Unterlagen für weitere Untersuchungen über die Bewegungswahrnehmung dienen zu knnen. Jede Vp verfolgte mit den Augen aus einer Entfernung von 2 Metern einen Lichtreiz, der unter einer Leuchtkraft von 40 Watt aus einer fluoreszierenden Lichtquelle eine Weglinie von 16,5 cm mal 0,5 cm entlang lief. Eine Auswahl von 10 verschiedenen Geschwindigkeiten, mit denen die ganze Spannweite visueller Geschwindigkeiten erfasst ist, wurde auf ihre Unterschiedsempfindlichkeit untersucht.Die Resultate haben gezeigt, dass die untere Schwelle bei 0,66 mm/sek liegt. Bei einer Geschwindigkeit von 605 mm/sek berichteten die Vpn ein verschwommenes Aufleuchten über die ganze Bahn hin. Der Beweis ist erbracht worden, dass die Unterschiedsempfindlichkeit, bei 20% iger Steigerung bzw. Minderung des Standardreizes (mit grsseren Werten für die aufsteigende Serie), im allgemeinen dem weberschen Gesetz folgt.Die Verfasser haben auch zu gewissen historischen Behandlungen dieses Problems Stellung genommen.
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    A STUDY OF TIME CONDITIONED REFLEX
    Y. CHIBA, W. FUSUI AND M. TANAKA
    . 1957, 1 (00): 62-72.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 45 )
    Experiments on conditioned reflexes in dogs were performed with the classical method. The results shown that time conditioned reflex may be established by feeding the animal at 5 min. intervals. It is more effective when both food and sound are applied. Time conditioned reflexes are subject tO external inhibition and extinction.
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    SOME FACTS ABOUT THE INTERACTION OF THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES OF THE DOG
    LIU FAN Institute of Psychology, Academi Sinica
    . 1957, 1 (00): 73-80.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 40 )
    The experiment was carried out on the dog by the classical method of conditioned reflex in a sound-proof room. As unconditioned stimulus, acid was poured in one side of the mouth of the dog; and the salivary secretions of its two gl. parotis were collected. The results show that the unconditioned secrection of the left (or the right) gl. parotis of the dog was determined by the unconditioned stimulus on the same side. After unconditioned stimulation on one side of the mouth, the excitability of the nervous centre on the same side was momentarily heightened. The conditioned reflex which had been elaborated with one-sided reinforcement took place primarily on the same side, this might indicate the differentiation between the activities of the left and the right nervous centres. If the reinforcement of a given conditioned reflex was transfered from one side of the mouth to the other, after a few trials the original one-sided conditioned reflex would gradually extinct, and new conditioned reflex would appear and gradually develop on the other side. In the process of such an alteration, the unconditioned secretion of the left and the right gl. parotis rose and lowered alternatively at its final stage. It seems to the author that this fact might be related to the interaction between the centres of the cerebral cortex.
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    A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSATION OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS
    LI CHIA-CHIH &, HSU LIEN-TSANG Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    . 1957, 1 (00): 81-90.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 48 )
    Factors contributed to the causation of accidents in certain metallurgical industry and some machine manufactories have been classified by the authors into three categories, i.e., human, physical and management (including social) factors. Statistics revealed that a high percentage of accidents was attributed to human factors.However, based upon Lenin's theory of reflection and Pavlov's theory of nigher nervous activity, the authors emphasize that most erroneous activities of the workers were mainly determined by inadequate physical conditions, improper training and education, and unsuitable social adjustments, to which, management should be responsible.
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    A PRELIMINARY CRITICISM ON THE BEHAVIORISM OF J. B. WATSON
    NI CHUNG FAN Pedagogical Institute, Kunming
    . 1957, 1 (00): 91-97.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 180 )
    Watson's behaviorism was criticized in the following points: 1. The relation between matter and consciousness, 2. The relation between psychology of mankind and of animals, 3. The relatlon between language and thought.
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