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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 38 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    The Interaction of Lexical Selection and Phonological Encoding in Chinese Word Production
    Zhang-Qingfang,Yang Yufang-
    . 2006, 38 (04): 480-488.  
    Abstract   PDF (824KB) ( 1604 )
    An important issue in the study of language production concerns the time course of lexical access and possible interactions between lexical selection and phonological encoding. A number of different models have been proposed in the literature to account for how a word is processed for speaking. For example, the discrete two-stage model assumes that the stages of lexical selection and phonological encoding operate in a strict successive order, and no interaction between the stage of lexical selection and phonological encoding. Alternatively, on the basis of spreading activation, the interactive activation model postulates a bi-directional flow of information between different processing levels. Semantic, lexical, and phonological levels are interconnected in a network fashion. Lexical candidates activate their phonological forms before any single candidate has been selected. That is, not only the word forms of the target lemma, but also the semantic competitors become partially activated. The cascading model assumes that there exists interaction between lexical selection and phonological encoding, but no feedback from the stage of phonological encoding to lexical selection. The debates among three models are (1) whether there is the interaction between lemma selection and phonological encoding; (2) whether all activated semantic items or only a single selected semantic item gives rise to the phonological activation; (3) whether there is feedback from phonological encoding to lexical selection.
    Due to confounding of orthography and phonology in alphabetic languages (i.e., English and Dutch), the results of the previous studies (Lupker, 1982; Starreveld & La Heij, 1995) need to be interpreted cautiously. Using the independence of orthography and phonology in Chinese, the present experiments investigated (1) the multiple phonological activations and the multiple orthographic activations of semantically related words of picture name; (2) whether there is the feedback from phonological encoding to lexical selection with picture-word interference paradigm.

    In three experiments, the picture-word interference paradigm was used. The participants were required to name a target picture and ignore a distractor word. We varied both the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) and the picture-word relationship along different lexical dimensions. Fifty-five undergraduate students participate in three experiments (20 in experiment 1 and 2 respectively, 15 in experiment 3). ANOVA analyses were performed in the participant and the item analysis in three experiments.

    The data analyses showed that multiple phonological activation of semantically related to target was found in experiment 1, whereas no orthographic activation of semantically related to target was observed in experiment 2. After improving the conditions of experiment 1 and 2, experiment 3’s results suggested that: 1) no phonological or orthographic activation of semantically related to target was obtained, 2) no orthographic activation of phonologically related to target was found, and 3) phonological activation of orthographically related to target was obtained.

    The results suggested that there exist the interaction of lexical selection and phonological encoding, but no activation feedback from phonological stratum to semantic stratum in picture naming. Therefore, the present study supported the cascading model, rather than the discrete two-stage model or the interactive activation model in language production
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    The Effects of Frequency and Productivity on Character Learning by Elementary L2 Learners from Alphabetic Language Backgrounds
    . 2006, 38 (04): 489-496.  
    Abstract   PDF (728KB) ( 1741 )
    Many previous studies have shown that frequency of language input played an important role in second language acquisition. Language learners are very sensitive to the frequencies of items and to co-occurent combinations in language input. High-frequency items are acquired earlier and better than low-frequency ones. Studies on Chinese character recognition also showed that high-frequency characters are recognized more quickly than low-frequency ones. But few studies investigate the frequency effects in Chinese as a second language because the frequency data of characters in a second language is not as easily available as in a first language. In the meanwhile, whether or not the productivity of a character (i.e. the word formation ability of a character) has an effect on character learning is still an unresolved question.
    The present experiments investigated the effects of frequency and productivity of characters on character learning by elementary L2 students of Chinese as a second language from alphabetic language backgrounds. In Experiment 1, 55 first-year adult learners of Chinese as a second language from Beijing Language and Culture University were asked to write down the Pinyin and make words or phrases for 100 learned characters which were selected from their textbook and were different in frequency of occurring in the learner’s textbook and stroke number. The percentage of correct number in Pinyin, meaning and that of both correct in Pinyin and meaning were calculated respectively and then were analyzed using ANOVAs. In Experiment 2, 35 participants were asked to write down the Pinyin and make words or phrases for 64 learned characters which were selected from their textbook and were different in numbers of word formation.
    The results showed that the high-frequency characters were learned better than the low frequency ones and this effect was larger for characters with more strokes than that with fewer strokes. But the effect of productivity for characters to forming words on subjects’ performance was not significant.
    These results suggest that input frequency is an important factor during the acquisition of Chinese as a second language. The frequency effects in second language acquisition could be explained within the theory of implicit learning, which claims that acquisition of knowledge is a process that takes place naturally without conscious operations. The lack of significant effect of productivity may be because the productivity would have no effect on the learning of high frequency characters, which were used as stimuli in Experiment 2, but it would not be the case for low frequency ones. Therefore, further research on the productivity of character is needed in the future
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    The Effects of Implicit Verb Causality and Accentuation on Pronoun Processing
    Shen Min,Yang Yufang
    . 2006, 38 (04): 497-506.  
    Abstract   PDF (934KB) ( 1352 )
    There are many factors influencing pronoun processing in spoken language comprehension, such as implicit verb causality and accentuation. Numerous studies (McDonald & MacWhinney, 1995; Garnham, Traxler & Oakhill, et al, 1996; Debra & Long, 2000; Sun Y, Shu H, Zheng X, et al 2001) have shown that implicit verb causality influenced pronouns resolution. Focus hypothesis and integration hypothesis(Stewart, 2000)both claim that implicit causality makes some candidate antecedent prominent. However, these studies are not consistent on its time course on pronoun processing: on line or off line. In spoken language domain, researchers (Akmajian, 1970; Cahn, 1995; Kameyama, 1999; Venditti,Stone & Tepper, 2001; Wang D & Yang Y, 2004) have studied the effect of accentuation on pronoun processing but have not come to a conclusion. Some researchers claim that stressed pronoun shifts the center of attention, whereas others argue that it only works in parallel-structure sentences. As mentioned above, different prominence of candidate antecedents arisen by implicit verb causality provides us a natural instance for observing the effects of accentuation.
    The present study aimed to explore the effects of implicit verb causality and accentuation on pronoun processing during spoken Chinese sentence comprehension as well as their time course, using auditory moving window technique (experiment 1) and cross-modal probe method (experiment 2 and 3), by comparing the comprehension time, percentage of choosing NP1, reaction time to probe words between NP1 verb and NP2 verb level, stressed pronoun and unstressed pronoun level.
    One hundred and one paid volunteers participated in the study (30, 20, and 21 in experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively). In the self-paced listening paradigm, participants listened to the sentences clause-by-clause and interpreted the pronoun. In the cross-modal probe procedure, sentences were presented by earphone and the probe word (NP1, NP2) was presented on screen. In experiment 2, participants reacted at once when the sentence ended. In experiment 3, participants responded as soon as encountering the pronoun.
    The result of experiment 1 showed that percentage of choosing NP1 in NP1 verb condition was significantly higher than that in NP2 verb condition, and that reading time of second clauses in stressed pronoun condition was significantly longer than that in unstressed pronoun condition. The result of experiment 2 showed that in NP1 verb condition, RT (reaction time) to NP1 was significantly shorter than that to NP2, whereas in NP2 verb condition, the probe time was similar. In NP1 verb condition, RT to NP1 in stressed pronoun condition was significantly longer than that of unstressed condition, whereas RT to NP2, the reverse tendency was observed. The results of experiment 3 were similar to those in experiment 2, except that RT to NP2 did not achieve significant level.
    This study supported the focus hypothesis, which indicates that implicit verb causality influences pronoun processing immediately. Accentuation could shift the center of attention even in nonparallel-structure sentences; there were interaction between implicit verb causality and accentuation during spoken sentence comprehension
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    A Further Study of the ERP Effects of ‘Insight’ in a Riddle Guessing Task

    Qiu Jiang,luo Yuejia,Wu Zhen Zhen

    . 2006, 38 (04): 507-514.  
    Abstract   PDF (659KB) ( 2062 )

    Recently, Mai Xiaoqin et al. applied ERPs to examine the electrophysiological correlates of insight by providing a trigger (the solution) to catalyze the insightful riddle solving process. The authors found that Aha answers elicited a more negative ERP deflection (N380) than did No-aha answers in the time window from 250-500 ms. The dipole analysis localized the N380 generator to the ACC. Thus, they argued that the N380 likely reflected an “Aha” effect, and that the ACC generator might be involved in breaking the subject’s mental set. However, the researchers only analyzed the ERP elicited under the conditions of “Aha” and “No-aha” answers, but did not include ERP analyses for the participants that were unable to understand the correct answers (“Uncomprehended answer”). It is known that insight is a complex cognitive process, and there exists doubt whether N380 (the ACC’ activation) would truly reflect the perception of cognitive conflict in the early insight onset. Participants had the Aha experience if they could understand the right answer, but if they could not understand the right answer, they would not have the Aha experience and thus could not obtain insight. Therefore, analyzing the ERP elicited by Unknown answers was important, because it could further clarify the true meaning of N380.
    High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to examine the electrophysiologic correlates of insight problem solving. One hundred and fifty interesting Chinese logogriphs were adopted as materials. For each trial, participants were either given an easy puzzle followed by a correct answer that was consistent with their initial thinking (No-aha answer), or a difficult puzzle followed by a correct answer that was consistent with an unusual interpretation, so that it broke the participant’s initial mental set (Aha answer). Participants were required to press the corresponding keys to indicate whether they understood the meaning of the riddle, including No-aha answer, Aha answer and Uncomprehended answer. According to participants’ responses, EEG of the “No-aha”, “Aha”, “Uncomprehended” answers was separately overlapped. The averaged epoch for ERP was 800 ms including a 100 ms the pre-answer baseline.
    In 130 riddles, mean trials for 61, 44 and 25, SE=5, 6 and 5, for Aha answers, No-aha answers and Uncomprehended answers, respectively. Mean reaction times (RTs) were 2,049 ± 561 ms for Aha answers and 748 ± 289 ms for No-aha answers; other riddles were not answered correctly within 4000 ms. From ERP waveforms, we found Aha answer and Uncomprehended answer both elicited a more negative ERP deflection than did No-aha answer in the time interval between 250-400 ms. In the difference waves (Aha minus No-aha answer and Uncomprehended minus No-aha answer), the peak latency was about 320 ms. A voltage map of the difference wave showed strong activity at the central posterior region, especially at the right temporal parietal. The Dipole analysis (BESA software) localized the generator of the N320 (Aha minus No-aha answer) in near the ACC and the thalamus.
    Our results indicated that Aha answer and Uncomprehended answer both elicited a more negative component than did No-aha answers. The N320 may embody the central locale of cognitive conflict that resolves familiar and new ways of thinking, as the participant attempts to comprehend the riddles answers, but do not reflect the breakthrough of the participant’s initial mental set and the temporal course of brain processes corresponding to Aha experience in solving insight problems

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    Task Efficiency of Different Arrangements of Objects in an Eye-movement Based User Interface
    Chengzhi Feng-,Mowei Shen
    . 2006, 38 (04): 515-522.  
    Abstract   PDF (620KB) ( 1468 )
    The main reason that eye-movement based user interfaces are attractive is that the gaze direction of eyes can express the interests of the user – it is a potential window of cognitive processes – and communication through the gaze direction of the eyes is faster than any other modes of human communication. In this study, a 2arrangement×6target position within subject factorial design was used to compare different arrangements of interactive objects for an eye-movement based interface suitable for the general GUI environments such as Microsoft Windows. We found that: (1) In eye-movement based human computer interaction, the selective efficiency was higher for horizontal arrangements than for vertical arrangements. (2) The arrangement of objects affected the effect of target position on task time. When the objects were arranged horizontally, with the target moving right, task time increased linearly, but when the objects were arranged vertically, with the target moving down, task time increased nonlinearly. (3) Target position only affected the time of target location in both arrangements. In addition, the time of target activation was not affected by the arrangement of objects and the target location. Therefore, objects should be arranged horizontally in interactive systems based on eye tracking technology
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    The Influence of Individual Cognitive Style and Material Complexity on Visuo-Spatial Working Memory
    . 2006, 38 (04): 523-531.  
    Abstract   PDF (801KB) ( 1838 )
    Introduction: Researchers have recently paid attention to individual differences in visuo-spatial working memory. An important issue is the influence of several individual difference variables, such as gender, age, study difficulty, spatial ability, on visuo-spatial working memory. In the present study, we investigated whether there were differences on visuo-spatial working memory among individuals of different cognitive styles when the memory materials were different in difficulty.
    Method:Experiment 1: (1) Participants: Fifty-six graduates participated in the GEFT. Among them, 16 (top 30%) with highest scores were defined as field-independent, and 16 (bottom 30%) as field-dependent. The final sample consisted of 32 participants (14 males, 18 females; mean age = 20.2 years). (2) Experimental design: This was a mixed design of two factors which were cognitive style (between-group) and path complexity (within-group). The cognitive style included field-independence and field-dependence, whereas the path complexity included simple path and complex path. The dependent variable was the span of visuo-spatial working memory which could be obtained when the total sum of the three biggest spatial orders was divided by three. (3) Materials and equipments: There were 25 cubes used in Corsi block-tapping task, which were presented on the computer screen with a blue background (23×25cm) in the shape of a 5×5 matrix. Experiment 2: (1) Participants: Fifty-five graduates participated initially in the GEFT. The method used was the same as that of Experiment 1. The final sample included 16 field-independent and 16 field-dependent students (15 males, 17 females; mean age = 20.8 years). (2) Experimental design: This was a mixed design of three factors which were cognitive style (between-group ), structural complexity (within-group) and quantitative complexity (within-group). The cognitive style included field-independent and field-dependent, the structural complexity included the matrix shape and random shape, and quantitative complexity included the small quantity and the large quantity. The dependent variable was the same as that in experiment 1. (3) Materials and equipments: In Corsi block-tapping task, the cubes were the same as those in experiment 1. Quantitative complexity included both the small quantity (9 cubes) and the large quantity (16 cubes). The structural complexity included matrix shape and random shape. We used SPSS11.5 to analyze the data of the two experiments.
    Table 1
    The span of memory of different cognitive style in different path complexity tasks (M±SD)

    cognitive style simple path complex path
    field independence 6.146±1.068 5.020±1.013 field dependence 5.751±1.118 3.895±0.665
    An MANOVA was administered on the span of visuo-spatial working memory. The results indicated that the main effect of path complexity was significant , F(1,30)=73.612, p<0.001;under the simpler path, the span of memory was significantly higher than that of the complex path; the main effect of cognitive style was significant , F(1,30)=6.392, p<0.05; the field-independent subjects’ span of visuo-spatial working memory was significantly higher than that of the field-dependent subjects; the interaction between cognitive style and path complexity was significant , F(1,30)=4.410, p<0.05.
    The span of memory of different cognitive style under different experiment conditions(M±SD)

    experiment small quantity large quantityconditions matrix random matrix random
    field independence 6.125±1.039 6.271±1.063 5.771±0.757 5.917±1.145
    field dependence 6.083±1.000 5.167±0.699 5.396±0.743 4.875±0.383
    After an MANOVA test on the span of visuo-spatial working memory, we obtained the following results. The main effect of quantitative complexity was significant ,F(1,30)=8.129, p<0.01; under the small quantity condition, the span of visuo-spatial working memory was significantly higher than that of the large quantity; the main effect of cognitive style was significant, F(1,30)=9.816, p<0.01; the field-independent subjects’ span of visuo-spatial working memory was significantly higher than that of the field-dependent subjects; the interaction between cognitive style and structural complexity was significant , F(1,30)=9.317,
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    The Change of Representation and Its Correlates: A Microgenetic Study
    Xin-Ziqiang,Zhang li
    . 2006, 38 (04): 532-542.  
    Abstract   PDF (1214KB) ( 1221 )
    Abstract The aim of the present study was to conduct a microgenetic analysis of the change of representation and its correlates in children’s solving a specific form of an addition task. Karmiloff-Smith’s theory of Representation Redescription was adopted as the theoretical framework of this study. Karmiloff-Smith (1992) suggested that representation redescription is an important way to gain knowledge, and that the change of representation includes three phases, which are procedural, meta-procedural and conceptual phase. During the procedural phase, children’s problem solving behavior is considered to be “success-oriented”. Separate units of behavior are not brought into contact with one another. At the end of this phase, consistently successful performance is achieved, but the change of representation does not stop. In the meta-procedural phase, an overall organization of the internal representation occurs and children can generate “organization-oriented” behavior. They move beyond procedural success to a phase of internal representational organization and the generation of a unified, single approach for all the parts of the problem. Finally, in the conceptual phase, the interaction between external data and internal representation is regulated and balanced as a result of the combination of internal and external control. Representation sustaining children’s behavior in this phase is considered to be richer and more coherent, even though children’s behavior in this phase may appear similar to the procedural phase.
    In our opinion, the change of representation as described by Karmiloff-Smith takes place not only at the macro-developmental level, such as changing from one year to another, but also at the micro-developmental level, such as in the context of short-term repeated problem solving. However, a new question is whether Karmiloff-Smith’s theory can be directly applied to describe the micro-development of representation. Thus, in the present study the microgenetic method was used to explore changes of representation that occur within the context of a specific form of digital division and combination task and within the boundaries of a sequence of limited-in number-sessions. There were eight sessions that included the three stages of pretest, practice and transfer. Based on a sample of 120 first and second graders, we explored representational change in the process of problem solving as well as the related age and practice effects.
    The results showed that, in the pretest, the number of 2nd-grade children who achieved the conceptual phase was significantly higher than that of the 1st graders. There were no significant age differences among those children who achieved the procedural phase with both practice and the near transfer problem during the pre-test, although, in the far transfer problems, the performance of 2nd-graders was better than that of the 1st-graders. Practice patterns affected representational change in three ways: (1) A complex practice pattern facilitated children’s representational change much more than a simple practice pattern. That is, more children achieved representational change in the complex practice pattern than in the simple practice pattern. (2) In the complex practice pattern, children’s representational change accelerated in the two practice sessions in which difficult problems were inserted, whereas, in the simple practice pattern, children’s representational change accelerated between the 2nd and 3rd sessions and the rate of representational change remained constant afterwards. (3) There were no significant differences in transfer performance between participants under two practice patterns, although performance became different in near and far transfer tasks.
    As described in Karmiloff-Smith’s model, results of this study demonstrated that changes of representation were beyond children’s successful problem solving behavior. However, the present study found various pathways and different rates of change that were predicted by Karmiloff-Smith. Furthermore, the practice patterns had an effect on the change of representation. For example, solving hard problems or overcoming cognitive obstacles could facilitate the representational change. It is concluded that development at the macro and micro level may be different in many aspects
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    Relations with Personality and Cross-Situational Consistency of Behavior
    Wang Dengfeng,Cui Hong
    . 2006, 38 (04): 543-552.  
    Abstract   PDF (997KB) ( 3596 )
    Abstract The current article was aimed at analyzing cross-situational consistency of behavior and contents of personality structure with possible Western-Chinese differences theoretically and empirically, through three folded arguments. First, it was proposed that personality was composed of four facets as behavior, inner emotions and experiences, motivation, and neuro-physiological responses. Different theories on personality pay different attention on different facets of personality, and may get different conclusion on personality and relations between personality and behavior. And all the four facets were influenced by culture.
    Secondly, as an integral part of personality, behavior can be classified as personal or situational. Personal behavior was defined as those never or seldom influenced by situational press and/or social desirabilities, such as reading hobbies, preferred music, and private room design, etc. This kind of behavior would be seldom, if any, influenced by situational factors and would show cross-situational consistencies. Situational behavior, on the other hand, was defined as those mainly influenced by situational factors and/or social desirabilities, such as dress style and talk manner in social situations. This kind of behavior would be mainly influenced by situational factors and would show less, if any, cross-situational consistencies. Meanwhile, behavior maybe influenced by different kind of motivations, either self-consolidation and/or adjust to the situation. The former was defined as inherited desire for self-identity, and the latter was defined as learned desire for acceptance from others. Cross-situation consistency or inconsistency can be seen as the result of interactions between kinds of behaviors and motivations.
    Finally, both contents of personality and relation between personality and behavior were proposed as influenced by cultures. Chinese culture was defined as collectivism, behavior as mainly situational, and motivations as mainly adjust to the situation. Accordingly, the four different facets of Chinese personality, especially the relations between behavior, inner experiences and motivation may display with significant tendency of situational adjustment. That is, as a part of personality, behavior of Chinese maybe mainly influenced by situational factors aimed at adjusting the requirement of situations, with more cross-situational inconsistencies, and the individual may experienced more conflicts between behavior and the inner experiences and motivation.
    In contrast, Western culture was defined as individualism, behavior as mainly personal, and motivations as mainly achievement of personal goals and expectations. Accordingly, the four different facets of Western personality, especially the relations between behavior, inner experiences and motivation may display with significant tendency of personal adjustment. That is, as a part of personality, behavior of Western maybe mainly influenced by personal factors aimed at achieving the personal goals, with more cross-situational consistencies, and the individual may experienced less conflicts between behavior and the inner experiences and motivation.
    Statements mentioned above were discussed theoretically and empirically, and it was concluded as: 1) As was defined as an integral pattern of behavior, inner experiences, motivation and neuro-physiological responses, personality should be seen as an individual’s integral characteristics, with different levels of observability from both perspectives of self and others. If only one facet of personality (e.g., explicit behavior, or motivation) was observed, the whole characteristics of personality would not be reflected correctly, and mutual contradictive findings could be emerged. 2) The stability of personality was presented as not only cross-situational consistency of behavior, but also, and sometimes more importantly, the consistency between behavior and situational requirements, or adjustment responses to the environment. And different conclusion on patterns of personality characteristics could be made when individual’s motivation and behavior were seen as integral parts of personality. Further research directions were also discussed in this paper
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    Diverse Consequences of Neuroticism and Extraversion on Down-regulation of Negative Emotions
    Hu Yanhua,Huang-Miner
    . 2006, 38 (04): 553-561.  
    Abstract   PDF (851KB) ( 1894 )
    Abstract:Neuroticism and Extraversion are empirically well confirmed as two representative emotional traits. Neuroticism is characterized as negative affect and extraversion is regarded as positive affect. Current investigations of the biological basis of personality have further identified the heritability to traits, the role of neurotransmitters and the neural structures that mediate trait-typical behaviors. But few studies have been conducted to examine the different consequences of these two traits on emotion regulation processes in multiple domains included subjective, expressive and physiological responses. In this study, we intended to investigate the diverse consequences in emotional changes between neuroticism and extraversion when they down-regulated their negative emotions. We hypothesized that individuals of higher scores in neuroticism would have a stronger activated negative affect system but weaker down-regulation system comparing to individuals of higher scores in extraversion.
    Method: We adapted an experimental paradigm of emotion regulation developed by J.J. Gross. Participants were college students. Among them, 28 had higher scores on extraversion and 28 had higher scores on neuroticism. Participants were assigned to down-regulate their negative emotions manipulated by reappraisal or suppressive instruction when they were watching a disgust film in 62 seconds (mutilated surgery). Reappraisal was instructed as “please watching the following film carefully. Try to keep you in objective and unemotional attitude, and just to observe and think its facts from a technical perspective. Please try your best to avoid feeling its emotional aspects.” Suppression was instructed as “please watching the following film carefully. Try to conceal your emotions when you feel. Please try to suppress your emotions and don’t let others know what you are feeling.” Physiological responses and expressive behaviors were measured continuing during four periods (baseline, instruction, film and post film baseline) accordingly, and subjective reports were measured before and post of the experiment. 2 X 2 MANOVA were conducted to test effects of Traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and Regulation (reappraisal and suppression) on Emotional consequences in physiological responses, expressive behaviors and subjective reports.
    Results: Comparing to extraversion groups, neuroticism group exhibited a greater increase in FPV (Finger Pulse Volume) during the instruction periods and smaller increase in R-R interval inter-beat interval when film was presenting as well as down-regulation was manipulating. Comparing to extraversion groups, neuroticism groups reported a greater increase in subjective pain experience in the down-regulation period.
    Conclusion: The results indicate that individuals with higher scores on neuroticism are likely to activate negative emotions when they meet negative situations, but they have less potential psychologically and physiologically to down-regulate their activated negative emotions. This may help explain why neuroticism is characterized as a negative affect and extraversion is characterized as a positive affect
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    The Effects of Physical Exercise on Subjective Well Being of Senior High School Students and Their Psychological Mechanism
    Chen-Zuosong,Ji Liu
    . 2006, 38 (04): 562-575.  
    Abstract   PDF (1261KB) ( 3704 )
    Abstract:Is there a relation between physical exercise and subjective well-being? The present study answered this question by conducting a questionnaire survey of senior high school students. The sample was obtained through stratified random sampling in the whole country. The country was divided into seven geographic areas from each of which seven cities were randomly selected. Within cities, schools were stratified by various factors and one school was randomly selected from each sector in the cities. Finally, one class was selected from each grade of each school. A total of 2520 questionnaires were sent out and 1968 were returned.
    Subjective well-being (SWB) was measured along the five dimensions of positive emotions, negative emotions, life satisfaction, study satisfaction, and physical satisfaction. These measures showed acceptable psychological properties. Factors predicting the SWB were physical self-esteem, personality, interpersonal relationship, and coping, which were measured using the Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. The changing of life events variables were measured using a check list of negative and positive life events. To keep a consistent set of life event variables, cases that had negative events were not included in the present study. The sample upon which the present study was based had 803 students.
    Results. Demographic variables such as gender and school which showed significant differences in SWB were controlled when examining the relation between physical exercise and students’ SWB. Engaging in physical exercise had a significant effect on each dimension of the SWB (Wilks’ l=0.956,F=7.29,p<0.01). 2)Exercise intensity did not have a significant effect on students’ SWB(Wilks’ l =0.973,F=1.77,p>0.05),but duration of physical exercise did (Wilks’ l =0.851,F=10.7,p<0.01),and the interaction between exercise intensity and duration of physical exercise also showed a significant effect(Wilks’ l =0.942,F=1.92,p<0.05). The structural equation modeling analysis results supported the revised theoretical model of psychological mechanism(CMIN(χ2)/df=4.196,GFI=0.902,AGFI=0.857,CFI=0.866,RMSEA=0.078).
    Conclusions. 1) SWB of senior high school students involves five perspectives, which are positive emotions, negative emotions, life satisfaction, study satisfaction and physical satisfaction. 2) The self-editing scale reflects an overview of the SWB of senior high school students and has high reliability and validity. This measurement tool can be used to study the relation between exercise and the SWB of senior high school students. It can also be used for diagnostic and clinical consultation purposes by the mental health professionals. 3) Senior high school students doing exercise have higher SWB than those not having enough exercise especially with respect to special life satisfaction. Doing physical exercise occasionally did not seem to impact students’ SWB. Long-term physical exercise shows significant effects. Relatively long duration of physical exercise that is of low to medium intensity is positively related to students’ SWB. 4) Physical exercise not only shows direct impact on the SWB of senior high school students but also has indirect impacts through such intervening variables as physical self-esteem, interpersonal relationship and personality
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    The Effects of Acute Emotional Stressor on Behavior and Phosphorylation Levels of Neurogranin in Rats
    Li Huanhuan,Lin-Wenjuan,Li Junfa
    . 2006, 38 (04): 576-582.  
    Abstract   PDF (608KB) ( 1573 )
    Stress is a negative emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral changes that are directed either toward altering the stressful event or to accommodating to its effects. Different types of stressful events might sometimes produce qualitatively different patterns of effects in behavior, suggesting that different central mechanisms may be involved. However, most of the molecules involved in central mechanisms of stress response, especially stress-induced behavioral disorders, are still unknown. Neurogranin (NG) is a brain-specific, postsynaptically located protein kinase C (PKC) substrate found by Watson and his colleagues in 1990. It is mainly distributed in the frontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala of rodents that are considered as essential components of neural circuitry mediating stress responses. Numerous animal studies have demonstrated that NG is involved in several pathways of protein signal transduction in brain, long-term potentiation and long-term depression. NG-knockout animals exhibited deficits in learning and memory. These results implied that NG may be a mediator between stress and behavior. However, until recently, the cellular role of NG has not been clearly established. To understand more molecular events underlying central mechanisms of stress-induced behavioral changes, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute emotional stress on behavior and protein levels of neurogranin in brain, and the correlation between protein levels of neurogranin and stress-induced behavioral changes.
    Forty rats were randomly divided into emotional stressed group 1 (ES1), emotional stressed group 2 (ES2), handled-control 1 (C1) and handled-control 2(C2), with ten in each. Randomly giving empty water bottles at set times was used as an emotional stressor. Behavioral changes in rats after stress were observed by open-field test and elevated plus maze task, and protein levels and phosphorylation of neurogranin of hippocampus and forebrain were determined by Western blotting. The results showed that locomotor activity in open-field test in ES1 was increased more than that in C1 group (P<0.05). Protein levels and phosphorylation of Neurogranin of hippocampus and forebrain in ES1 were significantly higher than that in C1 (P<0.05, P<0.05) and C2 (P<0.05, P<0.05). Phosphorylation of Neurogranin level of forebrain in ES2 was significantly higher than that in C1 (P<0.05). The correlation was significant at 0.05 levels between locomotor activity and phosphorylation of neurogranin in the hippocampus. These results suggested that neurogranin is one of the stress-related substances in brain. Acute emotional stress can induce anxiety. Locomotor activity may be a sensitive behavioral index, and phosphorylation of neurogranin in the hippocampus may be an effective biological predictor for anxiety and/or depression induced by acute emotional stress. In summary, acute emotional stress induces behavioral changes and phosphorylation levels of neurogranin in frontal cortex of rats. Underlying mechanisms explaining the behavioral changes in stress effects are discussed, including the role of neurogranin in the hippocampus and frontal cortex.
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    The Effects of Chronic Forced Swimming Stress on Emotion and Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase of Brain in Rats
    Qu Xiaoli,Lin-Wenjuan
    . 2006, 38 (04): 583-589.  
    Abstract   PDF (655KB) ( 1382 )
    The generic term mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is used to denote a family of signal transduction mediators that regulate a diverse array of cellular functions via activation of a sequential phosphorylation cascade involving a three-protein cassette. Among several MAPKs cascades that have been characterized, the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) are the most widely investigated. ERK1/2 are extensively distributed throughout the central nervous system and prominently found in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. At present, ERK1/2 are being extensively studied in the field of learning and memory. Recent data have demonstrated that ERK has a vital role in the hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and prefrontal cortex-dependent conditioning. It can facilitate learning and memory consolidation and regulate neuronal plasticity. However, there is rather little evidence concerning the role of ERK1/2 in stress response and emotional regulation. The purpose of the present study was to detect the effects of chronic forced swimming stress on emotion and ERK1/2 in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex in rats and to determine the relation between emotion and ERK1/2 of brain.
    Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups. They were the swimming stress group, apparatus control group, and the control group. The stressed animals received swimming stress for 5 minutes once a day for 14 days. The apparatus controls were placed in a novel environment for 5 minutes once a day for 14 consecutive days. The controls were free of stress. After stress, rats were tested with an open-field, elevated-plus maze and saccharin preference test. They were then decapitated and dissected to detect the ERK1/2 of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex with blotting. It was found that both the swimming stress group and the apparatus control group showed significant emotional disorders. The body weight gain of the stressed group was significantly lower than that of the control group and the apparatus controls. The defecation of the apparatus controls was more than that of the control group and the stressed group. The locomotion of the stressed group was significantly lower than that of the other two groups. Compared to the controls, the stressed animals spent a shorter time in open arms and longer time in closed arms. The saccharine solution consumed and the ratio of the saccharine solution consumed to the total liquid consumed of both the stressed group and the apparatus controls were significantly lower than that of the control group. There were enhanced levels of ERK1/2 in the prefrontal cortex of the stressed group and the apparatus controls, with no change in the hippocampus. The ERK2 level of the prefrontal cortex was negatively correlated with the amount of the saccharin solution consumed. The results suggested chronic swimming stress could induce emotional disorders and increase the level of ERK1/2 in the prefrontal cortex. ERK1/2 was closely linked to emotional response and could provide the mechanism underlying protective reaction under stressful situations
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    The Construct of Organizational Learning of Chinese Companies
    YU Haibo,Fang Liluo,Ling Wenquan
    . 2006, 38 (04): 590-597.  
    Abstract   PDF (648KB) ( 1505 )
    For Chinese companies, the core competitive is the organizational learning capacity. The research on organizational learning has contained several natural and social sciences. However, few study on organizational learning was based on integration of three kinds of understanding on organizational learning (information process, social interaction, system and behavior) and based on management of learning. Organizational learning should be the integration of human, knowledge and the organization system.
    The methods used in this study involved literature review, interview, pilot study, and survey. Based on literature review, interview and pilot study, items for the Organizational Learning Questionnaire were developed. The survey data were from managers and employees of 43 companies which were different kinds and from differrent districts in China. The survey data was mainly analyzed with exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). At the same time, the correlation analysis was done between organizational learning, organizational innovation and perceived organizational finance performance.
    The results showed that organizational learning of Chinese companies was a multi-dimensional construct. It was comprised of inter-organizational learning, organizational level learning, collective level learning, individual level learning, exploitation learning and exploration learning. OLQ (Organizational Learning Questionnaire) had high validity and reliability. That is to say, four learning levels and two information or knowledge processes can reflect Chinses companies’ organizational learning capacitis. The results were different from results generated by studies in other countries. At the same time, the results showed there were modest significant correlations between organizational learning, organizational innovation and perceived organizational financial performance, which showed that organizational learning can influence organizational innovation and organizational financial performance.
    In the future, the effectiveness of organizational learning, and the factors which influence organizational leaninig should be explored, and the complex influence mechanism should be studied deeply
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    Developmental Characteristics of Two Types of Shared Mental Models
    . 2006, 38 (04): 598-606.  
    Abstract   PDF (830KB) ( 1759 )
    Shared mental models (SMMs) were defined as team members’ shared understandings about team task, task context and strategies, team interaction patterns, and teammates’ traits. Team task models and team interaction models were distinguished as two types of SMMs. It has been showed that SMMs can enhance the efficiency of team processes and team performance. Although researchers have focused on antecedents and consequences of SMMs, little research has been conducted to examine the development of SMMs. The current study aimed to investigate how two types of SMMs developed from low to high level.
    Totally 132 student participants formed 44 3-person teams to perform on a simulation task, which was developed particularly for the current study. Among them, 23 teams were provided with team performance feedback during task execution, the other 21 teams were under no-feedback condition. Participants were randomly assigned to feedback conditions and to positions within teams. Mental models (MMs) were elicited using participants’ individual paired ratings of the relatedness among key concepts of team task or interaction behavior before, during and after task execution. Pathfinder, a network-analysis computer program, could represent each member’s MMs based on the matrix of paired ratings, and could offer a closeness index (C index) to reflect the similarity of MMs between each pair of teammates. Three “C” indexes were averaged to form the team similarity score.
    Results of mixed-model ANOVA showed that: a) similarity of mental models increased significantly over time; b) similarity of task models was significantly higher than that of interaction models; and c) similarity of task models increased faster under feedback condition than under no-feedback condition, whereas similarity of interaction models increased significantly only under feedback condition. Differences in the development of these two models were discussed in terms of whether the models were task-specific in natureThe results indicate that the development of team task models and team interaction models might have different features, and that team performance feedback might have different effects on the development of these two models
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    The Consumers’ Risk Sources and Their Influence in B2C E-Commerce
    Sun Xiang,Zhang Shuoyang,Chen Yiwen,Wang ErPing
    . 2006, 38 (04): 607-613.  
    Abstract   PDF (616KB) ( 1969 )
    With the development of E-Commerce, it is an urgent issue for consumer researcher to know consumers’ feeling about online shopping and to find barriers of their online shopping. A number of studies have shown that perceived risks tend to stop consumer from online shopping. It is crucial to fully examine consumers’ perceived risks in online shopping in order to understand consumer online behavior and to promote them to adopt online purchasing. The main aim of this research is to test the hypothesis of the cyber-reality interface in online shopping by examining the risk sources consumer perceived in B2C E-Commerce.
    Using a combined methodology of qualitative and quantitative research, this study explores the risk sources in B2C (Business to Consumer) Electronic Commerce from consumers’ perspective. The article begins with a brief introduction and literature review of risk reception. In this study, a total of 337 subjects were surveyed by interviews and questionnaires to explore the risk sources consumer perceived in B2C E-Commerce, the dimensions of the consumers’ perceived risks, and the influence of these risk sources on risk perception.
    The main findings of this study: Eight main factors were extracted by explored factor analysis (EFA), and they can explain 61% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was then used to confirm the model. The results were as follows: χ2/ DF were 1.38, the RMSEA was 0.05, and the GFI, NNFI and CFI were all above 0.8. The Cronbach α coefficient of the questionnaire for overall perceived risk was 0.83. Risk sources of real guarantee, buyer-seller interaction, online transaction, information searching, autonomy, and product-related were significant influence on the overall perceived risk.
    Results suggest that: 1. Consumers perceived a number of risk sources in B2C E-Commerce. Among them, lack of real feeling, necessary information, advertisement bias lie in the stage of information searching; personal information, procedure redundancy, payment system and website fraud lie in the stage of online transaction; delivery time, damage, mistake and personnel lies in the stage of logistics; refusal concern, consumption document, expectation consistency and post-sale service lies in the stage of after-buying. 2. Risk sources in B2C E-Commerce consist of eight components. They are risk in the interface of online transaction, risk of real guarantee, product-related risk, time-related risk, risk of information searching, risk of autonomy, risk of return and change, as well as risk of buyer-seller interaction. 3. Risk sources that have a significant impact on consumers’ overall perceived risk are risk of real guarantee, risk of buyer-seller interaction, risk of online transaction, risk of information searching, risk of autonomy and product-related risk
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    An IRT Analysis of Rater Bias in Structured Interview of National Civilian Candidates
    Sun-Xiaomin,Zhang Houcan-
    . 2006, 38 (04): 614-625.  
    Abstract   PDF (1006KB) ( 1695 )
    Structured interview is one of the most important ways in personnel selection. The existence of rater bias, however, could threatens its reliability and validity to a great extent. Different test theories give different solutions to this problem. Many-faceted Rasch Model (MFRM), an extension to Rasch model, overcomes the shortcomings of Classical Test Theory (CTT). By parameterizing not only interviewee’s ability and item difficulty but also judge severity, MFRM offers an effective way to estimate rater bias and provides detailed information of rater’s bias behavior. This study divided rater bias into two kinds -- intra-rater inconsistency and between-rater difference in stringency -- and used MFRM to analyze these two kinds of rater bias.
    Data comes from a structured interview of national civilian candidates. There were 200 interviewees and 21 raters who were randomized into 3 panels in the morning of each of two days. Rating scores of two panels were used in this study. The first 34 interviewees (numbers 1 through 34) were interviewed by raters A、B、C、D、E、F、G in the first morning. Interviewees 35 to 66 were interviewed by raters A、E、H、I、J、K、L in the second morning. Using a 10-point rating scale (1 to 10), each rater rated each interviewee independently on five dimensions.
    Using FACETS3.55.0, a computer program based on MFRM, we examined between-rater differences in stringency and intra-rater inconsistency. Rater bias across candidates, rating dimensions, gender, and time periods are further examined by bias analysis provided by FACETS.
    (1) In the structured interview, rater severity differed from each other significantly;
    (2) In the structured interview, raters demonstrated different levels of internal consistency. The specific behavior of the inconsistent raters and the overly consistent raters were identified.
    (3) Raters also showed different pattern of rater bias across candidates, rating dimensions, gender, and time periods.
    The results suggest the existence of two rater bias sources. The application of MFRM in the analysis of structured interview offers an effective way to fairly select competent national civilian candidates, and provides valuable information for the selection of qualified raters, the identification of each rater’s strong points and shortcomings, which is useful for the construction of rater bank and further training of incompetent raters
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    Effects of Positively and Negatively Worded Items in Personality Measurement
    Guo-Qingke,Han Dan,Wang Zhao
    . 2006, 38 (04): 626-632.  
    Abstract   PDF (590KB) ( 2030 )
    In personality measurement, some examinees show the tendency of simply agreeing with the scale items regardless of the item content. This tendency is called ‘acquiescence’ by Cronbach (1946, 1950), and ‘yea- or nay-saying’ by Couch and Keniston (1960). To diminish this kind of response bias, negatively worded items are adopted. Negatively worded items require more attention to item content, and also can balance the impact of yea- or nay-saying on overall test scores.
    But studies on the change of item narrative direction have provided inconsistent findings. Whereas some studies show that the use of negatively worded items can increase reliability and validity (Sandoval and Lambert, 1978; Schriesheim and Hill, 1981; Williams et al., 2001), others show that the use of negatively worded items can confound factor structures (Weems et al., 2001) and may result in a separate factor ‘irrelevant to the trait being measured’ (Ibrahim, 2001). When both positively and negatively worded items are used to measure a uni-dimensional trait, factor analysis will exact two factors, one is related to positively worded items and the other is related to negatively worded items.
    In this study, Chinese EPQ and NEO-FFI were used as personality measures, but items narration directions were changed in both measures. In one form (formⅠ) of EPQ(or NEO-FFI), half of items were positively worded, and half of the items negatively worded. In another form (formⅡ) of EPQ(or NEO-FFI), positive items in formⅠwere converted into negative items, and negative items into positive ones. These two test forms of EPQ(or NEO-FFI) were administered to auniversity student group with the time interval of two weeks. Thus we obtained the data from 363 university students who took positively worded EPQ and negatively worded EPQ, and the data from 412 students who took positively worded NEO-FFI and negatively worded NEO-FFI.
    The result showed that positively worded sub-scales of EPQ and NEO-FFI were a little more reliable than their negative counterparts, α coefficients for three positive EPQ sub-scales (E, P, N) were 0.80, 0.42, 0.75, for three negative EPQ sub-scales were 0.82, 0.45, 0.81; α coefficients for five positive NEO-FFI sub-scales (N ,E, O, A, C) are 0.82, 0.65, 0.69, 0.64, 0.75, and for five negative NEO-FFI sub-scales were 0.77, 0.62, 0.68, 0.64, 0.67.
    Confirmatory Factor Analyses showed that negative EPQ and NEO-FFI exhibited better fit than the positive ones: for negative EPQ, model c2=2456.22, RMSEA=0.046, NNFI=0.87, SRMR=0.069, for positive EPQ c2=2402.96, RMSEA=0.045, NNFI=0.85, SRMR=0.072; for negative NEO-FFI c2=2868.20, RMSEA=0.066, NNFI=0.84, SRMR=0.078, for positive NEO-FFI c2=3952.15, RMSEA=0.075, NNFI=0.79, SRMR=0.086.
    Based on classmate nominations as criterions, sub-scales of negative EPQ and NEO-FFI showed higher correlations with criterions than positive ones. When all positive and negative items of EPQ(or NEO-FFI) factor analyzed in one CFA model, the fit measures did not become significantly lower than the positive or negative item model, and loadings of the positive and negative items were highly consistent. These results suggest that positive and negative forms of an item measure the same construct.
    In conclusion, positive worded items may produce higher reliability, but lower construct validity and criterion-related validity than negative worded ones do. Negatively and positively worded items measure the same construct, but positively worded items may be more affected by response set bias
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