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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (8): 803-813    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00803
     “以小拨大:行为决策助推社会发展”专栏 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
以小拨大:行为决策助推社会发展
何贵兵1,李纾2,3,梁竹苑2,3()
1 浙江大学 心理与行为科学系, 杭州 310028
2 中国科学院行为科学重点实验室(中国科学院心理研究所), 北京 100101
3 中国科学院大学 心理学系, 北京 100049;
Behavioral decision-making is nudging China toward the overall revitalization
HE Gui-Bing1,LI Shu2,3,LIANG Zhu-Yuan2,3()
1 Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, China
2 CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Beijing 100101, China
3 Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
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摘要 

作为《心理学报》“以小拨大:行为决策助推社会发展”专栏的开篇, 本文尝试简要介绍助推含义和发展历程, 分析助推的必要性, 小结助推的主要方法和应用领域, 评述助推研究在提升民众的健康、财富、幸福等方面“以小拨大”的作用, 澄清关于助推的若干争议, 并对研究者开展助推研究提出了若干建议。在文章的最后, 我们简要勾勒了本专栏论文的主要内容, 讨论了助推研究在国内起步发展的方向, 冀望更多的心理学工作者加入到“助推研究”的行列。

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关键词 助推行为科学行为决策公共政策促进社会发展    
Abstract

As an editorial for Acta Psychologica Sinica’s special column, this paper provides a concise overview of the nudge concept and its progress. The necessity of the concept is analyzed, and the main methods and fields of application are summarized. The effects of the concept on the promotion of people’s health, wealth, and happiness are elucidated, and the related disputes are clarified. Several suggestions that may help researchers in carrying out nudge research are also derived. We briefly draw the outlines for several papers in this special column and discuss the outlook for how nudge research should begin in China with the goal of attracting psychologists to devote to nudge research.

Key wordsnudge    behavioral sciences    behavioral decision making    public policy    promoting social development
收稿日期: 2018-05-04      出版日期: 2018-07-02
中图分类号:  B849:C91  
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(71671162);北京市自然科学基金项目(9172019)
引用本文:   
何贵兵, 李纾, 梁竹苑. (2018). 以小拨大:行为决策助推社会发展. 心理学报, 50(8): 803-813.
HE Gui-Bing, LI Shu, LIANG Zhu-Yuan. (2018). Behavioral decision-making is nudging China toward the overall revitalization. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(8), 803-813.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00803      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I8/803
  决策系统示意图
研究领域(论文数) 研究问题(论文数)
健康(46) 健康饮食(28) 提高购买健康饮食的意愿(2); 提高选择健康食品(水果、蔬菜、低脂牛奶、低卡路里食品、健康饮料等)的行为(9); 提高健康饮食的购买行为(9); 提高健康食品摄入量(5); 降低健康食品的浪费(1); 降低食品摄入量(3);
医疗卫生(16) 提高民众预防性产品的使用行为(如疫苗接种、用肥皂洗手、使用低成本净水产品) (4); 提高民众志愿捐献意愿行为(如献血、器官捐献、参与结直肠癌测试等) (3); 提高医疗效率(如医患沟通效果、牙医预约就诊率、门诊病人填写预先指示、妇女选择在合格医疗机构生孩子、降低急诊科访问量等) (4); 减少医疗中的过度或不当处置(如抗生素处方量、对病人漱口水、羟乙基淀粉的使用量、冬季突发死亡等) (3);
健身减肥(2) 帮助肥胖青少年控制体重(1); 增加短期/长期健身房出席率(1)
环保(17) 减少环境污染、能源消耗意愿与行为(如用电量、农药和一次性垃圾袋使用) (10); 提高环境保护意识和行为(如下载公司能源消耗反馈报告、参与土地保护计划、使用可再生能源等) (3); 提高绿色环保产品购买率(如绿色产品、本土产品) (3);
社保(8) 提高储蓄率(如居民储蓄、退休储蓄、参与员工退休储蓄计划(401K)等) (4); 提高保险参保率(如居民医疗保险、大病和意外商业保险等) (4);
政经(7) 提高居民网上办理政务率(1); 提高总统大选投票参与率(1); 减少信用卡付费总量(2); 减少购买车险时提供不实里程数的行为(1); 降低汽车交通事故率(1); 提高贫困地区化肥使用率(1);
教育(5) 提高基础教育和大学入学率(2); 提高大学毕业率(2); 提高自愿联邦奖学金项目(FAFSA)参与率(1)
慈善(3) 提高慈善捐款额(2); 提高慈善捐款率(1)
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