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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 9 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    AN INFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE CHINESE LANGUAGE:Ⅰ. THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE REMOVED STROKES OF THE IDEOGRAMS IN PRINTED SENTENCE-TEXTS
    TSENG SING-CHU, CHANG L-HSIANG, WANG CHIA-CHU
    . 1965, 9 (04): 11-20.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 85 )
    The strokes of the Chinese ideograms in printed sentences selected from recent newspapers were removed at various percentages in three different ways: (1) omitting the anterior strokes of the ideograms, (2) omitting the posterior strokes, and (3) omitting those which would not seriously change the configuration of the ideograms. College students were asked to reconstruct the removed strokes. The results indicated that the remaining strokes of the anterior part of the ideograms left by the second type of omission were easier to use than those of the posterior part left by the first type of omission, while those left by the third type of omission produced the best performance. The average subject, given limited time to work, was able to reconstruct the mutilated ideograms with 55% of the strokes omitted, while superior subjects, given unlimited time, were able to restore them as much as 73% of the strokes removed in a way of the three types combined together. From these results the lower bound on redundancy in terms of strokes for current newspaper Chinese adopting all the simplified ideograms is estimated to be about 78%. Implications of the findings for further simplification of the Chinese ideograms and for the design of more efficient and more simplified typewriters and printers are suggested.
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    THE RELATION BETWEEN THE STRUCTURE, FORMULATION OF THE ARITHMETICAL PROBLEMS AND THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF THE PUPILS IN THE PROCESS OF PROBLEM SOLVING
    MAO Y-YEN, KUNG WEI-YAO, CHEN PEI-LIN
    . 1965, 9 (04): 21-28.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 81 )
    An investigation was made among the 4th, 5th and 6th graders for the purpose of studying the relationship between 1) variations in the structure of arithmetical problems; 2) the psychological activity of the pupils and 3) their ways of formulation of the problems. The results showed a complex relationship with the same kind of formulation of problem structure caused by different kinds of psychological activity; and with the same kind of psychological activity resulting in different ways of formulation, especially when the structure of the problem was in conflict with the maturity level of the pupils and also their habitual ways of mental activity in problem solving.
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    METHODS IN TEACHING ORTHOGRAPHY AND THEIR EFFECTS ON MEMORY
    TANG TZU-CHIEH, CHOW SHU-YN, CHEN JUEI-YING
    . 1965, 9 (04): 29-36.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 115 )
    Children's memory of correctly written characters are related to the teaching methods of orthography. One of the best methods to overcome wrongly written characters is to let the children analyse the structure of the characters and to practice write the characters together with other related characters. Since memory effects do not increase proportionally with the amount of practice, an optimal practice schedule should be adopted.
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    CRITICAL FLICKER FREQUENCY AS AN INDICATOR OF FATIGUE IN RAILWAY WORKERS
    WANG SHU-MAO
    . 1965, 9 (04): 37-43.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 175 )
    Three groups of railway workers consisting of 5 key punch operators, 9 calculators and 36 dispatchers were tested on C. F. F. at different times while on duty. It is found that the fusion frequency is highest for the punch operators and calculators before work, then it decreases gradually as they proceed in their work. The fusion frequency increases slightly after each short break at two hour intervals, but never reaches the level as high as the initial values. There is no detectable change in fusion frequency for the dispatchers on day shift; but there is marked decrease after night shift. It is concluded from this study that the fusion frequency of flicker may be used to test the degree of fatigue of the central nervous system.
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    THE FREQUENCY DISCRIMINATION THRESHOLDS OF SIMULTANEOUS FLASH SIGNALS COMPOSED OF ALTERNATIVE BRIGHT AND DIM PHASES
    LI CHIA-CHIH, WANG TSI-CHIH
    . 1965, 9 (04): 44-52.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 74 )
    The frequency discrimination thresholds of simultaneous flash signals composed of alternative bright and dim phases were measured under laboratory conditions. When the frequency of flash signals falls within the range of 40 c/min to 220 c/min the discrimination threshold follows Weber's law, expressed by the equation △f=0.17f+9.95. Five frequencies with discrimination accuracy above 95% were determined. They are: 44.2/110.8, 60.0/150.3, 81.5/204.7, 110.8/277.8, 150.5/377.2 (unit: c/min).
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    KINETIC DEPTH EFFECT CAUSED BY VERGENCE OF THE EYES
    CHING CHI-CHENG
    . 1965, 9 (04): 53-62.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 164 )
    An apparatus was designed in which two moving stimuli are presented on a twodimensional ground glass screen in the frontal plane. S views the stimuli binocularly, and by means of a polaroid system, he sees one stimulus with each eye. When the two stimuli move on the screen in a certain relationship to evoke the convergence and divergence movements of the eyes, S could observe kinetic depth effects describing various paths. The course of the stereoscopic depth movement could be prearranged or predicted by the transformations of the vergence angle of the eyes. The possibility of designing threedimensional visual displays by way of controlling the vergence movements of the eyes is discussed.
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    THE EFFECT OF BODY-OBJECT TILT ON VISUAL PATTERN RECOGNITION
    PENG JUI-HSIANG, LO SHENG-TE
    . 1965, 9 (04): 63-72.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 62 )
    Fitts-type patterns, random and mirrored, were employed in a recognition task. S seated in an upright position, and was shown a test figure with its base in the horizontal orientation (0°) for 1.5 sec., after a delay his postural position was changed, and was shown a set of eight figures of the same general kind, and was required to identify out of these eight the one he had previously seen. The angular relations of S and the eight figures were as follows: Under conditions 1, 2 and 3, S seated in an upright position, the figures tilted 0°, 90°, 180° to the left respectively; under condition 4, both S and figures tilted 90° to the left; under conditions 5, 6 and 7, S tilted 90° to the left, the figures tilted 0°, 180°, 270° to the left correspondingly; under condition 8, both S and figures tilted 180° to the left; under conditions 9 and 10, S was turned upside down, the figures tilted 90°, 0° to the left; under condition 11, the positions of S, the test figure and the eight figures all tilted to the same angle (90°). The results indicated that: Under conditions 1, 4, 8 and 11, the figures were identified more rapidly than under other conditions. The findings of these experiments once again contradicted with the predictions of the sensory-tonic field theory. A comparison of the two types of figures suggested that the mirror-image figures were recognized much more rapidly than the random figures.
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    LAMBDA WAVES OF HUMAN SUBJECTS OF DIFFERENT AGE LEVELS
    TSAI HAO-JAN, LIU SHIH-YIH
    . 1965, 9 (04): 73-82.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 94 )
    EEG records of Lambda (λ) waves of human subjects of different age levels indicated: 1) The appearance of λ-waves was most marked on Ss under 18 years of age, less obvious on subjects of 18 to 30 years of age, and least in Ss after age 31; 2) The λ-waves showed a higher frequency and a lower voltage and duration in adults than in children; 3) λ-waves more frequently appeared during visual perception, but not when the S engaged in visual imagination; 4) For subjects who manifested "on-response'' and/or "driving response" in the occipital region, λ-waves were most easily recorded during visual perception.
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    THE EFFECT OF VERBAL INSTRUCTION ON ATHLETIC ACTIVITY
    CHIU YI-CHUN
    . 1965, 9 (04): 83-90.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 69 )
    It has been shown that verbal instructions have a positive influence upon muscular activity in athletics. An instruction to exercise greater muscular effort given to the subject could make him endure a longer work period and produce greater work output. Nevertheless, the instructional effects showed great variability, it is usually difficult to maintain a constantly high activity level by mere persuasion. It should be noted that the active attitude on the part of the subject is an important factor in determining the level of activity in athletics.
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