Previous research has suggested that faces can produce robust conjunction and feature effects at item recognition in the feature-conjunction paradigm. However, whether such two effects are affected when the task and contextual details are manipulated, has not been described yet. Also, the contribution of external facial features versus internal facial features to feature effect needs further exploration. Thus, the first goal of the present study was to investigate to what extent that the two effects were affected by task type (the two aspects of episodic memory, i.e., item recognition and source retrieval) for unfamiliar faces in the feature-conjunction paradigm. The second goal was to explore the interaction between the consistency of presentation location and task type. Third, we would study the possible difference between external facial features and internal facial features in the case of feature effect. Thirty-one subjects participated in this experiment. The formal stimuli were 720 headshots of unfamiliar individuals, half male and half female. In the study stage, subjects were asked to learn some unfamiliar faces that were either presented on the left side or on the right side of the screen. In the test stage, five types of faces were displayed, left or right: old faces, conjunction faces, old external feature faces, old internal feature faces, and totally new faces; and two types of tasks were randomly presented: the item recognition task during which subjects only had to make old/new judgments, and the source retrieval task which required an additional discrimination towards the location of old faces (i.e., subjects were instructed to differentiate the old faces that were displayed on the same location between study and test from the old faces on different locations and other faces). The results showed that both tasks elicited robust conjunction effect and feature effect for faces, but they were larger in source retrieval task. The interaction between location consistency and task type was significant in terms of memory performance: At recognition, location consistency facilitated both effects, while no such facilitation was observed at source retrieval. The feature effect in old external faces was similar to that in internal feature faces. These results strongly demonstrate that both conjunction effect and feature effect are sensitive to task type, and suggests an important role of high familiarity compared with recollection in such two effects, consistent with the dual-process model. The discrimination of conjunction and feature faces is regulated by the interaction of whether the presentation location is consistent or not between study and test and task type. Additionally, old external facial features and old internal facial features play similar roles in the contribution to feature effect.
Metaphor is a kind of cognitive style that is pervasive in everyday life. Our ordinary conceptual system is fundamentally metaphorical in nature. Spatial metaphor is the mapping between concepts of space and concept of non-space. Spatial metaphor plays an important role in cognition. By studying a large number of corpuses, researchers found that many abstract concepts are constructed and understood through spatial concepts, such as time, quantity, emotion, and moral etc. The kinship, the initial social relationship of individuals, is formed on the basis of blood relationship and marriage. There are corresponding words to represent kinship in each language, and these words are termed as kinship words. Kinship words contain abundant information about genetics, marriage, sociology and culture. This study aimed to explore whether the kinship words could be represented by more concrete spatial concepts, such as up-down, left-right, and within -outside. Generally speaking, “up” implies the higher authority, stronger and upper social status and more respect, “down” means the lower authority, weaker and lower social status and more care; “left” represents the past, “right” on behalf of the future; “inside” on behalf of one of their own, worthy of trust; “Outside” on behalf of others, should be on guard. In this study, three experiments were adopted to explore the effects of culture schemas on the spatial metaphors in the semantic processing of kinship words. The participants were young people of the Han and the Moso. Kinship word judgment task were introduced to examine the impact of the spatial image schema on the semantic processing of kinship words. In experiment 1, 28 kinship words (14 senior generational kinship words and 14 junior generational kinship words) were used to survey the role of up-down metaphor. In experiment 2, 24 kinship words (12 the elder kinship words and 12 the younger kinship words) were used to inspect the role of left-right metaphor. In experiment 3, 26 kinship words (13 the matriarchal kinship words and 13 the patriarchal kinship words) were used to investigate the role of container metaphor. Results showed that: (1) the concepts of kinship words and space vertical dimension existed implicit contact: the senior generational kinship words corresponds to the space "up" and generational kinship words corresponds to the space "down". The results produced by the Moso and the Han people are similar; (2) to elder or young kinship words which belong to the same generational, there were no left-right metaphor consistency effect in the semantic processing of the Han, whereas there were part of left-right metaphor consistency effect in the semantic processing of the Moso. That is, comparing with kinship words displaying on the left of the screen, the Moso reacted much faster when young words appeared on the right of the screen; (3) "circle" can be used as container metaphor to determine the internal and external relations. There were inside-outside metaphor consistency effect in the Moso’ semantic processing of maternal and paternal kinship words. By contrast, no significant difference occurred when Han people responded to the maternal and paternal kinship words. In sum, results in the present study suggested that space metaphors of kinship words of the Han and the Moso have both generality and uniqueness. There were spatial metaphor consistency effect in the kinship words’ semantic processing of the Han and the Mosuo, but the way of metaphor is influenced by their respective cultural schema and body experience. The changes of cultural schema of the Han and the Mosuo determine the changes of the their relative concept space metaphor.
The extant findings showed 5-HTR1A gene rs6295 polymorphism was associated with depression. However, most of them were mainly guided by the “diathesis and stress model” and typically focused on the interaction between risk alleles and adverse environments. According to the “differential susceptibility model”, the individuals exclusively affected by negative contexts can also respond more favorably to positive environments, but the positive environments interacting with the same genes have scarcely been investigated. It also remains unclear whether there is a moderating effect of gender on the way rs6295 polymorphism interacting with environments. This study aimed to test the hypothesis of differential susceptibility model by examining the interaction of rs6295 polymorphism with positive and negative parenting behavior on early adolescent depression, and explore the mediating effect of adolescents’ gender. Participants (n = 1323) were a subset of a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 2715) which investigated 14 primary schools in Jinan by random cluster sampling method. During the initial assessment (in 2008), adolescents (grade 5) were on average 11.31 years old (SD = 0.49), and mothers ranged in age from 35 to 40 years (M = 38.03, SD = 2.39). Adolescents’ depression were identified via self-rating on the Children’s Depression Inventory (2008: a = 0.88; 2011: a = 0.89), and parenting behavior were rated by mother-report questionnaire (positive: a = 0.85; negative: a = 0.72). DNA was extracted from saliva. Genotype at rs6295 was performed in real time with MassARRAY RT software version 184.108.40.206 and analyzed using the MassARRAY Typer software version 3.4 (Sequenom). A series of linear regression analyses were conducted by SPSS 18.0. The results showed rs6295 polymorphism significantly interacted with positive parenting behaviors in predicting early adolescents’ depression, and furthermore this interaction was moderated by adolescents’ gender. Specifically, among female early adolescents, those with CC genotype reported lower levels of depression than their counterparts with G allele (including CG and GG genotypes) when they were experiencing higher levels of positive parenting behavior, but such effect was not observed among the female adolescents who were exposure to lower levels of positive parenting behaviors. The above mentioned interaction between rs6295 polymorphism and positive parenting behaviors was not obtained among male early adolescents. The results also showed that there existed no significant interaction between rs6295 polymorphism and negative parenting behaviors on depression among both male and female early adolescents. The main effect of 5-HTR1A gene rs6295 polymorphism on depression was not found either. Taken together, the findings of the present study indicated that the CC genotype in the rs6295 locus, which was regarded as the risk genotype in some previous studies, could respond more favorably to positive parenting behavior among female early adolescents. This lends partial support for the viewpoint of the newly-developed differential susceptibility model, and contributes to 5-HTR1A gene-depression literature by elaborating the moderating effect of gender and parenting behavior among early adolescents. Future research should add the clinical sample, which can enlarge the variation of the parenting behavior, and the indexes of the distal environmental factors to further examine the interaction between rs6295 polymorphism and environmental influences on adolescent depression.
Problematic Internet use (PIU) and its detrimental effects on adolescents’ adjustment has become a hot topic of research in developmental psychology. Among many factors influencing adolescent PIU, the role of parent-child attachment has increasingly received attention of both practitioners and researchers over the past few years. There is substantial literature documenting that parent-child attachment has an important influence on adolescent PIU, but little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation. Under the basic framework of development system theories and attachment theory, the present study constructed a moderated mediation model based on the social development model and the organism-environment interaction model to examine the effect of family factors (parent-child attachment), peer factors (deviant peer affiliation) and individual factors (effortful control) on PIU and the underling mechanisms. Specifically, the present study examined whether parental attachment would be indirectly related to adolescent PIU through deviant peer affiliation, and whether this indirect association would be moderated by adolescent effortful control. This integrated model can address questions about both mediation and moderation in one model which was helpful to answer the issues such as “what works for whom”, and provide valuable information for early identification and prevention that cannot be obtained by separately testing the two questions. A total of 2758 junior high school students (mean age = 13.53 years, SD = 1.06) participated in this study. Adolescents’ perceived attachment to their parents was measured by the subscale of parental attachment adapted from the short form of Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA). Adolescent affiliation with deviant peers was assessed with deviant peer affiliation questionnaire. The short form of Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised was used to assess effortful control. Adolescent PIU was assessed with questionnaire for screening of PIU. All the measures have good reliability and validity. Multiple regression analysis showed that: (1) After controlling for gender, age, and socioeconomic status, the parent-child attachment has a negative effect on adolescent PIU. (2) The negative association between parent-child attachment and adolescent PIU was mediated by deviant peer affiliation. (3) The mediating effect of deviant peer affiliation was moderated by effortful control. The indirect effect was stronger for adolescents with low self-control than for those with high self-control. These findings contribute to our understanding of how and when parent-child attachment impacts adolescent PIU from different subsystems of development system theories. On the one hand, peer relationships relative to the parent-child attachment, may be a stronger social control factors in a way that parents and educators should be actively concern about whether the child was associated with deviant peers, and give reasonable guidance to help solve their confusion encountered in peer interactions. On the other hand, more attentions should be paid to the low self-control individuals (especially improve their parent-child attachment condition) and low parent-child attachment individuals (especially improve their self-control abilities). Last but not the least, the prevention and interventions for adolescent PIU should not only pay attention to the effect of family factors, peer factors (especially deviant peer affiliation) and individual factors (especially self-control), but also to the combined influence of those factors.
Work constitutes the major part of individual’s social life. Researchers have been studying its influence on employee for decades. However, several limitations exist in previous research. First, the majority of the research has been focusing on its adverse effects, while the positive effect of work has been somehow overlooked. Second, the underlying mechanism of work affecting happiness remains unexplored. To address these issues, a dual-process model was proposed and tested in the current study, drawing from job demands-resources model and resource conservation theory. Specifically, this study examined the relationship among work, family, and happiness. We primarily concentrated on the separate and joint effects of job-demands and job-resources on work-family interference and happiness as well. 834 part-time graduates from three colleges comprise our sample. Participants were asked to fill out questionnaires at three time points (Time 1: job demands and job resources; Time 2: work-family conflict and work-family facilitation; and Time 3: satisfaction with life and affective well-being). These variables were assessed by: Job Demands-Resources Scale, Work-Family Conflict & Facilitation Scale, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Princeton Affect and Time Survey. All Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were acceptable (ranging from 0.86 to 0.90). Polynomial regression, path analysis, and response surface methodology were utilized to test the hypotheses. The results indicated that: (1) job demands had a significantly negative influence on happiness; (2) work-family interference fully mediated such relationship; (3) job resources positively influenced on individual’s perceived happiness; and (4) work-family facilitation partially mediated the relationship between job resources and happiness. (5) Furthermore, it was also found that supervisor support, working as a moderator, buffered the positive association between job demands and work-family interference. (6) Lastly, the results revealed that when job demands and job resources were both high, individual’s experienced happiness peaked. Significance: The present study furthers our understanding of the mechanism regarding how work potentially influences employee’s happiness. The theoretical and managerial implications of our findings, limitations, as well as future research directions were discussed.
For a long time, it has been held by both academics and practitioners in the field of management that the behavior of violating or breaking an organization’s formal rules displayed by employees is self-interested, deviant, and detrimental to the organization. In 2006, Morrison introduced a more nuanced perspective on rule breaking, suggesting that some type of rule breaking may be motivated by positive intentions and beneficial to the organization. She further developed and empirically tested the construct of pro-social rule breaking (PSRB). The present research employed a scenario experiment and a field study to examine the effect of benevolent leadership on employee PSRB by focusing on the moderating role of organizational uncertainty and employee values (i.e. zhong-yong and power distance orientation). The scenario of the experiment described certain situation in which an employee had to decide whether or not to break a rule by placing an urgent order for a large, important customer. The study used a between-subjects design in which benevolent leadership (high or low) and organizational uncertainty (high or low) were manipulated, resulting in four versions of scenarios. Totally, 126 part-time MBA students were randomly assigned to one of the scenario versions. At the end of each scenario, participants responded to four questions which were included as checks of the organizational uncertainty and benevolent leadership manipulations. Then, they responded to five questions that assessed the likelihood that they would break the rule. Finally, respondents completed a short survey that assessed zhong-yong and power distance orientation. The results of the experiment revealed that: (1) Benevolent leadership impacted positively on employee PSRB. (2) Organizational uncertainty related positively to employee PSRB and moderated the relationship between benevolent leadership and employee PSRB, such that this relationship was weaker when organizational uncertainty was high. (3) Zhong-yong and power distance orientation had significant negative influences on employee PSRB. Meanwhile, power distance orientation also moderated the association of benevolent leadership with employee PSRB in such a way that it was stronger for employees low (versus high) in this orientation. The sample of our field study consisted of 187 employees from enterprises located in South Jiang province. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the measures were from 0.73 to 0.95, showing acceptable measurement reliabilities. Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated the discriminant validity of the measurement was also satisfactory. Results of hierarchical regression modeling replicated most of those findings in the scenario experiment except the negative effect of zhong-yong on employee PSRB. As to the specific moderating patterns of the moderators, results from the two studies consistently showed that organizational uncertainty worked as a substitute for benevolent leadership to increase employee PSRB, while employee power distance orientation acted as a buffer or neutralizer to weaken the benevolent leadership-employee PSRB linkage.
Self-sacrificial leaders are willing to abandon or postpone personal interests in order to achieve organizational or group goals. They act as role models and motivate the followers to engage in similar behaviors. The mechanism through which self-sacrificial leadership influences followers’ behavior, however, is still unclear. The current paper explores potential mediators between self-sacrificial leadership and subordinates’ work performance from cognitive and relational perspectives, specifically by examining strategic orientation and supervisor identification. The research highlights psychological effects of self-sacrificial leadership on subordinates’ work performance. Data were collected from 54 leaders and 224 subordinates. The leaders evaluated their subordinates’ work performance and their organizational citizenship behavior. The subordinates rated their leaders in terms of self-sacrificial leadership, and reported their own strategic orientation and identification with the leader. The results indicated that self-sacrificial leadership was positively related to subordinates’ task performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Strategic orientation partially mediated the relationship between self-sacrificial leadership and subordinates’ task performance, and the relationship between self-sacrificial leadership and organizational citizenship behavior. supervisor identification fully mediated the relationship between self-sacrificial leadership and subordinates’ task performance. In addition, identification with the leader partially mediated the relationship between self-sacrificial leadership and subordinates’ organizational citizenship behavior. In conclusion, the present research, with a cross-level design, examined the mechanism through which self-sacrificial leadership influences subordinates’ work performance. The research expands our understanding of the psychological mechanisms between self-sacrificial leadership and followers’ behavior. It has significant implications for managerial practice.
Consumers tend to have a higher evaluation and purchase intention toward the products with stronger brands. Compared to foreign products, Chinese alternatives usually occupy a weaker brand position. Hence, Chinese manufacturers who want to increase market share commonly adopt a low-price strategy. However, such strategy may greatly weaken the organization’s ability to gain profits and undermine its long-term development. Moreover, low price is likely to be used by consumers as a signal of poor quality of the products. Therefore, it is important for Chinese manufacturers with weak brands to adopt new competitive strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine how assortment structure affects consumer’s brand choice. The key hypothesis was that the manufacturers with weaker brands, rather than stronger ones, could optimize the assortment structure to affect consumers’ brand choice in a retail environment. We conducted three empirical studies to test our hypotheses. In Study 1, we conducted three separated experiments to examine the impact of the assortment structure on consumers’ perceived variety of products. In particular, Study 1a explored the main effect of the assortment structure (attribute-based vs. benefit-based) on consumers’ perceived variety. Then, studies 1b and 1c composed a Chain-of-Experiments and tested the intermediate mechanism of the construal level in the causal relationship between the assortment structure and consumers’ perceived variety: Study 1b examined the impact of assortment structure on consumers’ construal level, and Study 1c tested the impact of the construal level on consumers’ perceived variety. Study 2 investigated the causal relationship between the assortment structure and consumers’ brand choice. Studies 1 and 2 adopted a one-way between-subject design. Study 3 explored the moderating effect of consumers’ prior knowledge of brand strength in the causal relationship and used a 2 (attribute-based vs. benefit-based assortment structure) × 2 (strong vs. weak brand strength) between-subject design. As regards to the findings, compared to the benefit-based assortment structure, the attribute-based assortment structure increased consumers’ perceived variety of product, and it was the construal level that mediated this causal relationship. On this basis, the assortment structure of product influenced consumers’ brand choice in a retail environment. Meanwhile, a sequential mediation constituted by perceived variety and perceived quality mediated the effect of assortment structure on consumers’ brand choice. Finally, consumers’ prior knowledge of brand strength moderated the causal relationship between assortment structure and consumers’ brand choice. Specifically, the assortment structure affected consumers’ brand choice only when consumers initially perceived the brands as weak, rather than strong. In summary, for weak brands, the attribute-based assortment structure increased consumers’ perception of the product variety and quality, improving consumers’ brand evaluation and purchase intention relative to benefit-based assortment structure. The present research offers some theoretical and managerial implications. Theoretically, our findings suggest that the assortment structure influences consumers’ brand choice, and consumers’ prior knowledge of brand strength moderates this causal relationship. Managerially, we propose that Chinese manufacturers with weak brands can use the attribute-based assortment structure to increase their sales and market share when competing with strong foreign brands.
Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) is a popular mode of online testing of cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA). The key to a CD-CAT system is the item selection strategies. Someof the popular strategies are developed based on Kullback-Leibler information (KL), Shannon entropy (SHE) toselect items in CD-CAT. Typically, during CD-CAT, thesefamiliar methods would use a cutoff point to transform the attribute mastery probabilities' provisional value to binary values, but at the initial stage, the cutoff point method may lead to a larger deviation. A method that can take advantage of the probabilistic information with regard to attributes may offer a better alternative. This paper proposed two item selection strategies based on the provisional value of the attribute mastery probabilities, as follows: (1) the first strategy, which is called as PPWKL (Posterior Probability Weighted Kullback-Leibler), is based on the KL information, and it can lead to maximum difference of the sum of attribute mastery probabilities, and it is weighted bythe pattern’s posterior probability as well asthe difference of the attribute mastery probabilities between the and any possible latent state; (2) the PPWKL considers the fact that not all the patterns are equally likely, but overlooks the fact that the distances between different patterns and the current estimate are not all of equal importance. Therefore, the PPWKL can be weighed by the inverse of the distance between the and any possible latent state, which is called as PHKL (Posterior Hybrid Kullback- Leibler). Then, three simulation studies were carried out, one was the fixed length of CD-CAT, and the secondwas the variant length CD-CAT, and the last wasshort length CD-CAT.Variant item selection strategiesweretaken intoconsideration in these studies, including KL, SHE, PWKL, HKL, MI, PPWKL and PHWKL. The results were compared in terms of pattern or attribute classification correct rate, itemaverage exposure ratio, item maximum exposure ratio, item minimum exposure ratio, average test length, unused item number, number of items with exposure ratioover 20%, test overlap ratio.The simulation results indicate that: (1) the comprehensive performance of PPWKL and PHKLare better than other mentioned strategies in fixed and variant lengthCD-CAT; as to PHKL and MI, each has different strengths in short length CD-CAT; (2) PHKL and PPWKL can retain a good measurement accuracy, and also improve the utilization ratio of item pool.
Cognitive diagnosis, which is also referred as skill assessment or skill profiling, utilizes latent class models to provide fine-grained information about students’ strength and weakness in the learning process. The outcome of cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs) is a profile with binary element for each examinee to indicate the mastery/nonmastery status of every attribute/skill. Therefore, one major advantage of CDMs is the capacity to provide additional information about the instructional needs of students. In the past decades, extensive research has been conducted in the area of cognitive diagnosis and many statistical models based on a probabilistic approach have been proposed. Examples of CDMs include the deterministic inputs, noisy and gate (DINA) model (Junker & Sijtsma, 2001), the deterministic input, noisy or gate (DINO) model (Templin & Henson, 2006), and the linear Logistic model (LLM) (Maris, 1999). In educational measurement, one of the most commonly used formats is the testlet design, which is a cluster of items that share a common stimulus (e.g., a reading comprehension passage or a figure). Under the framework of item response theory (IRT), various testlet response models (TRM) have been proposed, such as the Rasch testlet model (Wang & Wilson, 2005) and the multidimensional testlet-effect Rasch model (MTERM) (Zhan, Wang, Wang, & Li, 2014). However, limited efforts have been contributed to the development of testlet models for CDMs. A question then naturally arises is the searching for a way to account for testlet effect under CDMs. To address this issue, this study proposed two testlet-CDMs. One followed the compensatory approach and the other followed the noncompensatory approach: (1) the compensatory multidimensional testlet-effect CDM (C-MTECDM) was based on the combination of LLM and MTERM, while (2) the noncompensatory multidimensional testlet-effect CDM (N-MTECDM) was based on the combination of (logit)DINA model and MTERM, respectively. Model parameters can be estimated by the Bayesian methods with Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms, which have been implemented with the freeware WinBUGS. In study 1, a series of simulations were conducted to evaluate parameter recovery of two new models, and results showed that the model parameters could be recovered fairly well under all simulated conditions. In study 2, the two new models were compared with the LLM and the (logit)DINA model, respectively. Results showed that ignoring testlet effect would result in biased item parameter estimations and worse person classification rates. Additionally, fitting a more complicated model (i.e., MTECDM) to data with a simpler structure did litter harm on parameter recovery. In conclusion, the new models is feasible and flexible.
Ancient Chinese thought reflected the ontology idea of body and had a construction of mixer of the “body-mind-world” system. The syncretism of body-mind was an essential preset in ancient Chinese thought. “Qi” was regarded as a basic material of universe as well as human being. Ancient Chinese controlled the “Qi” by the practice of self-cultivation. The balanced flow of in and out of “Qi” in the body of human being could make an effort of body figure, physical structure and mind. The body concept of ancient Chinese thought was more propound and diversified than the body concept of modern western embodied cognitive theory. Ancient Chinese reached the state of syncretism between nature and man by approach of cultivating from body to mind and cultivating from mind to body. In Confucianism, Confucius established the traditional practice of kernel. The self-cultivation of practice of kernel which was constituted of ritual studies mainly focused on the transformation of body and mind. In Taoism, Zhuangzi was opposed to the constraint of man’s body and mind so that he put forward a view that human being should use their body subject and kenotic body to make perception of the world and taoism. But Confucianism and Taoism had a common body subject. The perception of body subject was the most important cognitive factor to cognition of self and world. With the bidirectional shape of body and mind, the body-mind experience of taoism was the common ideal of Confucianism and Taoism. Meanwhile, Confucianism and Taoism reflected and practiced cultivation in social situation. The body was sitational. The ritual of Confucianism was a interpersonal communication system included spatial and comport metaphor. Taoism advocated inaction of all things. They thought human being should concentrate on their body and body knowing of the nature. The embodied thought of ancient Chinese thought was a complexity theory which suffuses strong traditional culture. As Merleau-Ponty’s proposition, ancient Chinese body had the same basic material as the world. In ancient Chinese thought, “Qi” was the basic material of body and so as the world. With the concern of embodied cognition, study integrating the perspective of the view of body-mind of ancient Chinese thought can promote the development of Chinese psychology and the paradigm of embodied cognition.