The interaction between facial gender and emotional expression has been a consistent debate. In some impactful theories about face cognition, such as the theory of Haxby, Hoffman and Gobbini (2000), facial gender and emotional expression are described as processing independently. But there are also empirical evidences to suggest that facial gender and emotional expression process interdependently. Researchers who concerned about the interaction between facial gender and emotional expression seemed to ignore the role of facial familiarity. Based on given evidences of facial familiarity’s effects on the processing of facial gender and on the processing of emotional expression, we hypothesize that facial familiarity will module the relationship between facial gender and emotional expression. The experiments were all based on Garner’s selective attention paradigm (Garner, 1976). The main logic of this paradigm is that, if selective attention is possible in the presence of irrelevant dimension, then the two dimensions under investigation could be declared independent or “separable,” if not, the dimensions are “integrality.” In our experiments, participants were required to make speeded facial gender (or expression) classification to four types of stimuli (angry-male, angry-female, happy-male, happy-female). They were instructed to ignore facial gender (or expression) when making expression (or facial gender) classification. Stimuli were presented in two different conditions termed control and orthogonal conditions, and participants should finish both conditions. In the control condition, stimuli varied along only the relevant dimension and the irrelevant dimension was held constant. In the orthogonal condition, stimuli varied along both the relevant dimension and the irrelevant dimension. In experiment 1 (low facial familiarity), we used 16 strange face stimuli with 16 identities. Each stimulus was presented only once in both control condition and orthogonal condition. With a between-subjects design, half of all the 72 participants made the facial gender classification, and the other half made expression classification. Another 72 participants took part in experiment 2 (medium facial familiarity). All settings of experiment 2 were same as experiment 1, except that the stimuli were another 16 faces with 8 identities and each identity has two expressions. 48 participants attended experiment 3 (high facial familiarity), and face stimuli in this experiment were same as experiment 1, but each face was presented repeatedly in both control condition and orthogonal condition. In experiment 4, 48 participants were trained with neutral faces with same identities as 16 faces used in experiment 1, so that they could get familiar with the stimuli’s identities. Then participants were asked to make same tasks as experiment 1. Overall, this study explored whether or not facial familiarity modulate the interaction between facial gender and emotional expression directly. We applied 2(condition: orthogonal, control)×2(facial gender: male, female)×2(expression: angry, happy) repeatedly measured ANOVA on the reaction times (RTs) of facial gender tasks and expression tasks. In experiment 1, there was a main effect of condition in facial gender task (F(1,35) = 16.07, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.32). RTs in the orthogonal condition were significantly lager than RTs in the control condition (namely Garner effect). But in expression task, there wasn’t a significant Garner effect (p > 0.05). This suggested that under low facial familiarity situation, emotional expression had a unidirectional effect on the processing of facial gender. In experiment 2, no significant Garner effect was found in facial gender task (p > 0.05), but the interaction between facial gender and expression reached significance (F(1,35) = 19.35, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.36). Angry female faces took longer to be classified as females than did happy female faces, whereas male faces were the contrary. This interaction implied that emotional expression influenced the processing of facial gender. In expression task, there’s a marginal significant Garner effect (F(1,35) = 2.71, p = 0.109, ηp2 = 0.07), facial gender influenced the processing of emotional expression to a certain degree. In experiment 3, there wasn’t a significant Garner effect in facial gender task (p > 0.05), but a significant interaction between facial gender and expression was found again (F(1,23) = 31.46, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.58). Participants were slower to judge angry female faces as females than to judge happy female faces as females, but there was no difference in RTs to judging angry and happy male faces as males, this suggested again that expression influenced the processing of facial gender. In expression task, there was a significant Garner effect (F(1,23) = 15.95, p = 0.001, ηp2 = 0.41), it meant that facial gender had an impact on the processing of expression. Results of experiment 2 and 3 suggested that under high facial familiarity situation, facial gender and emotional expression influenced the processing of each other. The experiment 4 obtained almost the same results as experiment 3, proved the research hypothesis directly. In conclusion, for unfamiliar faces, emotional expression had an unidirectional effect on facial gender’s processing, but with the increasing of facial familiarity, a bi-directional interaction arisen between facial gender and emotional expression. The future work may focus on the mechanisms behind the facial familiarity’s modulation effect on the interaction between facial gender and emotional expression.
Previous studies found cognitive bias toward body-related information among individuals with fat negative physical self. However, little is known about the cognitive bias toward face-related information among individuals with facial negative physical self (FNPS).
In conclusion, our results demonstrated that females with FNPS had an attention vigilance-maintenance pattern toward negative face-related words.
These findings suggest that Internet Addicts differ from the normal controls in the attention capture led by working memory. When facing with common irrelevant visual stimuli, the Internet Addicts may perform faster in visual processing.
In sum, temporal shifts play an important role in the updating of readers’ situation model. The findings showed that longer the temporal shifts were associated with greater difficulty to update the situation model. Therefore, only the short but not long temporal shifts condition resulted in situation model updating in short-term memory, but when information was stored in long-term memory, updating was possible in the long temporal shifts condition. The results collectively demonstrate that temporal situation model updating is dynamic.
In summary, these results reveal that event comprehension with the presence of visual stimuli involves establishing and dynamic updating the locations of entities in response to linguistic descriptions of events. In consistent with Study1, Study2 proved that both motivation and motion are simulated and the former influences the simulation of the latter. Conforming to the theory of mental simulation, sentence comprehension induces the simulation of the context. While processing events, readers are immersing in the situation and get information of emotion as well as objective facts.
In summary, the results of the present study demonstrated that the G allele in the rs6323 locus, which was regarded as the risk genotype in some previous studies, could respond more favorably to peer acceptance among male early adolescents. This finding lends partial support for the differential susceptibility model, such that plasticity allele can yield better or worse outcomes depending on the nature of environmental inputs. It, therefore, contributes to MAOA gene-depression literature by elaborating the moderating effect of peer relationships among early adolescents. Future research should consider the inclusion of clinical sample which can enlarge the variations in peer relationships, and the employment of the gene-gene-environment design to further capture the association between rs6323 polymorphism and adolescent depression.
These findings indicated that the mechanism through which CUMS could induce depression-like behaviors, probably is not due to the decrease of 5-HT level within the OFC, but because of excessive release of Glu that resulted from that 5-HT could not regulate glutamatergic neurons or the decrease of 5-HT1A receptor function on glutamatergic neurons within the OFC during stress. Our data suggested that 5-HT1A receptor in the OFC plays an important role in modulating the synthesis and release of Glu during CUMS. This study provided insights on modulation of glutamate transmission in depression.
Results from the cluster analysis revealed three developmental patterns, labeled as linear increase, linear decrease, and quadratic increase. However, none of these developmental patterns had significant effects on the counseling outcomes. Then, correlations between the four shape-of-change parameters (i.e., indicators of developmental patterns) and outcomes were tested, but none of the correlations was significant either. It was also found that the rupture-repair episodes defined in terms of various criteria could not differentiate good outcomes from poor ones. Notably, the levels of working alliance were still found to predict outcomes. In order to explore the reasons why the developmental patterns had no relationship with outcomes, we conducted case studies comparing the working alliance developmental patterns in cases with good or poor outcomes. Results showed that the same developmental patterns emerged in both types of cases, but these pattern may have different meanings for different clients. It appeared that therapists’ regulations of working alliance in early sessions may have great influence on therapeutic outcomes.
With the increasing external competition faced by firms in today’s business world, organizations have relied more on team-based management to confront with the environmental uncertainty and the rapid changes. Vertical leadership, a top-down process wherein a formal leader who possesses the managerial role influences team members through his/her authority, fails to provide efficient solutions to all kinds of emerging issues in such an organizational context. Therefore, shared leadership, which refers a dynamic and interactive influence process among members in group aiming to lead one another mutually to achieve group or organizational goal, has received burgeoning scholarly attention in both the leadership literature and the team management research. Despite the increasing interests in shared leadership, very a few researchers have systematically examined shared leadership in the organizational science. To extend shared leadership research, several research purposes were included in the present study. Specifically, we first investigated the effects of shared leadership on team information exchange and team passionate tone. Second, we tested the mediating roles of these two team process variables in the relationships between shared leadership between team performance and team creativity. Finally, we examined the moderating effects of environmental uncertainty on the mediational relationships between shared leadership and team outputs via team information exchange and team passionate tone, respectively.
Empirical results showed that shared leadership was positively related to both team information exchange and team passionate tone, which exhibited different effects on team performance and team creativity. Specifically, team information exchange was positively related to team performance, whereas team passionate tone was positively related to team creativity. Moreover, mediation analyses revealed that team information exchange mediated the positive relationship between shared leadership and team performance, and team passionate tone mediated the positive relationship between shared leadership and team creativity. Finally, moderated mediation analyses suggested that the mediation relationship between shared leadership and team creativity via team passionate tone was moderated by environmental uncertainty, such that the mediation relationship was more positive when environmental uncertainty was higher than when it was lower.
Our findings contribute to the leadership literature in several ways. First, we reveal the theoretical black-box of why shared leadership facilitates team outputs by identifying team information exchange as a cognitive explanation, and team passionate tone as an affective explanation. More importantly, we find that the cognitive mechanism is effective in linking shared leadership with team performance, whereas the affective mechanism is effective in linking shared leadership with team creativity. Finally, we extend the shared leadership research by demonstrating environmental uncertainty as a crucial contextual moderator affecting its effects on team outputs.
In conclusion, the models overcame the shortcomings stemmed from dichotomous attribute models, thus they might provide a richer diagnostic result and more flexible models.