Attention and working memory are two of the core cognitive processes in the human’s information processing system. Working memory and visual attention are intimately related, and the contents of working memory can be referred as “activated” representations severed as ongoing cognition and action. In the meantime, working memory representations currently within the focus of attention can guide attentional selection and behavioral execution. In recent decades, a mount of studies have shown that the activated representations in working memory could top-down capture attention, even if the representations were irrelevant to the task goals, which displayed a robust working memory-driven guidance effect. However, whether the inhibitory representations in working memory can also guide attention, is still a controversial issue? Here, in 4 experiments, the authors manipulated the states of working memory representations with the directed forgetting task, and attempted to explore the effect of activated and inhibitory states of working memory representations on working memory based attentional guidance respectively in task-irrelevant and task-relevant experimental situations. The participants in present study were asked to firstly perform a directed forgetting task, then to search for a target of circle among the distractors of squares, and finally to perform a memory test. In the directed forgetting task, the remember cue in experiment 1 and 3, and the forget cue in experiment 2 and 4 were used to respectively indicate the participants to remember or forget one of two colored squares already stored in working memory. The to-be-remembered (TBR) item and to-be-forgotten (TBF) item in working memory would reappear in visual search task and might match color with one of distractors only in experiment 1 and 2 (i.e., task-irrelevant situation), and might match color with either the target or the distractor in experiment 3 and 4 (i.e., task-relevant situation). In experiment 1 and 2, the results suggested that no matter what types of cues used in the directed forgetting task, when the distractor in visual search task matched color with TBR item, the TBR-matched distractor could capture more attention and slow down the visual search, displaying the attentional guidance effect. However, when the distractor matched the TBF item, neither attentional guidance effect nor attentional inhibition effect was observed. In experiment 3 and 4, the results for the TBR items showed that the visual search was accelerated under TBR-target matching condition and slowed down under TBR-distractor matching condition both in experiment 3 and 4, suggesting that the TBR item in working memory could guide attention biased to the TBR-matched items in visual search task. The results for the TBF items showed that when TBF item matched with distractor, there was no attentional guidance effect found both in experiment 3 and 4. When TBF item matched with target, the guidance effect was still not found in experiment 3. However, an attentional inhibitory effect which was opposed to the attentional guidance effect was observed in experiment 4, suggesting that the inhibitory state of the TBF item could postpone the response to the TBF-matched target. In conclusion, these results indicated that (1) the activated working memory representation could effectively guide attention bias both to the search target and to the distractor in visual search which matched features with such representation, and these attentional guidance effect could not be eliminated or reversed by the inhibitory motivation; (2) the inhibitory working memory representation could transfer the inhibitory state to the visual search task and postpone the response to the search target which matched the features with such representation.
Taken the two ERP results together, we inferred that there would be a sequence of components that represented cognitive processes underlying the encoding of verbal information into episodic memory, and separately supported later remembering, knowing and priming.
In studies of recognition retrieval, emotional memory enhancement effect was described as better memory performance for emotional stimuli than neutral ones. Based on dual-processing theory, recognition retrieval can be divided into two different processes: familiarity and recollection. Two important event-related potential correlates, the FN400 (a negative shift in frontal regions at 300~500ms time window), and the late positive complex (LPC; a positive peak over posterior regions at 500~800ms time window) was associated with familiarity and recollection, respectively. Some researchers considered that emotional memory enhancement effect occurred in recollection but not in familiarity. However, some indirect evidences showed that emotion could enhance memory strength in familiarity-based retrieval. Our research focused on two controversies: 1) whether emotion can enhance familiarity, and 2) how arouse and valence of emotion affect memory enhancement effect. In the current experiment, we used modified “remember/know” paradigm with ERPs recorded, to investigate how emotion influences familiarity and recollection in long-term study-test duration. Subjects were instructed to learn the pictures (including neutral, negative and positive pictures). And after one week, they made “remember/know/guess/new” recognition judgments towards stimuli intermixed with learnt and new pictures. Finally, the valence and arouse of experimental pictures were evaluated by the subjects participated in the experiment. Behaviorally, for studied pictures endorsed as “know”, the memory performances of emotional pictures were better than neutral ones, and there was no significant difference between emotional valences. As for the “remember” judgments, the memory performances of negative pictures were better than positive and neutral ones. ERP results show that, for the pictures judged as “know”, the FN400 old/new effects were significant in emotion condition but not in neutral condition, suggesting that emotion arousing enhanced familiarity-based retrieval. For pictures judged as “remember”, the LPC potentials of negative pictures were more positive than positive and neutral ones, showing that emotion valence modulated recollection-based retrieval. Our findings suggest that: in long-term study-test duration, emotional pictures could result in memory enhancement effect in the familiarity-based as well as the recollection-based retrieval. The emotional memory enhancement effect was not only modulated by the arousing as well as the valence of emotion. Emotional arousing played a predominant role in enhancing memory strength for familiarity-based retrieval. Emotional valence exerts influence exclusively on recollection-based retrieval in a way that only negative pictures could make enhancement effect on recollection.
The above results reveal that the inhibition of the affect labeling on emotions occurs when subjects label emotional stimuli. In the process of emotional labeling the positive emotion was enhanced, and then was weakened.
These results indicated that the three dimensioned Older Adults’ Marital Attachment Scale could be a desired measure in studies concerning marital attachment among older adults. In addition, general attachment shaped in early life might not robustly predict the specified attachment in such as marital relationship. From a developmental viewpoint, the moderate consistency between marital and general attachment styles in later life also suggested that the attachment is a contextual property, instead of a stable trait.
A great deal of research adopting the self-reference effect (SRE) paradigm has investigated whether an individual’s self-construal includes intimate others, such as Mother or Friend. Most of the studies used undergraduates as subjects, but no research has investigated the friend-reference effect in older adults. So two experiments were conducted to investigate whether older adults can show friend-reference effect and to examine the feature of this effect.
These results suggested that Friend was included in one’s self-construal for elder people. And the level of education plays an important role in the friend-reference effect of elderly people.
Recently, increasing numbers of researchers have shown interests in leader emotional intelligence. Even though some of them are optimistic on the relation between leader emotional intelligence and team performance, critics still remain and mixed results are found. What’s more, the mechanisms and constrains that explain the effectiveness of leader emotional intelligence, especially at group level, are relatively unexplored. We address those research gaps by exploring the effect of leader emotional intelligence on leader-member interaction in the perspective of justice climate and group power distance. We also synthesize the performance and attitude at the group level to further examine the influence of leader emotional intelligence in working groups. Justice climate is a suitable reflection of leader-member interaction while emotional intelligence underlines leaders’ social skills. So that, exploring the effectiveness of leader emotional intelligence in the perspective of justice climate grasps the essential characteristic of emotional intelligence. On the other hand, group power distance is a contextual factor that affects the influence of leaders on group outcomes, thus it constrains the extent to which leader emotional intelligence could be effective. The sample for this study consisted of 74 working groups. We used the ability model to define emotional intelligence because it showed better psychometric properties. The questionnaires for leaders included emotional intelligence, group performance, and organizational citizenship behavior, while the questionnaires for group members included procedural justice, interactional justice, satisfaction and organizational commitment. Justice, power distance and four dependent variables were aggregated to group level. Multiple mediator model, moderated mediation and bootstrapping were used in the analysis. The result showed significantly positive relations between leader emotional intelligence and group level outcomes such as task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, satisfaction and organizational commitment. Those relations were mediated by procedural justice climate or interactional justice climate. Furthermore, group power distance moderated the relation between leader emotional intelligence and interactional justice climate: the relation is stronger in groups with higher, rather than lower, group power distance. Group power distance worked indirectly through interactional justice climate to affect group performance and attitude. The current study makes significant contributions both theoretically and practically. Theoretically, we join the debate of emotional intelligence’s effectiveness by showing promising evidences supporting the positive effects of leader emotional intelligence on both performance and attitude at the group level. We also demonstrate the mechanism and contingency in the perspective of leader-member interaction by examining the roles of justice climate and group power distance. Practically, the result of this study suggests that emotional intelligence is an important ability we should consider when selecting the leaders. Leaders can make use of their emotional intelligence to create a justice climate in the organizations. Leaders should also pay attention to group power distance because it will affect the effectiveness of their emotional intelligence.
Leaders’ Implicit Followership Theories (LIFTs) are defined as “leaders’ personal assumptions about the traits and behaviors that characterize followers”. It is an extension of implicit leadership theories (ILTs) supported by the social cognitive theory and cognitive information processing theory. From the “followers-centered” perspective, this paper analyzed the leadership process of “how leaders and followers perceive, decide, and act”.
Over the past decades, team demographic diversity has become a topic of considerable interest to industrial and organizational psychology scholars and organizational managers. However, there is little consistent evidence regarding the relations between team demographic diversity and team performance. There are at least two potential reasons to explain these inconsistencies. First, there are different forms of team demographic diversity and the specific type of diversity should have different effects on team performance. For example, team demographic diversity can be categorized as separation, variety and disparity based on the statistical distribution of team members' characteristics. Second, past researchers suggest considering contextual issues in team demographic diversity research. Rather than test the direct relationship between team demographic diversity and team performance, they have pointed out that contextual factors (e.g., cultural context) should play an important moderating role in the relationship between team demographic diversity and team performance.
Our results showed that different demographic diversity had distinct effects on team performance, depending on the specific diversity type and context (e.g., performance types, culture and team types). However, many researchers rarely distinguish between different types of demographic diversity. Thus, we suggest that future studies should pay more attention on this issue by specifying the demographic diversity types. Further, teams in Eastern countries should increase diversity as variety to improve their performance, whereas teams in Western countries should not only pay attention to team demographic variety, but also need to decrease team demographic disparity to avoid its negative effects on team performance. Overall, our findings have specific implications for companies to improve their performance through team demographic diversity management.
Most computerized adaptive testing (CAT) do not allow examinees to review items because it will drastically decrease measurement precision and bring about extra cheating strategies (Wainer, 1993; Wise, 1996). Allowing item review is essential to make CAT comparable with traditional tests. It also matters in application. Item review enables examinees to correct mistakes due to carelessness, which can further improve the precision of ability estimation. No such option may cause some negative consequences for their overall performance especially in high-stake examinations, such as tension or anxiety (Vispoel, Henderickson, & Bleiler, 2000). Therefore, it is worth trying if allowing item review could alleviate problems mentioned at the beginning (Wise, 1996; Vispoel, 2000, 2005).
Results indicated that: (1) BIP method had better estimate precision than IP method at low ability level under normal strategy; (2) When dealing with Wainer-like strategy, BIP method was far more precise than item pocket method at all ability levels; (3) As the number of blocks increased, estimate precision got closer to non-review condition. Advantages of this new method and future directions were discussed.