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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (2): 216-225    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00216
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 做上司的“意中人”:负担还是赋能? 追随原型−特质匹配的双刃剑效应
 彭 坚1;  王 震2
 (1广州大学工商管理学院, 广州 510006) (2中央财经大学商学院, 北京 100081)
 Being a prototypic follower: Burdening or enabling? The paradoxical effect of followership prototype-trait match
 PENG Jian1; WANG Zhen2
 (1 School of Management, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China) (2 Business School, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing 100081, China)
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摘要  传统观点认为, 倘若下属能够达到领导心目中的理想标准(即追随原型), 成为领导的“意中人”, 便容易在工作中获得资源, 感到幸福。然而, 在现实情境中, 身为“意中人”的下属还可能面临着工作超载、身心受累的潜在威胁。基于工作要求−资源模型, 本研究认为 “做上司的意中人”既要付出代价又能受益, 并提出一个追随原型−特质匹配的双刃剑模型。该模型包括远离幸福的负担之路和迈向幸福的赋能之路。基于132份两时间点的上下级配对数据, 采用路径分析对理论模型进行检验, 结果表明:当下属的追随特质契合领导的追随原型(成为领导的“意中人”)后, 下属既可能因为工作负担的增多而付出心理代价, 出现高情绪枯竭、低情感承诺和低工作满意度; 又可能因为自我效能的增强而收获工作幸福, 表现为高工作满意度。以上结果能为管理员工幸福感提供一定的实践指导。
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彭坚
王震
关键词 内隐追随 追随原型 追随特质 自我效能 工作负担 工作幸福感    
Abstract: In recent years, a novel research topic, implicit followership theories, has infused the organizational behavior literature with new vitality. Implicit followership theories refer to the pre-existing personal assumptions about the traits that characterize a follower. Based on the valence of assumed follower traits, implicit followership theories are classified into two types, namely followership prototype and anti-prototype. In the leader-follower interaction process, leaders’ followership prototypes can usually be activated, which in turn may compete with the followers’ actual trait. In line with the results of implicit prototype-actual trait comparison, leaders will identify the ideal followers. According to the traditional viewpoints on implicit followership theories, prototypic followers whose actual traits match their leaders’ followership prototype may experience a high level of well-being in the workplace. However, some scholars recently point out the potential dark side of being a prototypic follower, namely, the suffering of psychological fatigue. Based on the job demand-resource model, the present study aimed to reconcile the contradictory viewpoints mentioned above by proposing a dual process model wherein the congruence between leaders’ followership prototype and followers’ followership trait migh have a paradoxical effect on followers’ well-being. Specifically, the present study hypothesized that beyond an enabling process of followership prototype-trait congruence (represented by the positive mediating effect of self-efficacy), there would be a burdening process (represented by the negative mediating effect of workload). To test our hypotheses, the current study conducted a multi-wave, multi-resource survey. At Time 1, we sent surveys to 204 voluntary leader-follower dyads, requiring leaders and followers to report their followership prototype and demography information. We obtained 171 surveys with effective responses. About two months later, we conducted the Time 2 survey, requiring leaders to rate their perceived workload of the focal followers and requiring followers to rate their self-efficacy, emotional exhaust, affective organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Eventually, we obtained 132 effective respondents. Based on the two-wave data, we conducted path analysis using Mplus 7.0. The results overall supported the contrasting notions, suggesting that followership prototype-trait match could enhance followers’ self-efficacy and consequently well-being (i.e., high job satisfaction), while at the same time increased followers’ workload, which in turn diminished followers’ well-being (i.e., high emotional exhaust, low job satisfaction and affective commitment). These findings not only advance our understanding of the relationship between implicit followership theories and well-being, but also provide further inspiration for managerial practice.
Key wordsimplicit followership theory    followership prototype    followership trait    self-efficacy    workload    well-being
收稿日期: 2016-11-08      出版日期: 2017-12-26
中图分类号:     
  B849: C93  
基金资助: 广州大学人才引进科研启动项目(2700050336)、国家自然科学基金项目(71302129和71772193)、教育部人文社科基金青年项目(17YJC630195)。
通讯作者: 王震, E-mail: wangzhen@cufe.edu.cn 彭坚, E-mail: pengjiannut@163.com   
引用本文:   
彭坚, 王震. (2018).  做上司的“意中人”:负担还是赋能? 追随原型−特质匹配的双刃剑效应. 心理学报, 50(2): 216-225.
PENG Jian, WANG Zhen. (2018).  Being a prototypic follower: Burdening or enabling? The paradoxical effect of followership prototype-trait match. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(2), 216-225.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00216      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I2/216
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