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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 11 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY IN MARCHING TO THE FOUR MODERNIZATIONS
    Chen Li
    . 1979, 11 (02): 4-7.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 74 )
    The paper summerizes psychological investigations in the fields of operational ra-tionalization, technological design and enterprise management from the time of Taylorsystem. The author emphasizes that with the progress of automatization man's rolein the automatie system become more and more evident. Human factors in the man-machine system are always decisive. Man does not act as a device of the system,but acts as a host of it.
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    THE HISTORICAL TEACHING OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Gao Jue--fu
    . 1979, 11 (02): 8-12.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 78 )
    This is one of the main addresses delivered at the symposium on the researchproject of the history of psychology. The author reviews various viewpoints nf wes-tern psychologists and suggests some fumdamemtal principles of Marxist-Leninist psy-chology. (1). The mind is a function of the brain, a reflection of the extarnal world.That is to say consciousness does not exist independently of material, although cons-ciousness is not equal to the material. (2). We should hold that external causes be-come operative through internal causes, therefore we should oppose behaviorist exter-nal determinism and Mcdougall's indeterminism. (3). Practice is the only criterionof testing truth. Study of the haman mind is closely bound up with the observationof objective practice. In approaching western psychology, we should consider both it's positive and ne-gative aspects, insteas of simply denying or affirming it. To establish a Marrist-Leninist psychology is an arduous task. Questions of rightand wrong in science should be setlled through free discussion and practical work.Nor shonld they be setlled hastily.
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    A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN DURING THE FIRST THREE YEARS
    Wu Tian-min,Xu Zheng-yuan
    . 1979, 11 (02): 13-25.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 150 )
    Sound records of 5 children taken from birth through the first three years ofage were analysed. Three obvious points concerning the development of language inchildren may be shown in the following: (A). The development of language is a continuous, sequential and regular pro-cess with transitional changes both quantitatively and qualitativaly all through. It iscoutinuous as well as by stages, and may be divided into six stages: (1). The stage of simple vocalization —— from birth to 3 mon.; (2). The stage of continued syllable repeating —— 4 to 8 mon.; (3). The stage of beginning to speak —— 9-12 mon.; (4). The stage of one word sentences —— 1 to 1 yr.; (5). The stage of simple sentences —— 1 to 2 yr.; (6). The stage of beginning to use compound sentences —— 2-3 yr.; (B). The shild's language development proceeds from concrete to abstract, thismay be seen from the process of grasping words and their parts of speeoh. (C). Individual differences in language development are quite clear even amonginfants in such a amall group.
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    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON TIME PERCEPTION OF 5—8 YEAR-OLD CHILDREN
    Huang Xi-ting,Zhang Zeng-jie
    . 1979, 11 (02): 26-34.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 701 )
    The experimental study shows: (1) The time perception of the group of 5-year-old children is not very aceurateand steady because they cannot use the standard measure of time. (2) The children of the 6-year-old group generally cannot use the standardmeasure of time and their reproductions of long time intervals are not accurate andsteady, this is similar to children of the 5-year-old group; but their reproductions ofshort time intervals are more accurate and steady than that of the 5-year-old children. (3) The children of the 7-year-old group are able to use the objective standardmeasure of time; but there are only few who can use the subjective standard measureof time. (4) The children of the 8-year-old group can actively use the standard measureof time. The accuracy and steadiness of their time perception are greatly enhancedand tend to approach the level of adults.
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    A PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FORMATION OF MORAL CHARACTER AMONG PUPILS UNDER THE INFLUENCES OF CLASS COLLECTIVE
    Zhu Wen-bin,Tan Ming-zhong
    . 1979, 11 (02): 35-43.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 324 )
    By summing up the work experience of Mr. Liu Chun-pu, the national outstan-ding teacher in charge of a class, this study gives a tentative analysis on the psycho-logical processes of the formation of moral character among primary middle schoolpugils under the influences of class collective and makes a preliminary explorationabout the approach to the subject concerned. Our findings show that the formation process of the pupil's moral character is aprocess in which the struggle and solution of the contradiction between new moraldemands and old behaviour habits are realized. In this process, the pupil's attitudehad to be modified in order that he could receive instructions conscientiously, a classcollective should be established with learning tasks as its centre of orientation, richand varied educational activities should be launched, and special attention paid to thetransformation of those pupils who lagged behind. All these are key links. Teachersmust take educational measures effectively in accordance with the peculiarities oftheir pupils in different developmental stages in ordel to slove different problemscharacteristic of a given stage. In doing sc, the teachers may be able to impel theformation and development of the pupils' communist morality.
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    SOME USEFUL PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES IN IMPROVING SELF LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS BY THE PRIMARY MIDDLE SCHOOL PUPILS
    Lu Zhong--heng,Yu Bi-yun et. al.
    . 1979, 11 (02): 44-55.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 124 )
    Experimental researches show that learning effect may be raised, learning timeshortened and the self-study ability cultivated by using the author's teaching materialsof mathematics. The underlying psychological principles of the materials are theiradequate steps and immediate reinforcement, but the most important principle is thedirect discovery of essential characteristics through judgments of right and wrong.This method may also be useful for other teaching purposes.
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    SOME EXPERIMENTS OF RAILWAY LIGHT SIGNAL DISPLAY
    Cui Jun-ming,Shen Feng-ming
    . 1979, 11 (02): 67-80.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 97 )
    Several variables, i.e. colour, visual angle and brightness contrast that affect theefficiency of railway light signal display were investigated. About 1500 observers se-lected from various districts and nationalities participated in a colour naming experi-ment in which colour zones on the chromaticity diagram had been determined foruse as railway light signals. Two series of identification experiments were carried out at a railway yard. Inone series, visual angle was kept constant and brightness contrast was a variable. Inanother series brightness was kept coustant and visual angle was a. variable. In bothseries red, green and yellow signals were presented randomly. In the preliminary experiments it was found that while the red and yellow signalswere kept in favourable display conditions the observers showed higher probability ofcorrect identification for the green signal even if it was under unfavourable coudition,because if the signals were not red or yellow, it should have been green. After addinga white signal and a non-signal as interference to eliminated the guess effect, twosets of psychophysical functions ——correct identification rate vs. visual angle curveand correct identification rate vs. brightness contrast curve had been obtained.
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    A SERIAL STUDY ON THE RELATIVE SPECTRAL LUMINOSITY AMONG CHINESE PEOPLE Ⅰ.PHOTOPIC RELATIVE SPECTRAL LUMINOSITY
    Chen Yong-ming,He Bao--yuan et al.
    . 1979, 11 (02): 81-87.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 76 )
    This study was undertaken by using the flicker method with 50 normal visionadult subjects. The visual field subtended two degrees and the level of luminancewas 30 cd/m~2. 18 points, with seperations of 10 or 20 nm, were selected for measure-ment in the wavelength range of 404 to 700 nm. Subjects of two age groups wereused: below 30 and above 30 years of age. The results obtained were as follows. First, the average maximum spectral sensitivity of 50 subjects, was found to beat 555 nm, which is in close agreement with the CIE V_λ. Most of the subjects had amaximum value at 555nm or 560nm, which showed that it is considerably concentra-ted. Furthermore, another verification of the maximum value was made, the resultagain was proved to be valid. Sceond, comparison was made between the two age groups. It indicates thatthere is a variation with age in the short wave and of the spectrum, where the V_λ va-lue smoothly decreases as age increases. Third, at the extreme short wavelength end of the spectrum (below 460 nm), therelative sensitivity obtained by the present study is significantly higher than that ofCIE, it is rather coinciled with the result revised by D. B. Judd in 1951. Fourth, aside from the deviation mantioned above, the shape of the ralative spe-etral Iuminosity curve of Chinese people is basically similar to the CIE V_λ. This fin-ding in turn suggests that there is likely no significant ethnological difference betweenwhite and yallow races in this respect.
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    EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON RHYTHMIC CHANGES OF THE CUTANEOUS PAIN THRESHOLD IN MAN
    Guo Nian-feng,Li Xin-tian,Zhu Pei
    . 1979, 11 (02): 88-92.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 81 )
    Since the application of acupunctural anesthesia to surgical operation in Chinathe problem of pain has become the main subject in interdiciplinary researches. Thestudy of the characteristics and roles of pain which is considered as a psychologicalprocess is one of the main tasks in psychology. In ancient China there were ideas somewhat akin to that of modern biologicalrhythms. Guided by these concepts thus we begin to study the periodic changes ofhuman cutaneous pain threshold in the acupunctural anesthesia practice since 1975. The results suggested that there were a "6 months circannual rhythms in the hu-man cutaneous pain threshold with the first peak in March (the mean value of reac-tion time was 600.6±110.6 centiseconds) and the second peak in Sept. (the meanvalue was 605.5±76.7 centiseconds). The two lowest phases of rhythmic changes ina year occured in June and Jan. with the mean value of 454.4±26.3 centisec. and435.9±60.8 centisec. respectively. There were significant difference (p<0.001) be-tween each two adjacent measurung in all four measurements. There were 81.9% ofcases showed changes of cutaneous pain threshold with a 6 months circannual rhythms. The supplementary experiment (the experiment for correlation between skin tem-perature and pain induced by thermal stimulation) suggested that the change ofcutaneous pain threshold was not solely dependant on the change of skin temperature.As a psychological reaction pain seems to have a 6 months circannual rhythms itself.The reason remains to be further investigated.
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    SOME SIMPLE ELECTRONIC DEVICES FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS
    Yang Zhi-liang
    . 1979, 11 (02): 109-111.  
    Abstract   PDF (KB) ( 74 )
    Three useful devices for psychological investigations are recommended. Theyare: a transistor GSR-meter, a transistor sound switch and a transistor time-controller.
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