Loading...
ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

Archive

    25 September 1979, Volume 11 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    30 YEARS OF CHINESE PSYCHOLOGY
    Department of Education, Shanxi Normal University
    1979, 11 (03):  3-14. 
    Abstract ( 277 )  
    The author divided the 30 years' development of Chinese psychology into fourmain periods: The first period (1949-1958) has been characterized by the learning ofMarxism-Leninism, Pavlov's theory and Soviet psychology, the criticism of bourgeoispsychology, and some preliminary experimental researches. The second period (1959-1965) was that of rapid development and proliferation of psychology. In the thirdperiod (1966-1976) Chinese psychology was at a halt due to the sabotage and inter-ference of the Gang of Four. With the victory over the Gang of Four begins thefourth period (1976-1979) in which Chinese psychology enters a new era of vigorousdevelopment.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    30 YEARS OF CHINESE THEORETICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Che Wen-bo,Guo Zhan-ji Department of Philosophy, Jilin University Department of Education, Jilin Normal University
    1979, 11 (03):  15-28. 
    Abstract ( 498 )  
    This is a summary of Chinese theoretical psychology during the past 30 years.The authors present a brief historical background, then proceed to describe some dis-putes in basic theorectical problems. The directions of future development of Chinesetheoretical psychology are pointed out.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    AN INVESTIGATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORAL SPEECH IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN Ⅰ.ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF SIMPLE DECLARATIVE SENTENCES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
    Zhu Man-shu,Wu Jin-zhi,Miao Xiao-chun Shanghai Normal University
    1979, 11 (03):  29-34. 
    Abstract ( 943 )  
    This paper is one of a series of reports on speech development of preschool child-ren. This paper analyses the structure types and the developmental trend of the mostfundamental sentences-simple, affirmative, active and declarative. The Ss were seventy preschool children (2 to 6 years of age, 33 male and 37female) randomly drawn from two kindergartens and two nurseries and divided intoseven age groups (2, 2(1/2), 3, 3(1/2), 4, 5, and 6 years) with 10 Ss each. The subjects'spontaneous speech was recorded with a tape recorder. Each subject was recordedtwice within two weeks, each recording lasted for half an hour. A total of 3459 simple declarative sentences were recorded and nine structure typesranging from simple to complex were discovered. According to the distribution of thesetypes in each age group, the developmental trend of the structure of preschool child-ren's fundamental sentences was as follows: 1. from chaos to gradually differentiating; 2. from looseness to gradually well-knitting; 3. from contraction and stereotype to gradually expanding and being flexible.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A STUDY ON THE NUMBER INDEX SYSTEM OF CHINESE CHARACTERS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THEIR STRUCTURES
    Yang Ji-ben Hunan Normal College
    1979, 11 (03):  41-51. 
    Abstract ( 475 )  
    In this paper, the results of a study on the number-index system of Chinese cha-racters based on their structure are presented. The suggested system may be used in dictionary or catalogue compilation. Fur-thermore, through further study and improvement, it may also be used in imformationretrieval, in file-searching and so on.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    EVALVATED THRESHOLD OF IMPAIRMENT FOR HEARING OF STANDARD COLLOQUIAL CHINESE
    Wang Nai-yi,Cao Mu-xiu Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Jingshan School, Beijing
    1979, 11 (03):  61-66. 
    Abstract ( 506 )  
    The thresholds of hearing for pure tones from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz of more thantwo thousand workers after exposures for different number of years to various noiselevels were measured and their speech hearing ability under everyday life conditionswere questioned simultaneously. On the basis of these data, the thresholds of impair-ment for hearing of standard colloquial Chinese were evaluated by means of psycho-physical statistical analysis. They were 20db, 27db and 30db for three differentfrequency combinations of 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz; 1000, 2000 and 6000 Hz; and of sixfrequencies from 500 Hz to 6000 Hz respectively. In comparison with the recommendation of 25db of ISOR 1999, our result was about 5db lower.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    EFFECT OF CHANGE OF ILLUMINATION ON VISUAL DISCRIMINATION
    Yu Bo-lin,Jiao Shu-lan,Ching Chi-cheng,Chen Yong-ming Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1979, 11 (03):  67-73. 
    Abstract ( 763 )  
    20 subjects were tested with Landolt ring tasks under condition similar to equi-valent sphere illumination. The sizes of the rings were 0.5′-10.0′in eight steps of visual augle, illumination range was 1.7-2160 lux. It was found that visual angle forcorrect discrimination is a function of illumination and that with further increase inillumination there is a slowing down in improvement in visual acuity which followsthe "law of diminishing returns". This law may be applied to classification of illu-mination levels in specifying standards of illumination. The present study also compared visual effects of positive and negative contrasts.It proved that with the same illumination and same high contrast tasks the visual ef-fect of dark (black) background is better than that of light (white) background. Thisimplies that for lower reflectance areas a higher illumination should be prescribed.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    CHANGES IN HIPPOCAMPUS AND CORTICAL ELECTRO-ACTIVITY DURING LEARNING IN ANIMALS
    Wu Qin-e,Kuang Pei-zi Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1979, 11 (03):  74-78. 
    Abstract ( 460 )  
    Changes in cortical and hippocampus electro-activity during learning were studiedon the rabbit. The results are as follows: 1. The hippocampus shows slow rhythm theta waves and the cortex shows desyn-chronization during formation of conditioned reflex. 2. In the formation of conditioned reflex cortical and hippocampus activities arerelated in that cortical changes are always linked with hippocampus changes, but hip-pocampus changes are not necessarily accompanied by cortical changes. Furthermore,hippocampus changes are much more obvious. 3. During the process of the formation of conditioned reflex, formation rate onthe third and fourth day is the highest, then it gradually decreases. 4. Strongly established conditioned reflexes are easily differentiated and moredifficult to extinguish.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A NOTE ON SDT AND CLASSICAL PSYCHOPHYSICAL METHODS
    Chen Shu-yong,Ma Mou-chao Department of Psychology, Peking University Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1979, 11 (03):  79-83. 
    Abstract ( 1059 )  
    In order to compare the merits of SDT and classical psychophysical methods twoexperiments on weight discrimination were carried out on subjects of different ages,sexes and occupations. Both SDT and the method of constant stimuli were used. Ithas been shown that when the subject's response bias is not influenced by the changeof experimental conditions, the measurement of sensitivity by the method of constantstimuli is just as efficient as that by SDT. But when some non-sensory factors havean effect on the subject's response bias, the measurement of sensitivity by SDT is morereliable. The authors hold that although SDT has been considered a powerful tool tomeasure sensitivity, the clasaical psychophysical methods are still useful under certainappropriate conditions. They are indispensable methods in sensitivity studies, and can-not be replaced by SDT.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF MEMORY AND LEARNING Ⅱ.INFLUENCE OF HIPPOCAMPUS INJECTION OF PANCREATIC TRYPSIN AND CHYMOTRYPSIN ON MEMORY OF DARK BOX AVOIDANCE(DBA)TASK IN ALBINO RATS
    Lo Sheng-de,Li De-ming,Sun Li-hua Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1979, 11 (03):  84-89. 
    Abstract ( 497 )  
    Two instrumental enzymes, Chymotrypsin (CT) and Trypsin (T), both are pro-teolytic enzymes capable of destroying some bonds of proteins and peptides, were usedin this experiment. A total of 26 young adu1t male albino rats served as the threenon-consolidation groups (NC) of DBA memory: normal saline solution (NS/NC),Trypsin (T/NC) and Chymotrypsin (CT/NC). After bilateral injection of CT and T into the Hippocampus (iH: AP_2L_2H_4 andAP_4L_3H_5), different effects were observed on the conditioned reflex of DBA memorymodel (CR_(DBA)). 72 hours after iH. T, retention of CR_(DBA) clearly decreased, but afteriH. CT, memory remains consolidated. Differences in successive number of CR_(DBA)(SN_(CR)) and rate of CR_(DBA) (CR%) were statistically significant. The experimentaldoses of iH. T and CT approximately equal 1/3 of their LD_(50).
    Related Articles | Metrics
    THE EFFECTS OF CHLORPROMAZINE AND CHLORPROMAZINE-AMPHETAMINE ANTAGONISM ON LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR IN THE MACACUS RHESUS
    Guan Lin-chu,Liu Shi-yi Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Shanghai Institute of Physiology, Academia Sinica
    1979, 11 (03):  90-97. 
    Abstract ( 451 )  
    The effects of intravenous chlorpromazine and chlorpromazine-amphetamine anta-gonism on responses maintained by both food delivery (positive learaing) and electricshock avoidance (negative learning) were determined using a multiple schedule of rein-forcements. Two adult rhesus monkeys (Macacus Rhesus) without previous experimen-tal historory were used. The results show: 1. Chlorpromazine suppressed both the positive and negative learning in a dose-dependent fashion in Macacus Rhesus and there was no qualitative difference betweenthese two events. Chlorpromazine had no effect at lower doses (0.1mg/kg), inter-mediate doses (0.2-0.3 mg/kg) decreased the responses to a certain extent and higherdoses (over 0.5 mg/kg) suppressed the overall responses with food delivery and shockavoidance. 2. Under multiple schedule of positive and negative learning there was an obviousantagonistic effect between amphetamine (0.25 mg/kg) and chlorpromazine (0.2-0.3mg/kg) in the Macacus Rhesus. 3. Chlorpromazine (over 0.5mg/kg) induced quietness, drowsiness and apathy,while amphetamine (over 0.5mg/kg) induced excitement, anxiety and tension in theMacacus Rhesus.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF COMPONENTS OF PAIN
    Yang Zhi-liang,Cai Ta-wei,Wu Jui-liang Shanghai Normal University First People's Hospital of Shanghai
    1979, 11 (03):  98-107. 
    Abstract ( 542 )  
    The present investigation employed psychophysical and electrophysiological me-thods to study the compound action potential induced by square pulse stimulation onthe saphenous nerve. The first experiment was to establish an emotional scale of pain by observing the emotional states of nine subjects under various pain stimulation con-ditions. The second experiment applied electro-acupuncture on the same nerve andrecorded the changes of the sensory as well as the emotional components of pain dur-ing and after electro-acupuncture processes. The result indicated that electro-acupunc-ture had differential inhibitory effect on the sensory component and the emotionalcomponent of pain. This suggests: 1. Pain involves two related but different com-ponents (the sensory component and emotional component of pain); 2. Electro-acupuncture has stronger inhibitory effect on the emotional component of pain. Thisresult provides a new outlook for the improvement of clinical effect of acupunctureand for further study of pain mechanism.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    EARLY EXPERIENCE AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
    Ray Over La Trobe University, Australia
    1979, 11 (03):  108-112. 
    Abstract ( 472 )  
    The present paper comments on the continuing debate in psychology as to therelative influence of maturation and experience in development. Attention is also givento the critical period concept, which supposes that biological and behavioral systemsare most open to environmental changes during early experience. The examplesdiscussed include visual space perception, handedness, Ianguage and sexual dimorphism.The relative importance of extrinsic as opposed to intrinsic determinants of develop-ment seems to vary from behavior to behavior. The claim that the effects of earlyexperience are irreversible may be valid for specific behaviors, but not generally. Moredetailed research is needed before basing educational practices on concepts such ascritical period.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    WUNDT’S CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY AT HIEDELBERG
    Chen Da-rou Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica
    1979, 11 (03):  113-121. 
    Abstract ( 420 )  
    This paper Reviews the psychological works of W. Wundt at Hiedelberg (1855-1874). It asserts that there are special contributions of Wundt to make psychologyas a distinctive scientific discipline in this period, this was because of his spontaneousand naive materialism as a natural seientist at that time. Some of his intellectualinfleunces on to-day's psychology in China are also considered.
    Related Articles | Metrics