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心理学报  2019, Vol. 51 Issue (12): 1330-1340    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01330
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认知模糊程度和动机强度对有意识和无意识自我欺骗的影响
钟罗金1,汝涛涛2,范梦3,莫雷4()
1 华南师范大学基础教育培训与研究院, 广州 510631
2 华南师范大学, 国家绿色光电子国际联合研究中心, 光与身心健康实验室, 广州 510006
3 广东工业大学学生就业指导中心, 广州 510006
4 华南师范大学心理学院, 广州 510631
The effect of cognitive vagueness and motivation on conscious and unconscious self-deception
ZHONG Luojin1,RU Taotao2,FAN Meng3,MO Lei4()
1 School of Professional Development and Research on Primary and Secondary Education, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
2 Lab of Light and Physio-psychological Health, National Center for International Research on Green Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China
3 The Center of Student Career Service, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China
4 School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
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摘要 

三个实验分别探讨了无意识和有意识自我欺骗存在的可能性, 以及认知模糊程度与动机强度对两种自我欺骗的影响。实验1的结果发现, 自我欺骗存在无意识和有意识两种形式; 实验2的结果发现, 随着认知模糊程度的降低, 无意识自我欺骗人数明显减少, 而有意识自我欺骗人数显著增加; 实验3的结果发现, 随着动机强度的增加, 有意识自我欺骗人数显著增多, 无意识自我欺骗人数并无显著变化。结果提示, 自我欺骗具有现实存在性, 且有两种不同形式; 两种形式自我欺骗具有不同的产生机制。

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关键词 自我欺骗意识动机认知模糊    
Abstract

Academia has a long discussion of self-deception. Self-deception provides fertile ground for research in biology, philosophy, and psychology. Philosophers theoretically discuss the possibility and conditions of the existence of self-deception. Biologists study the applicability of the self-deception from the evolutionary perspective. Psychologists want to provide empirical evidence for the existence of self-deception. Nevertheless, the presentation of self-deception remains controversial. Therefore, an empirical study of self-deception with direct evidence is required to tackle the existence of self-deception. A large number of studies have investigated the existence of self-deception. The results showed that motivation, external or internal, and cognitive vagueness are the triggers of the existence of self-deception. However, it remains unknown whether self-deceived people believe in their own deception interacts with the effect of cognitive vagueness and motivation on self-deception.
In this paper, we investigate whether self-deceived people believe in their own deception influences the self-deception and moderates the effect of cognitive vagueness and motivation on self-deception. We further propose two forms of self-deception: unconscious and conscious self-deception, where those unconscious self-deceived people believe in their own deception while those conscious self-deceived people do not. As cognitive vagueness and motivation have different effects on the two forms of self-deception, we further investigate whether the two forms of self-deception share the same processing mechanisms.
Following the research paradigm of Chance et al. (2011), we investigated the above hypotheses in three experiments. In Experiment 1, we improved the research paradigm used by Chance et al. (2011), and we showed that self-deception could be categorized as conscious self-deception and unconscious self-deception. Experiment 2 showed that cognitive vagueness positively and negatively associated with unconscious and conscious self-deception respectively. Experiment 3 illustrated that motivation increased the conscious self-deception, but had no impact on unconscious self-deception. The diverse effects of motivation and cognitive vagueness on the unconscious and conscious self-deception suggest that two forms of self-deception are driven by different processing mechanisms.

Key wordsself-deception    conscious    motivation    cognitive vagueness
收稿日期: 2018-10-31      出版日期: 2019-10-21
中图分类号:  B848  
基金资助:* 广东省哲学社会科学“十三五”规划青年项目(GD16YXL02);广东省普通高校青年创新人才类项目, 广州市哲学社科规划2019年度“羊城青年学人”课题(2019GZQN19);华南师范大学青年教师科研培育基金项目资助(15SK04)
通讯作者: 莫雷     E-mail: molei@scnu.edu.cn
引用本文:   
钟罗金, 汝涛涛, 范梦, 莫雷. (2019). 认知模糊程度和动机强度对有意识和无意识自我欺骗的影响. 心理学报, 51(12): 1330-1340.
ZHONG Luojin, RU Taotao, FAN Meng, MO Lei. (2019). The effect of cognitive vagueness and motivation on conscious and unconscious self-deception. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 51(12), 1330-1340.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01330      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2019/V51/I12/1330
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