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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    30 March 2003, Volume 35 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    THE ACOUSTIC CUES IN DURATION OF SENTENCE PROMINENCE IN STANDARD CHINESE
    Zhong Xiaobo,Yang Yufang
    2003, 35 (02):  143-149. 
    Abstract ( 2146 )   PDF (154KB) ( 1322 )  
    Two parts are included in this research. In the first part, by investigating the duration cues of 4 words in 148 sentences which are read loudly by 10 speakers, the results showed that (1)when sentence prominence emphasizes on some word,the duration-lengthening mainly localized on the stressed syllable of the word; (2)when sentence prominence emphasizes on some syllable of a word, the duration-lengthening mainly localized on the syllable. In the second part, we have, by perception experiment with the above sentences, found that the sentence in which sentence prominence emphasizes on some word and the sentence in which sentence prominence emphasizes on the stressed syllable of the word can replace each other respect of their contexts,which results from the resemblance in acoustic cues of these two kinds of sentences
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    An event-related potential study of memory encoding
    Guo Chunyan,Zhu Ying,Ding Jinhong,Fan Silu
    2003, 35 (02):  150-156. 
    Abstract ( 2208 )   PDF (356KB) ( 1746 )  
    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to investigate the relationship between deep/shallow processing and memory encoding. Three major results were: (1) Under both processings of Chinese materials, the subsequent memory effects (Dm) were obtained. A late positive ERP elicited by words later recognized was larger than that elicited by words later forgotten. (2) The Dm effect was different between the two processings. The Dm effect for deep processing began at the front branch of N2 wave (230—280 ms), and more obvious held behind N2 from 395ms to 800ms. The Dm effect for shallow processing was obtained only from 345ms to 490ms. In addition, the Dm for deep processing was observed over frontal and fronto-central areas of scalps but over parietal and occipital areas for the shallow processing. Such results support the possibility that deep and shallow processing Dm effect may diverge. (3) The Dm effect was different from ERP differences between two processings. Such results support the speciality of Dm effect in memory encoding
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    MONITORING AND CONTROL OF METAMEMORY AND ITS INFLUENTIAL FACTORS IN FREE RECALL
    Han Kai,Li Bo,Liu Haijuan
    2003, 35 (02):  157-162. 
    Abstract ( 2469 )   PDF (148KB) ( 1809 )  
    Two experiments were designed to investigate the function of Metamemory and its influential factors. In experiment 1, 2x2 within-group design was used to study the influential factors, the independent variables were levels of material difficulty (Chinese word-word pairs vs. number-word pairs) and times of the materials presented to the subjects (once vs. fourth). In experiment 2, subjects were assigned to two levels of rewards and punishment groups to study the probability response criterion (Prc) in the process of output controlling. The materials were presented to the subjects in random order by computer. After the materials were presented, subjects were asked to make Feeling-of-knowing (FOK) judgement on 10 degree scale and to make free recall, then Quasi-signal detection method was used to state and analyze the results of free recall, judgements of FOK, compute the Fit Ratio and the criterion of out-put control. The result of experiment 1 showed that accuracy of recall performance and FOK judgement magnitude were influenced significantly by material difficult and times that items were presented, easier memory materials, more times presented items brought out better objective level memory performance and higher FOK magnitude. The criterion of out-put control and the sensitivity of metamemory control to monitoring (Fit Ratio) were not influenced by the difficulty of material, and the times items were presented to the subjects. The results of experiment 2 showed that under the high and low reward conditions, the Prc were significantly different, under the low reward condition it was higher than under the high reward condition
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    THE EFFECT OF GENERAL ATTENTION CAPACITY LIMITS ON INHIBITION OF RETURN
    Jin Zhicheng,Chen Qi
    2003, 35 (02):  163-171. 
    Abstract ( 2304 )   PDF (250KB) ( 1578 )  
    By exploring the effect of memory load on IOR, 4 experiments systematically tested the hypothesis that the lower component of IOR is free of attention capacity limits, while its counter part is limited by the attention capacity. Experiment 1A and 1B showed that IOR did not disappear with either the semantic or the spatial attention capacity reduction in the spatial-based simple detection tasks. While experiment 2A and 2B showed that the higher component of IOR disappeared with both the semantic and the spatial attention capacity reduction in the color discrimination tasks, so it is limited by the general attention capacity. Meanwhile the results also suggested that the higher component of IOR has much more demands on the attention capacity in the spatial channel than in the semantic channel.
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    EFFECTS OF INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC CUES ON JUDGMENT OF
    Chen Gongxiang,Fu Xiaolan
    2003, 35 (02):  172-177. 
    Abstract ( 1963 )   PDF (200KB) ( 1393 )  
    Aiming at the difference between Koriat’s and Dunlosky’s outcomes, two experiments were conducted to further explore the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic cues on judgment of learning (JOL). Ss were 63 undergraduates in Shandong Normal University, China. The intrinsic cue was relatedness, and the two extrinsic cues were presentation time and presentation order. The major findings were as follows: ⑴ Relatedness exerted similar effects on both JOL and recall in the two experiments. ⑵ The presentation time and the presentation order may be two different types of extrinsic cues. ⑶ There are different interactions among the different intrinsic cues and extrinsic cues. ⑷ JOL magnitude was higher when unrelated items were presented first than when related items were presented first in Experiment 2. This suggests that anchoring effects may influence JOL
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    FREQUENCY EFFECT OF PHONETIC COMPONENT IN NAMING CHINESE CHARACTER OR COMPONENT IN DIFFERENT TARGET PRESENTING SPEED
    Zhang Zhe,Han Buxin
    2003, 35 (02):  178-182. 
    Abstract ( 2387 )   PDF (143KB) ( 1507 )  
    The frequency effect of character phonetic component in naming character or component with high or low target presenting speed were explored. Both the type frequency and the token frequency of phonetic component showed facilitating effect in character naming. However, the type frequency showed inhibitory effect when present stimulus with high speed, the token frequency facilitate when present characters with low speed, for component naming. Therefore the frequency effect of phonetic component is related with experiment task and the target presenting speed. The implication of the results and topics needing further study were discussed. It can be concluded that frequency effect interacted with presenting speed for naming component but not for naming character
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    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FORWARD INFERENCE VERSUS BACKWARD INFERENCE AND PREDICT IN CHINESE TEXT COMPREHENSION
    Lu Zhongyi, Peng Jianguo, Li Qiang
    2003, 35 (02):  183-189. 
    Abstract ( 1753 )   PDF (163KB) ( 1283 )  
    The three experiments were performed to investigate the difference between forward inference and backward inference, and the relationship between these two kinds of inferences and prediction. 3×2 independent design , longer texts material and response time index were used in both experiment 1 and experiment 2 which separately used sentence verification and naming method. On the basis of experiment 2, experiment 3 used 2×2 independent design and amended the experiment material according to the research demand. Experiment 1 showed that there is a significant difference between forward inference and backward inference. Experiment 2 indicated that there is no significant difference. In addition, forward inference make no significant difference among the three levels of prediction, so do the backward inference in experiment 1 and experiment 2. Interactive effects are founded between prediction and the two kinds of inferences in experiment 3
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    THE EFFECTS OF GROUP DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (GDSS) AND GROUP DISCUSSION ON GROUP DECISION MAKING
    Wang Hui,Liu Yanfang,Zhang Kan
    2003, 35 (02):  190-194. 
    Abstract ( 2272 )   PDF (135KB) ( 1454 )  
    A small group decision making task was used to explore the role of Group Decision Support System (GDSS) and group discussion during the process of group judgement. Ss were 60 students from Forestry University of Beijing and Agriculture University of Beijing. The accuracy of group judgment and the consistency among group members were recorded under four experimental conditions formed by GDSS and group discussion. ANOVA was employed to analyze the data under the two factors. The results indicated that GDSS enhanced the accuracy of group judgment significantly. The results also showed that group discussion helped group members to make an accurate and consistent judgement
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    INFLUENCE OF SITUATION COMPLEXITY ON SOLVING ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION WORD PROBLEM
    Zhou Xinlin,Zhang Meiling
    2003, 35 (02):  195-200. 
    Abstract ( 1805 )   PDF (153KB) ( 1388 )  
    Previous research has shown that the language complexity primarily contributed to problem difficulty in children’s solving addition and subtraction word problems, which was called language complex hypothesis. The children’s unfamiliarity with some words, phrases, sentences or linguistic forms might lead to their failures in processing linguistic description and finding solution. However, the situations described by familiar language can vary in difficulty level of representing, which implies that situation complexity could substantially contribute to problem difficulty. The present study probes into the possibility by exploring why object-separating word problems are easier to solve than object-joining word problems. There were two alternative explanations. In terms of language complexity hypothesis, the superiority of solving object-separating problems was owing to the consistent subject for all sentences described the problem. The object-joining problem didn’t have consistent subject for all sentences, thus solved with more difficulty. Since there was superiority of representing object-separating event disclosed in related research, the situation complexity hypothesis emphasized that the superiority of solving object-separating problems was owing to the superiority of representing object-separating event. Except for the problems containing key verb “give”, the problems containing key verb “take” was applied. For the latter, the object-joining problem had consistent subject, but the object-separating problem did not. According to language complex hypothesis, there should have the superiority of solving object-joining problems containing verb “take”, however, according to situation complex hypothesis, there should have the superiority of solving object-separating problems regardless of the problem types. Second graders (mean age: 8 years and four months) in a primary suburb school of Beijing city were asked to solve these problems. Results showed that there was superiority effect of processing object-separating problems regardless of the key verbs involved in the problems, which strongly supported the situation complex hypothesis. The theoretical implication on children’s mathematical cognition was discussed at the last part of this article
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    RESEARCH ON DISCRIMINATION OF MOTHER-INFANT ATTACHMENT TYPE
    Hu Ping,Meng Zhaolan
    2003, 35 (02):  201-208. 
    Abstract ( 1547 )   PDF (169KB) ( 1405 )  
    This paper presents a longitudinal and transversal study on city mother-infant attachment. 64 twelve-month-old infants were tested by similar Ainsworth’s “Stranger Situation Procedure” and Vaughn’ and Waters’ Q-sort method. The results indicated: (1) the Discrimination Function of the mother-infant attachment types were similar to that of the classical researches abroad; (2) the different attachment types of` mother-infant pairs were consistent in cross-situational and cross-age subject tests; (3) compared with the classical studies on Western infants of same types, the Chinese city infants showed distinctions in some attachment behavior, which were possibly due to cultural-environmental and family parenting factors
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    RESEARCH ON DISCRIMINATION OF MOTHER-INFANT ATTACHMENT TYPE
    Hu Ping 1 2,Meng Zhaolan3
    2003, 35 (02):  201-208. 
    Abstract ( 1377 )   PDF (169KB) ( 1302 )  
    This paper presents a longitudinal and transversal study on city mother-infant attachment. 64 twelve-month-old infants were tested by similar Ainsworth’s “Stranger Situation Procedure” and Vaughn’ and Waters’ Q-sort method. The results indicated: (1) the Discrimination Function of the mother-infant attachment types were similar to that of the classical researches abroad; (2) the different attachment types of` mother-infant pairs were consistent in cross-situational and cross-age subject tests; (3) compared with the classical studies on Western infants of same types, the Chinese city infants showed distinctions in some attachment behavior, which were possibly due to cultural-environmental and family parenting factors
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    MATERNAL CONTROL STRATEGIES AND THE CHILD’S COMPLIANT BEHAVIOR IN FAMILY FREE PLAY
    Chen Huichang,Li Donghui,Hou Jing, Chen Xinyin
    2003, 35 (02):  209-215. 
    Abstract ( 1751 )   PDF (171KB) ( 1842 )  
    Observational data concerning maternal child control strategies and children’s compliance were collected from samples of 42 three-year-olds and their mothers in Beijing. The results indicated that the frequency of maternal direct command was the highest one; Indirect command was the second; negatives control was very seldom. The rate of children’s compliance to maternal control was 54.6%. Passive noncompliance was the most popular in children’s noncompliance forms. Mother’s low control strategies were positively associated with committed compliance; High control strategies were positively associated with unskillful noncompliance; Intermediate control strategies were positively associated with committed compliance and passive noncompliance. When children were not compliant, mother’s immediately low control strategies could obtain committed compliance and high control strategies could obtain situational compliance
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    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FAMILY FUNCTIONING AND CHILDREN'S LONELINESS: THE ROLE OF MEDIATOR
    Xin Ziqiang,Chi Liping
    2003, 35 (02):  216-221. 
    Abstract ( 2023 )   PDF (203KB) ( 2752 )  
    This study explored the relationships of loneliness, peer acceptance, problem behaviors, and family functioning based on investigation of 246 3rd~5th graders. The results showed: Children's externalizing problem behaviors mediate the relationship between family functioning and peer acceptance. Peer acceptance is the mediator of the relationship between externalizing problem behaviors and loneliness. Internalizing problem behaviors mediate the association of family functioning and loneliness. As the other indirect pathway, externalizing problem behaviors and peer acceptance orderly mediate the effect of family functioning on loneliness. Furthermore, family functioning has strong effect on loneliness directly. Finally, the reasonability and constraint of these mediating roles were discussed
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    COLLEGE STRESS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING OF CHINESE COLLEGE STUDENTS
    Li Hong,Lin Chongde
    2003, 35 (02):  222-230. 
    Abstract ( 2855 )   PDF (181KB) ( 4950 )  
    The central aim of this study was to explore the impact of college stress on psychological well-being in respective of Chinese college students. College stress consisted of academic hassle, personal hassle and negative life event, which was measured by College Stress Scale (CSS). Psychological well-being was conceptualized as mental health status and self-esteem, which was measured by GHQ-20, and Self-esteem Scale (SES). The research questions are four: 1) Does college stress exert a negative impact on psychological well-being? 2) Does academic hassle exert a negative impact on psychological well-being? 3) Does personal hassle exert a negative impact on psychological well-being? 4) Does negative life event exert a negative impact on psychological well-being? Four hypotheses were established along by the research questions. The study was designed on cross-sectional and correlational principles, and retrospective (ex post facto) questionnaire investigation method was mainly adopted. In the study, 788 undergraduate students from three specific universities in Beijing were included. The results indicated that all the four hypotheses were supported. The conclusion therefore was that college stress and its different aspects exert negative impacts on psychological well-being
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    ATTRIBUTIONAL ANALYSIES OF INTERPERSONAL JUDGMENT OF RESPONSIBILITY AND BEHAVIORAL REACTION STRETAGIES
    Zhang Aiqing,Liu Huashan
    2003, 35 (02):  231-236. 
    Abstract ( 2119 )   PDF (270KB) ( 1946 )  
    Interpersonal attribution of responsibility is a new field that connects attribution researches with judgments of behavior responsibility. It gives a new angle of view to analyze the relationships between behavior responsibility and the following behavior reactions. This research tested the relationships among causal locus, controllability, judgment of responsibility, affect response and behavior reactions. 376 subjects attended this experiment, the results are: (1) Internal controllable cause of behavior elicited high responsibility judgment, severe reprimand and low console; internal uncontrollable and unstable cause elicited low responsibility, low reprimand and high console. (2) The relationships among causal attribution, judgment of responsibility and behavior reactions should be: Locus and controllability → responsibility → affect response → reprimand and console. Two structural equation models were set up to test the theoretical hypotheses by EQS. (3) Students, especially female students were inclined to think the failing behavior was caused by controllable reasons, teachers tended to use console strategy to students that failed
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    HOW DOES MENTAL SIMULATION AFFECT CAUSAL ATTRIBUTION?
    Zhang Jiehai,Zhu Zhengcai
    2003, 35 (02):  237-245. 
    Abstract ( 2280 )   PDF (286KB) ( 1484 )  
    This paper first examined the effect of causal attribution on mental simulation under the framework of treating causal attribution as one kind of outside force. The results revealed that there is positive correlation between the power of causal attribution over counterfactual thinking with the reason of choice and negative correlation with the outcome of event. The exception-routine effect in counterfactual thinking would disappear in case of minor outcome followed by a significant reason. We distinguish free event and forced event from each other in the basis of the results and propose that the exception-routine effect (or action-inaction effect) should only be applied to free events instead of all events. This finding partly explains the long-lasting differences between scenario experiment and field research on regret and counterfactual thinking
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    CROSS-CULTURE COMPARATIVE RESEARCH ON SOCIAL NORMS
    Ling Wenquan,Zheng Xiaoming,Fang Liluo
    2003, 35 (02):  246-254. 
    Abstract ( 2452 )   PDF (546KB) ( 1927 )  
    The comparative research to social norms of Chinese, Japanese and Americans was carried through. The subjects in Beijing were 1434, in Osaka 608 and in Los Angeles 1409. Sixty-seven items were included in the survey questionnaire, which was made by the three sides through discussion. The SPSS10.0 was used in the statistics. The results showed: (1)The basic two types of social norms of the Chinese, the Japanese and the Americans were the same, including the ethic and moral, value orientation, the law and the rules, and the social custom. The ethic and moral and value orientation builtup the internal control norm, the law and the rules and the social custom builtup the external control norm. (2)The basic structures of the social norms in China and in Japan were the same: the internal control norms played a main role and the external control norm was auxiliary. On one hand, within the internal norm of Chinese, the moral principle was the main force while the value orientation was the supplementary; within the external norm, the law and the rules was the main force while the social culture custom was supplementary. On the other hand, the relationship between the external and the internal dimensions of the Japanese turned out to be contrary to those of the Chinese.(3)For the Americans, the external control norm played a main role while the internal control norm assisted in the structure of the social norms. Furthermore, the law and the rule was the major aspect while the social costumes was the second in the external control dimension. The value orientation led the performance style of the Americans, while the moral principle played the second role in the internal control structure. Although there were the same dimensions among the three countries, the contents of these dimensions had both the common norms surpassing the specific culture and the particular norms depending on the specific culture. The culture differences of the social norms were the fundamental reason of the management conflict.
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    THE IMPACT OF SUPERVISOR’S FEEDBACK ON WORKERS’ BEHAVIOR
    WangYongli,Shi Kan
    2003, 35 (02):  255-260. 
    Abstract ( 2458 )   PDF (142KB) ( 1721 )  
    The study adopted 2×2 (type of feedback and target of feedback)two factors between subjects design. The researcher collected 303 samples to test the impact of supervisor’s feedback on workers’ behavior tendency of integrating、conflict and nonconfronting and the moderating role of individualism-collectivism to the independent variables and dependent variables. The results showed that: the main effects of type of feedback and target of feedback were significant;The individual level of individualism-collectivism had moderating effects on feedback.
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    THE DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CONDITIONED ENHANCEMENT OF ANTIBODY RESPONSE TO OVALBUMIN
    Chen Jihuan, Lin Wenjuan, Wang Weiwen, Yang Jie, Shao Feng
    2003, 35 (02):  261-265. 
    Abstract ( 1482 )   PDF (158KB) ( 1274 )  
    To establish the model of conditioned enhancement of antibody production. Forty-nine male and adult Wistar rats were used. A novel taste of saccharin was served as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and an injection of a protein antigen ovalbumin as the unconditioned stimulus (UCS). After a CS/UCS pairing was made, animals were re-exposed to the CS alone. Blood samples were periodically collected by tail incisions after re-exposure to the CS. The level of anti-OVA antibody production was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that the levels of anti-OVA antibody production of the group CS were significantly greater than the controls at the day 15, 20 and 25 after the CS presentation. The pattern of the conditioned anti-OVA IgG production was similar to that of the primary antibody response. The results reinforced the view that the enhancement of antibody production can be induced by single-trial Pavlovian conditioning where the CS alone is sufficient.
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    COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH OF SPEECH PRODUCTION
    Zhang Qingfang, Yang Yufang
    2003, 35 (02):  266-273. 
    Abstract ( 1957 )   PDF (181KB) ( 1654 )  
    The study of speech production is a challenging question in language research. The topic of this paper is to review the development of speech production research from the point of view of cognitive neuroscience. There are two major theories about the lexical access in speech production – two-step interactive activation theory and discrete stage theory. Their important differences are the time course of the lexical access and the interactive between two stages. Using the dual GO/NOGO tasks, the ERP researches provided much more detailed evidences about the time course of speech production by LRP and N200 indices. Summarizes the core findings of the neuropsychology and the brain imaging of speech production. Based on the meta-analysis of a number of the studies of brain imaging, concludes every stage’s corresponding dynamic brain areas in the time course of speech production. The network of producing words is almost completely left-lateralized.
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    WHY A POTENTIAL GOLD MEDAL GONE:“CHOKING” IN SPORTS
    Wang Jin
    2003, 35 (02):  274-281. 
    Abstract ( 2544 )   PDF (189KB) ( 1964 )  
    Choking under pressure is defined as deterioration in the execution of habitual processes of performance under pressure. It often occurs at the critical time of matches and in the important games. Based on relative research, this article reviewed choking definitions and theories that sport psychologists and social psychologists have been interested in. Sport psychologists believed that choking is related to anxiety that distracts the athletes’ attention while performing. Social psychologists, however, suggested that athletes choke because they are trying to control their performance process consciously. The theoretical explanations have resulted in difficulty in the development of therapeutic techniques for ameliorating choking. This article discusses an integrated model suggesting that the task characteristic and skill may be considered as factors of influencing the choking process. According to the integrated model, it is suggested that an appropriate coping strategy may help athletes to reduce the occurrence of choking under pressure. Finally, the article suggests three aspects for further research.
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