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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 34 Issue 05 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    ERP STUDY ON SCALE OF VISUAL SPATIAL ATTENTION WITH FIXED CUES
    Gao Wenbin, Luo Yuejia, Wei Jinghan, Peng Xiaohu, Wei Xing ( Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 2002, 34 (05): 1-6.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 212 )
    This study investigated into the simple reaction time (RT) and event related potentials (ERPs) correlates of the scale of visual spatial attention. Fourteen participants performed a search task in which the search array was preceded by fixed cues of different sizes. The cue was a black circle varied in three different sizes randomly. The focuses of the circles were always at the center of the screen, avoiding the influence of spatial location. The RT with medium cue was longer than with small cue, and was shorter than with large cue. There were no amplitude modulations of both cue evoked and search array evoked P1 and N1 components with cue size. However, both amplitude and latency of P2 and N2 were significantly affected by cue size. The results showed: ①The P1 and N1 components under visual attention were related to the spatial location processes mainly. ②Cue evoked P2, N2 components were related to the size of attention range. ③The processes of spatial location information were earlier than other information in visual attention, which supported the theory that spatial selection is a prerequisite for correct processes of visual objects information.
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    THE EFFECT OF THE COMPLEXITY AND REPETITION OF THE STROKES ON THE COGNITION OF THE STROKES AND THECHINESE CHARACTERS
    Zhang Jijia,Wang Huiping, Zhang Meng,Zhang Houcan (Department of psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, Department of psychology,Yantai Teachers College,Yantai 254025, Department of pogchology,Beijing normal University,Beijing
    . 2002, 34 (05): 7-11.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 306 )
    The strokes are the least structural units of Chinese characters Since the emergence of cognitive psychology,a lot of researches have been done to explore the role of the strokes in the cognition of Chinese characters Many studies showed that there was the stroke number effect in the processing of Chinese characters But there are still debates about the role of the strokes in the cognition of Chinese characters Some researchers believed that the strokes are not good measure indexes of the features of Chinese characters because the strokes are different in complexity Using the methods of stroke recognition and lexical decision, two experiments were conducted to inspect the complexity effect of the strokes in the perception of strokes and thestroke repetition effect in cognition of the Chinese characters Experiment 1 explored the complexity effect ofthestrokes in perception of the strokes The results showed that there was not complexity effect in perception of the strokes,and not marked differences between the time of spotting simple strokes and that of sporting complex strokes Experiment 2 explored the repetition effect of the strokes in the cognition of the Chinese characters The results indicated that there was repetition effect of the strokes in the cognition of the Chinese characters The high- repeated-stroke Chinese characters were recognized more fast and with lower error rate than the low- repeated-stroke Chinese characters The whole results supported the hypothesis that the strokes of the Chinese characters are basic units in the processing of the Chinese characters
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    MEANING ACTIVATION OF CHINESE SYNTACTIC CATEGORY AMBIGUOUS WORDS IN SENTENCE CONTEXT
    Wu Ningning, Shu Hua (Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)
    . 2002, 34 (05): 12-19.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 131 )
    Meaning activation of Chinese syntactic category ambiguous words in biased sentence context was concerned in this study, in which cross modal priming paradigm and character decision task were used, the 134 participants were students from Beijing Normal University. The results showed that sentence context worked on meaning activation at a very early stage. Although context effect interacted with relative frequency, at the shortest ISI appropriate meaning was facilitated more than inappropriate meaning. Furthermore, in inappropriate context, dominant meaning was not activated, while relative frequency interacted with context, and sustained dominant meaning after the effect of context declined. It suggests that context plays an early role of meaning access of Chinese syntactic ambiguous words, with facilitating appropriate meaning and inhibiting inappropriate meaning which was possibly activated. And relative frequency interacts with context in meaning activation of ambiguous words. These evidences support the interactive theory, in which lexical processing is influenced by information from a higher level.
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    THE EFFECT OF TASK DEMANDS ON SPATIAL-BASED IOR AND COLOR-BASED REPETITION DISADVANTAGE EFFECT
    Zhang Ming, Chen Qi (Department of Psychology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024)
    . 2002, 34 (05): 20-27.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 124 )
    The effects of task demands on spatial based IOR and color based repetition disadvantage effect were explored in 3 experiments. Twenty three undergraduate students participated in experiment 1 and the results showed significant color based repetition disadvantage effect whose measure is more than that in the simple detection task, when all the stimulus were presented on the same central location and the experiment task is color discrimination. Adding spatial uncertainty to the paradigm of experiment 1, experiment 2 and 3 separately asked 22 and 23 adult subjects to perform either discrimination or simple detection tasks. The results showed that there were both spatial based IOR and color based repetition disadvantage effect in the color discrimination tasks, however, there was no interaction between them, i.e., they acted independently. While there was only spatial based IOR in the simple detection tasks. Those results implied that which kind of repetition disadvantage effect will appear under some experimental situations and the measure of it are determined by the task requirements in experiments. Finally the authors discussed the present results with an inhibition model in the field of selective attention.
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    INFLUENCE OF ASSOCIATION AND SEPARATION IN THE DIMENSIONS ON THE PREDICTIONS IN THE UNCERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCE OF CLASSIFYING
    Mo Lei, ZhaoHaiyan (South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631)
    . 2002, 34 (05): 28-37.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 85 )
    Three experiments were designed to investigate how the subjects were influenced in the course of making feature prediction in the uncertain circumstance of classifying when the subject and the feature were associated or separated Experiment 1 explored whether the subjects used the non-target categories in the course of making feature prediction when the base probability of the feature within the non-target categories was increased The results in Experiment 1a and 1b show that, even though the base probability of feature prediction for non-target categories is enhanced, subjects only consider the target category in their feature probability prediction without considering the information from other non-target categories Experiment 2 explored whether the association of the dimensions within the non-target categories promoted the use of the non-target categories The results prove that, in the case of the association of the two dimensions in non-target categories, the subjects will use the non-target categories information when they are making a feature prediction, which is in conformity with the Bayesian rule Experiment 3 explored whether the feature prediction was influenced when the rate of association of the dimensions within the target category was promoted The results show that the raise of proportion in the association of target and prediction feature in target category will enhance the feature prediction probability The results of the three experiments showed:(1) If the dimensions within the non-target categories were separated, subjects didn't take into account the non-target categories, following the single-category view (2) When the dimensions were associated within the non-target categories, the subjects would use the information of the non-target categories (3) If the proportion of the association in the dimensions within the target category were raised, the probability of the feature prediction would be enhanced According to these results, the proportion of association of the object and the feature should be thought as an important variable, which should be put into the formula of the BayesianRule
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    THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COGNITIVE LOADS ON IMPLICIT LEARNING
    Zhang Wei 1,2 , Mo Lei 1 , Xu Shangxia 1 , Wang Suiping 1 ( 1 Department of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631) ( 2 Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)
    . 2002, 34 (05): 38-44.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 208 )
    Whether processing capacity or resources influence implicit learning is one of the major debates in the area of implicit cognition This study used serial reaction time (SRT) paradigm to explore the relationship between implicit learning and processing capacity Ss were 60 university students in South China Normal University, China Load conditions included three types: no load learning, digits memory load learning, and inversion response learning The results indicated that the subjects' implicit learning performance of inversion response load group was almost the same with that of no load group, but differentiated significantly with that of the digits memory load group Such results suggested that implicit sequence learning in SRT paradigm is invulnerable to manipulation of processing capacity or cognitive resources
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    THE EFFECT OF LEARNING SUPPORT ON SIMULATION-BASED DISCOVERY LEARNING
    Zhang Jianwei, Chen Qi (Department of Psychology, Beijing, Normal University, Beijing 100875) David J. Reid (School of Education, University of Manchester, UK)
    . 2002, 34 (05): 45-51.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 96 )
    This study made a further investigation on the effects of two types of learning support on simulation based scientific discovery learning interpretative support (IS) that helped learners with knowledge access and the generation of integrative understanding, experimental support (ES) that scaffolded learners in the systematic and logical design of experiments. In result, (1) learners' reasoning ability had significant effect on the posttest of principle knowledge and intuitive understanding. (2) IS had notable effect on the test of principle knowledge and intuitive understanding. (3) There was a clear interaction between ES and reasoning ability on the test of principle knowledge, indicating that ES had positive influence to low reasoning ability learners, while it had negative effect among the middle ability group. Significant positive effect was observed for ES on the quality of the experiments designed by learners during learning processes. These results imply that the meaningfulness and systematic logicality of discovery processes have prominent effect to simulation based discovery learning; hence learning supports should be designed towards the two spheres.
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    THE DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTORS AND THEIR RELATIONS TO CHILDREN'S ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
    Li Beilei, Lin Lei, Dong Qi, Claes von Hofsten (School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875) (Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden)
    . 2002, 34 (05): 52-57.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 206 )
    Studied the development of different fine motors and the relationships among them, as well as their relations to children's academic achievement in elementary school Ss were 151 children aged from 4~8 and 30 university students The tasks testing the fine motors were test of drawing between lines, drawing copying and chopstick using skills The results indicated that: (1) The speed of the development of the abilities from high to low was ability of drawing between lines, drawing copying and chopstick using skills; (2) There were significant correlations between chopstick using skills and ability of drawing between lines, drawing copying Children's ability of drawing between lines and their age can significantly predict the levels of chopstick using skills (3) The children of high academic achievement in elementary school did better in all three fine motor tasks than those of low academic achievement The results suggested that the development of complex implemental skills must base on more fundamental fine motors At the same time, there is strong relation between low grade children's fine motor ability and their academic achievement in elementary school
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    PREDICTING SOCIAL FUNCTIONING BASED ON TODDLER'S EMOTION REGULATION STRATEGIES
    Wang Li 1,2 , Chen Huichang 2 , Chen Xinyin 3 ( 1 Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing 100875) ( 2 Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875) ( 3 University of Western Onta
    . 2002, 34 (05): 58-62.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 221 )
    This study predicted social functioning of 4 year olds from the toddlers' traits of emotion regulation strategies and family factors. One hundred and seventy six toddlers were observed in laboratory situations. At 2 years of age, emotional regulation strategies were coded based on the children's reactions in 4 episodes: strange situation, toy and food delay, maternal separation(child alone), and maternal separation(with a strange adult). Four strategies were identified: problem solving, seeking social support, self soothing, and avoidance. At 4 years of age, the sociability and social withdrawal were observed when children were playing with unfamiliar peers, and performing on task behaviors during cleaning up and sorting tickets. It was found that emotional regulation strategies at 2 years could significantly predict children's social functioning at 4 years of age.
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    SOCIAL INFORMATION PROCESSING OF CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DISABLITY
    Yu Guoliang (Department of Psychology ,Southwest China Normal University,Chongqing 400715) (China National Institute of Education Research,Beijing 100088) Zeng Panpan, Xin Zhiqiang, Luo Xiaolu (Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal U
    . 2002, 34 (05): 63-68.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 182 )
    In the present study, there were three kinds of scenes in which children interacted to companions and adults, and each scene had two situations: blurry scene and clear scene. Through natural experiment used on 51 pupils, the study investigated the difference between learning disabilities and normal children in different social information processing stages. The results suggested that there was significant difference between children with learning disability and normal children when coding the authority scene, under both blurry scenes and clear scenes. Children with learning disability were inferior to normal children on coding veracity and totality. Under blurry companion scene, children with learning disability had more reactions than normal children, and more negative and aggressive reactions were than normal children.
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    CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS OF THE CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF THE SELF-WORTH SCALE FOR ADOLESCENTS
    Huang Xiting, Yu Hua (Institute & Department of Psychology, Southwest China Normal University, Chongqing 400715)
    . 2002, 34 (05): 69-74.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 426 )
    university and middle school students from 9 large cities in China participated in a retest, using the Adolescent Self worth Scale designed by us. The data from 2420 students out of the total subjects were used in a comparative analysis of first order factor model, and the data from the other 2511 students were used in a confirmatory analysis of a second order factor model. The results indicated that our multi level and multi dimensional model of self worth was legitimate. This model included three levels: the global self worth, general self worth and special self worth. The global self worth had the highest level of abstraction and the general self worth which consisted of social perspective and personal perspective had secondary level of abstraction. The lowest level of abstraction was represented by special self worth which could be presented through five specific aspects of self worth such as biological, psychological, interpersonal, moral and family self worth, as well as through two perspectives such as social and personal perspectives. Our Adolescent Self worth Scale consisted of 56 items, among which 6 items belonged to global self worth. Each of the general self worth dimensions had 5 items and each of the specific aspects of special self worth had 4 items. This scale could be used to testify the proposed model of self worth different abstraction levels, different perspectives and distinct specific aspects. The construct validity was quite good in terms of both the construct of the self worth and the scale for testing the construct.
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    A STUDY ON CHILDREN AND ADULT'S JUDGEMENT OF EXPECTED VALUE
    Zhu Liqi, Fang Fuxi, Huangfu Gang (Institute of Psychology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101) (Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083)
    . 2002, 34 (05): 75-79.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 148 )
    The study was to explore children's development of judgment of expected value in Chinese primary school Subjects from grade 1, grade 3 , grade 6 and college students participated in the study They were asked to give judgment of expected value in 5 kinds of tasks The results showed: (1) Even 7 year old children could make probability inference and have correct judgment of expected value in simple tasks; (2) Children's judgment of expected value developed with age, they consider both probability and value dimensions, and gradually find their relation of multiplication, but their level of use of multiplication rule is lower than adults (3) Under the condition that expected value is equal, children pay more attention to probability than to value
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    ITEM PARAMETER AND PERSON ABILITY ESTIMATE FOR CONTINUOUS IRT MODEL WITH CONNECTIONISM
    Yu Jiayuan (Department of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097)
    . 2002, 34 (05): 80-86.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 105 )
    The item parameter and person ability in continuous scoring Item Response Theory (IRT) model of small sample were estimated with cascade correlation model of connectionism. A new method to estimate the item parameter and person ability was suggested which was based on artificial neural network (connectionism),it was totally different from the traditional method which was based on statistics. The response matrix of a group of subjects to a set of items was used as the imput of cascade correlation model (neural network),the ability θof this group subjects or parameter a?b or c of this set of items was used as the output of this model. A set of neural networks were trained by them. After training, the neural networks were able to estimate the subject ability θand item parameter a,b or c. If a new response matrix was input, the neural network could output the estimate value of θ,a,b or c. The errors between estimate values and true values were very small. The results showed: If there were a few items from the item bank, the IRT parameter of continuous scoring item and person ability could be estimated under small sample condition.
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    THE UTILITY TRANSFORMATION OF TASK STRUCTURE AND VALUES IN SOCIAL DILEMMAS
    Yan Jin, Wang Zhongming (School of Management, ZhejiangUniversity, Hangzhou 310028)
    . 2002, 34 (05): 87-91.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 235 )
    This study used social dilemmas and computer simulation to examine the utility transformation process in decision making. Sixty two students took part in the experiment. The results showed that both task structure and values were important to decision utility transformation. It is a stable function between these factors and decision behavior. The study showed important proof to research utility transformation in group decision making.
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    USING STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELS TO ESTIMATE RATER RELIABILITY IN GENERALIZABILITY THEORY
    Yan Fang, Li Weiming (Department of Psychology, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062)
    . 2002, 34 (05): 92-97.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 200 )
    Due to the lack of tools and ways for estimating variance components in Generalizability Theory, the application of GT is limited. In this study, the principle of using Structural Equation Models to estimate variance components was introduced. This paper studied raters' consistency of structured interview in Council Servant Recruiting Test. 27 subjects of one unit were sampled in a certain province randomly. The crossed design(p×r×o) and unbalanced mixed design (p×(r:o))were analyzed. Estimation of variance components was conducted through EQS in two designs. This study illustrated that SEM is a powerful method for estimating rater reliability in GT.
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    EMOTIONAL MODEL OF THE CONFUCIAN SCHOOL AND TAOISTS COMPLEMENTING EACH OTHER: EXPLORATIONON TRADITIONAL CHINESE EMOTIONAL PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHTS
    Peng Yanqin (Psychological Department, Educational Institute, ShuzhouUniversity, Suzhou 215006)
    . 2002, 34 (05): 98-103.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 268 )
    Distinguishing from stressing on its physiological mechanism and conception in the West, traditional Chinese psychology emphasizes practical function of emotion to the subject's mind in actual life, and by emotional model Confucianist moral emotion and Taoist aesthetic emotion complementing each other, realizing emotion's regulatory function of mental life to maximum limit
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    ADVANCED PROGRESS OF CONDITIONED IMMUNOSUPPRESSION
    Chen Jihuan, Lin Wenjuan (Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
    . 2002, 34 (05): 104-108.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 103 )
    There is accumulating evidence for a strong interaction between components of the nervous system and immune system. Little is known, however, how the interaction takes place. Because multiple changes are occurring simultaneously in all organ systems, it is fairly difficult to develop an approach that allows one to study the whole organism and define the mediators of the interacting systems. Conditioned immunosuppression, a phenomenon observed and confirmed in many laboratories, may provide insight into the pathways of communication between the brain and immune system. Conditioning allows one to separate the afferent from the efferent circuits. There is now a number of laboratory models of conditioned immunosuppression using a taste aversion paradigm. Experiments have shown that a number of immunological parameters can be modified by the behavioral conditioning. The mechanisms involved in conditioned immunosuppression have not been delineated. In recent years, many studies have demonstrated that removal of sympathetic noradrenergic input to the immune system can abrogate the decreased immune response induced by the behavioral conditioning and lesion into the insular cortex and amygdala can disrupt the acquisition of conditioned immunosuppression. Moreover, it has been observed that the survival of heart allografts in rats can be prolonged by conditioned immunosuppression paradigm. These experiments suggest that behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression may have important clinical implications as an adjunct to drug treatment in transplantation medicine.
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