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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    25 August 2002, Volume 34 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    THE LATERALITY OF BRAIN FUNCTION IN SILENT READING OF CHINESE WORDS REVEALED BY FMRI
    Tang Yiyuan 1,2 , Zhang Wutian 2 , Ma Lin 3 , Weng Xuchu 2 , Li Dejun 3 , He Hua 4 , Jia Fucang 2 ( 1 Institute of Neuroinformatics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023) ( 2 Institute of Psychology, the
    2002, 34 (04):  3-7. 
    Abstract ( 1280 )  
    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine the lateralization of the cerebral hemisphere during the naming of Chinese single characters and pseudowords with twelve normal students. The result indicated that Chinese single characters activated the left inferior frontal cortex (BA45) but pseudowords did not. This result showed that Chinese word processing is close to the left hemisphere. The right hemisphere was also involved in processing but its mechanism needed to be further studied.
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    DEVELOPMENTAL DEEP DYSLEXIA IN CHINESE: A CASE STUDY
    Luan Hui, Shu Hua (Department of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875) Lai Cheng Alice (Department of Nursing and Health Sciences,the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong) Lin Wei (Beijing Golden Yu Lin Center of Learning Ab
    2002, 34 (04):  8-13. 
    Abstract ( 1049 )  
    This report described a case of developmental deep dyslexia involving Chinese orthography. J, a 10 year old boy with normal IQ and little neurological, emotional, behavior problems but had impaired verbal short term memory. His Phonological awareness was weak, especially at phonemic and tone levels. When asked to read characters, J produced a number of semantic, visual, and selection errors, very different from children who were normal readers and of his same age. The present study also discussed the subtypes of Chinese developmental dyslexia and their distribution.
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    COGNITIVE PROCESS IN VISUOSPATIAL RELATIONS ENCODING
    You XuqunYang Zhiliang ( Department of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062) ( Department of Psychology, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 )
    2002, 34 (04):  14-20. 
    Abstract ( 910 )  
    This study examined the cognitive plasticity and stability in two typical processing subsystems in visuospatial relations encoding and judgment. Two experiments were conducted to test the levels of cognitive processing in image rotation among 20 pilots, 10 elderly adults, and among corresponding control groups. The results indicated that in the two main subsystems that were involved in visuospatial relation encoding and judgment, there were both a strong practice effect and an age effect. The corresponding function was found to improve with systematic training and decrease with aging in the metric/ coordinate subsystem of visuospatial relations encoding. In contrast, little effect of practice and age on the function of subsystems concerning categorical subsystem in visuospatial relations encoding was found in this study. The study suggested that due to some hereditary and intrinsic attributes of brain structure, the metric/coordinate subsystem could show a higher cognitive plasticity and susceptibility, while the categorical subsystems, however, showed cognitive stability and a lower plasticity. The implication of this study was discussed a high level visual processing theory, developed by Kosslyn.
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    RESEARCH ON INTERRELATION OF IMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT LEARNING
    Guo Xiuyan, Yang Zhiliang (Department of Psychology, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062)
    2002, 34 (04):  21-26. 
    Abstract ( 1167 )  
    The present research explored the interrelation of implicit learning and explicit learning. It used converging operation of two kinds of learning materials in order to compare five experimental conditions with each other. The subjects consisted of 100 high school students from Shanghai. The results are as follows. 1.Through implicit learning, the students could acquired abstract knowledge, on which the present study emphasized. 2.There was the interrelation between implicit learning and explicit learning, sometimes facilitating each other, sometimes conflicting with each other, sometimes more contributions of implicit learning and sometimes contrarily, which depended on the difficulty of the learning materials.
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    UNCONSCIOUS PRIMING OF NUMERAL
    Ke Xue 1,2,3 , Bai Xuejun 1 , Sui Nan 1,2 (1 Psychology and Behaviour Research Center, Tianjin Normal Univerisy, Tianjin 300074,2 Institute of Psychology, CAS, Beijing 100101) (3 Department of Psychology, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou
    2002, 34 (04):  27-31. 
    Abstract ( 1144 )  
    This study aims at investigating whether masked numerical primes can activate cognitive processes in semantic level without gaining access to consciousness. Ss were 56 university students (Exp 1, 2 and 3) in Tianjin Normal University, China. The experimental software E prime was used to control the presentation of stimuli to participants. In Exp 1, it was confirmed that the masked numerical primes presented for 30ms could not reach awareness level via signal detection techniques. In Exp 2, the primes and the targets were the same numerals and the subjects were simply told to classify the target as larger or smaller than 5. With multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), the priming effects were investigated at different priming conditions with either the prime number or the target number presented as an Arabic digit or a Chinese character. The results showed that the unseen numerical prime could facilitate or inhibit the subsequent processing of the target. In Exp3, priming remained significant under all conditions even when the primes and the targets belonged to two different stimulus serials. It is suggested that unconscious utilization of semantic information without awareness does exist.
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    A NEW FOK CRITERION TEST:OVER-RELEARNING
    Hao Xueqin (Institute of Aviation Medicine, Air Force, Beijing 100036) Han Kai (Department of psychology Peking University, Beijing 100871)
    2002, 34 (04):  32-36. 
    Abstract ( 891 )  
    The present research explored predictive accuracy with a new FOK criterion test─over relearning. In the first experiment, the 18 subjects, 10 men and 8 women, were divided into two groups. The subjects were asked to learn and recall the targets of word digit pairs and then make FOK predictions for all non recalled answers. In the criterion test phase, one group of subjects underwent recognition, while the other group underwent relearning. The numbers of the relearning were recorded. In the second experiments, there were 12 subjects. The materials were a list of 40 word digit pairs from the first experiment. The 40 word pairs were divided into two equal difficulty groups. The experiment procedure was the same as the first experiment except for the criterion test phase. In the criterion test phase, half of the subjects first recognized and then relearned. The other half of the subjects first relearned and then recognized. There was a negative correlation between the FOK rate and the number of the relearning. Both experiments demonstrated that over relearning can be employed successfully as a criterion test. Both experiments showed that not only the feeling of knowing was greater for commission error items than for omission errors, but also the criterion test performance which contained recognition and over relearning was better for commission error items than for omission error items.
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    EFFECT OF ANCHOR ITEMS AND EQUATING RELATIONSHIP ESTIMATION METHOD ON TEST EQUATING
    Dai Haiqi, Liu Qihui (College of Educational Science , Jiangxi Normal University , Nanchang 330027)
    2002, 34 (04):  37-40. 
    Abstract ( 904 )  
    Anchor items nonequivalent group design plays a rather key part in the equation design. Based on our research, the results showed the following facts: If different anchor items as equating media are adopted, the outcomes are obviously not the same, also if different equating relationship estimation methods are adopted. So we believe that best anchor testing is the objective item group under the present technology and the best equating relationship estimation method is the frequency estimation with fixed number of anchor items.
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    DIVERGENT CONSEQUENCES OF ANTECEDENT-AND RESPONSE-FOCUSED EMOTION REGULATION
    Huang Miner (Department of Psychology, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510275) Guo Dejun (Department of Psychology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100089)
    2002, 34 (04):  41-50. 
    Abstract ( 1190 )  
    The purpose of this study was to examine the emotional processes of four basic styles of emotion regulation, which were reappraisal, expressive suppression, rumination, and expressive revealing. One hundred and eighty six female participants were shown a disgusting film during which their subjective experiences, expressive behaviors, and physiological responses were recorded. Before they watched the film, the participants were told to either (a) think about the film in such a way that they would feel nothing (reappraisal, a form of antecedent focused emotion regulation); (b) behave in such a way that someone watching them would not know what they were feeling (suppression, a form of response focused emotion regulation); (c) imagine that what happened in the film were actually happening to themselves (rumination, another form of antecedent focused emotion regulation); (d) behave in such a way that they expressed their experiences as much as or even more exaggerated than they would feel (revealing, another form of response focused emotion regulation). Compared with the control condition, reappraisal was effective in reducing emotion expressive behavior, negative emotional experience, and increasing parasympathetic activation (more enhanced in inter beat interval); suppression was effective in decreasing emotion expressive behavior and increasing sympathetic activation (more increased in finger pulse amplitude), but was not effective in changing subjective experiences; rumination was effective in increasing subjective experiences; and revealing resulted in increasing subjective feeling, decreasing physiological activation, while increasing emotion expressive behavior. In summary, antecedent focused emotion regulation was more effective in the changing negative subjective experiences by modulating cognitive appraisal, and response focused emotion regulation would lead to a dynamic system like a "hydraulic model" because of regulation of expression. Every process of regulation would facilitate or handicap adaptive functioning of emotions via divergent processes of subjective experience, emotion expressive behavior and physiology.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF THE STUDENTS MOOD ON THEIR CREATIVITY
    Lu Jiamei, Liu Wei, He Wen, Lu Shenghua (Education Science College, Shanghai Teachers University, Shanghai 200234)
    2002, 34 (04):  51-56. 
    Abstract ( 1303 )  
    Studied the influence of the mood on creativity of the students. Ss were 220 second grade students in Secondary School No.3 attached to Shanghai Teachers University, in which were 104 boys and 116 girls, 13~14 years old. However , the results of the studies abroad are contradictory to each other. The methods of their studies also have poor ecological validity. This paper tried to explore the influence of the students mood on their creativity in teaching activities through field experiment of teaching and using the stimuli in real teaching situation to induce happy sad mood of the students. The results showed that the students in happy mood bring their creativity to a higher level than the students in sad mood in significant level generally( t =2.025, p =0.045), demonstrated mainly in fluency and flexibility.
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    PREVALENCE AND MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF BULLYING/VICTIMIZATION AMONG PRIMARY AND JUNIOR MIDDLE SCHOOL CHILDREN
    Zhang Wenxin (Department of Psychology,Shandong Teachers' University,Jinan 250014)
    2002, 34 (04):  57-64. 
    Abstract ( 1493 )  
    A modified version of Olweus Bullying/Victimization Questionnaire was employed in a sample of 9205 primary and junior middle school children from both urban and rural areas, in order to evaluate the prevalence and explore the major characteristics of school bullying. The results indicated that serious bullying problems existed in primary and junior middle schools, with nearly one out of five (19%)of the children investigated getting involved in bullying problems. The ratios of victims and bullies decreased with the children's age, but that of the bullies kept relatively stable across the junior middle school years. Direct verbal bullying was the most common type of bullying behavior among primary and junior middle school children. Gender differences existed in regard to the incidence of bullying others and being bullied, children's attitudes towards bullying and the types of bullying behavior they suffered.
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    ANALOGICAL REASONING MAKING OF CHILDREN AGED 4 TO 5 YEARS ON ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS
    Li Hong, Feng Tingyong (Department of Psychology, Southwest China Normal University, Chongqing 400715)
    2002, 34 (04):  65-69. 
    Abstract ( 931 )  
    Studied the development of analogical reasoning in three experimental conditions using causal materials, Ss were 42 children aged 4 to 5 years, 19 males and 23 females. Results indicated: on condition of possessing correspondent knowledge and experience, nearly all the 4 year olds and 5 year olds grasped analogical reasoning on one dimension; There was no significant difference between the 4 and 5 year olds in the one-dimension analogical reasoning, the 5 year olds were markedly superior to the 4 year olds in the two-dimension analogical reasoning; There was significant difference between the 4 and 4 5 year olds in the two-dimension analogical reasoning; 5.5 year olds were markedly superior to the 5 year olds, to some degree which reflected that the age of 4.5 to 5.5 is the "rapid development period" of analogical reasoning on two dimensions. "Exercise effect" was not discovered in the experiment.
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    DIFFERENCES IN SOLVING COMPARE PROBLEMS: A COMPARISON OF MATHEMATICALLY GIFTED AND MATHEMATICALLY DISABLED THIRD GRADERS OF AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
    Li Xiaodong, Zhang Xiangkui (Department of Psychology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024) Wo Jianzhong (Institute of Development Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing,100875)
    2002, 34 (04):  70-76. 
    Abstract ( 1021 )  
    This study compared mathematically gifted and mathematically disabled students in solving compare problems and the effects of metacognition on problem solving achievement with both experimental and clinical interview methods. Ss were 40 third graders of an elementary school. Compare problems were divided into consistent problems and inconsistent problems. Metacognition included metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive monitoring skills. The results showed that: (1) There were significant differences between the two group of students, mathematically gifted students performed better than mathematically disabled students in both consistent and inconsistent problems. These differences were due to the different representing strategy used by mathematically gifted and mathematically disabled students. (2) The main errors in solving compare problems were reversal errors, there were more errors in consistent problems than those in inconsistent problems. (3) There were significant differences between mathematically gifted and mathematically disabled students on metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive monitoring skills, metacognitive monitoring skill is a significant predictor in solving compare problems.
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    ADOLESCENT STUDENTS' SENSE OF ALIENATION: THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT AND SCALE DEVELOPMENT
    Yang Dong, Zhang Jinfu, Huang Xiting (Department of Psychology, Southwest China Normal University, Chongqing 400715)
    2002, 34 (04):  77-83. 
    Abstract ( 1482 )  
    This paper first defined the construct of alienation, based upon previous literature and experimental research work and compiled a preliminary questionnaire to measure adolescent students sense of alienation. After pilot testing and a series of revisions, a 46 item scale, named the Adolescent Students Alienation Scale, was constructed. The researchers administered this Scale to 1500 college students and middle school students from Chongqing and Lanzhou. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis found that that alienation was a multi hierarchical and multi dimensional construct which had two hierarchies and nine dimensions. The first hierarchy included three dimensions: social alienation, interpersonal alienation, environmental alienation; the second hierarchy include d nine dimensions: sense of non meaning, sense of self alienation, sense of loneliness, natural alienation, alienation between family members, alienation to living situation, sense of oppression and restriction, sense of uncontrollability and sense of social isolation. These empirical dimensions were theoretical interpretable, and the new Scale was tested to be reliable and valid enough to be applicable to measure adolescent students sense of alienation.
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    PRELIMINARY DEVELOPMENT OF THE COPE SCALE
    Shi Chengsun 1 , Dong Yan 1 , Hou Yubo 2 , Hou Guizhi 1 , Zhou Xiaomei 1 ( 1 Department of clinical Psychology, General Hospital of Chinese Air Force, Beijing 100036) ( 2 Department of Psychology Peking University, Beijing
    2002, 34 (04):  84-90. 
    Abstract ( 1043 )  
    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Cope Scale that assessed coping styles, and to determine the preliminary norm. The Cope Scale was tested on a total of 1,144 subjects (559 males and 585 females, mean age=31 03±7.99) from six regions in Mainland China. According to the results of exploratory factor analysis, there were four fundamental coping styles: (1) active coping focused on the problems, (2) denying the problems and mental disengagement, (3) seeking emotional support and venting of emotions, (4) avoiding the problems and shifting attention. Reliability and validity were demonstrated within the subscales. The reliability of the subscales were higher than 0.75. Significant correlations were showed between the scores of the subscales and those of EPQ. The results showed that the Cope Scale had good reliability and validity, and could be used to assess coping styles. The study also gathered norms for the Scale in adults, and the differences in coping styles among different age groups and gender were discussed.
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    BRAIN ADENOSINE MEDIATES INTERLEUKIN-1β-INDUCED BEHAVIORAL DEPRESSION IN RATS
    Huang Qingjun, Hao Xinling (Psychoneuroimmunology Laboratory, Bethune Military Medical College,Shijiazhuang 050081) Thomas R Minor (Department of Psychology, University of California at LosAngeles, Losangles, CA,90024)
    2002, 34 (04):  91-95. 
    Abstract ( 775 )  
    Central interleukin 1 plays important roles in mediating the neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to various stressors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of adenosine in interleukin 1β induced behavioral depression in rats. Methods: Porsolt swim test was used for the measurement of behavioral depression after injection of interleukin 1β(8~32ng/kg, icv) and nonspecific adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine and specific adenosine receptor antagonist (A1 and A2) was used to determine the effect of adenosine in interleukin 1β induced behavioral depression. Results: Injection of interleukine 1β(8~32ng/kg, icv) induced increase of floating time in Porsolt swim test. Pretreatment with caffeine and A2a adenosine receptor antagonist blocked interleukine 1β induced increase of floating time. Conclusion: Intracerebroventricular injection of interleukin 1β induced behavioral depression in rats, which could be blocked by A2a adenosine receptor antagonist.
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    EFFECTS OF RELAXATION TRAINING AND ABDOMINAL BREATHING ON T-WAVE AND HEART RATE OF COLLEGE STUDENTS UNDER STRESS
    Guo Meiying, Yan Kele, Shang Zhien (College of Educational Science, Hebei Normal University,Shijiazhang 050016)
    2002, 34 (04):  96-100. 
    Abstract ( 1392 )  
    The purpose of this paper was to explore the effects of abdominal breathing and relaxation training on T wave amplitude and heart rate of people under stress. Thirty eight female college students were assigned to two different experimental groups and one control group according to Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Chinese version, Adult form). One of the two experimental groups was abdominal breathing group in which the subjects were trained to practise abdominal breathing while the other was a relaxation group in which subjects were taught relaxation. Results showed that: a. Both relaxation training and abdominal breathing were effective in enhancing T wave amplitude and in preventing T wave amplitude from decreasing under stressful situation, and the effects of the abdominal breathing was superior to those of the relaxation training. b. Under stressful situation, T wave amplitude decreased significantly while heart rate increased significantly. c. Heart rate was not sensitive to the effects of abdominal breathing and relaxation training. It can be concluded that relaxation training and abdominal breathing were effective in enhancing T wave and preventing T wave amplitude from decreasing under stressful situation.
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    RETHINKING ABOUT THE UNITY AND DISUNITY IN WESTERN PSYCHOLOGY
    Ye Haosheng (Institute of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097)
    2002, 34 (04):  101-106. 
    Abstract ( 1281 )  
    This paper discussed the unity and disunity of Western psychology. It was argued that the crisis of fragmentation in psychology was an irrefutable fact in that (a) there was not any common ground or a common starting point in psychology hitherto, and (b) different branches of psychology were threatening to break up the discipline of psychology. Psychology could be, however, a unified discipline because the conflicting components in psychology were compatible and commensurable. In approaching towards a unified discipline, there were two major obstacles: objectivism and relativism. Objectivism in psychology was a kind of totalitarianism because it tried to mimic the natural science model and led all psychologists to focus exclusively on objective methods. Objectivism repressed the voice of others and would be harmful to real unification in psychology. While objectivism was characterized as totalitarianism, relativism was more like egalitarianism. Under the guiding principle of "everything goes", relativism in psychology argued that diversified theories, conflicting ideas and competing communities should be considered as equal because they were all valid relative to the context and the culture from which they emerged. But the truth was that relativism encouraged diversity and pluralism without setting up any common ground and hence resulted in an exacerbation of the fragmentation of psychology. It was suggested that the unification of psychology should allow diversified theories, ideas, opinions and methods to coexist, provided that they were founded on a common ground. Psychology, in the author's opinion, should take systems theory as its guideline in order to be a unified discipline.
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    DEVELOPMENTAL DYSLEXIA AND PERCEPTUAL PROCESSING
    Meng Xiangzhi, Zhou Xiaolin, Zeng Biao, Sai Xiaoguang (The Research Center of Psychology, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074) (Laboratory of Developmental Psychology,Department of Psychology,Peking University,Beijing 100871)
    2002, 34 (04):  107-112. 
    Abstract ( 1032 )  
    Many behavioral and neurophysiological studies in recent years found that developmental dyslexia is related to deficits in basic perceptual processing. The magnocellular theory, proposed mostly by researchers working in the visual processing field, postulates that dyslexia is the result of a deficit in the magnocellular part of the visual system. This magnocellular system respondes to rapid changes in visual stimulation and a deficit here would lead the brain to confuse neural activities attributed to different fixations between saccades during text reading. A similar deficit also existes in the auditory domain, where dyslexics show difficulties in processing rapid, sequential, and transit sounds. It is believed that a general impairment in temporal processing underlies dyslexics poor performance in reading. Theories emphasizing the role of basic perceptual processing in reading impairment is in contrast with theories that focus on the deficits in the linguistic domain, reflecting the significant advancement in cognitive neuroscience and the decline of the modular approaches.
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