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心理学报
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哭泣表情面孔的注意偏向:眼动的证据
孙俊才1; 石 荣2
(1曲阜师范大学心理系, 曲阜 273165) (2南京师范大学心理学院暨认知神经科学实验室, 南京 210097)
Attentional bias to crying facial expressions: Evidence from eye movements
SUN Juncai1; SHI Rong2
(1 Department of Psychology, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165, China) (2 Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Department of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, China)
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摘要 

研究采用双选择Oddball范式和线索−靶子范式, 并结合眼动技术, 以微笑、哭泣和中性表情面孔为刺激材料, 综合考察哭泣表情面孔在识别和解离过程中的注意偏向。研究发现:在识别阶段, 哭泣表情面孔的识别正确率和反应速度都显著优于微笑表情面孔, 进一步的兴趣区注视偏向分析发现, 哭泣和微笑表情面孔的注视模式既具有一致的规律, 又存在细微的差异; 在解离阶段, 返回抑制受线索表情类型的影响, 在有效线索条件下, 哭泣表情线索呈现后个体对目标刺激的平均注视时间和眼跳潜伏期都显著短于其它表情线索。表明哭泣表情面孔在识别和解离过程中具有不同的注意偏向表现, 在识别阶段表现为反应输出优势和注视模式上的一致性与差异性; 在解离阶段表现为有效线索条件下, 对目标刺激定位和视觉加工的促进作用。

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孙俊才
石荣
关键词 哭泣表情面孔 注意偏向 表情识别 解离过程 眼动    
Abstract

The attention processing of emotional stimuli includes two stages: recognition and disengagement. Rapid recognition of emotional stimuli can ensure the high-efficiency processing of emotional information. However, if attention bias is too strong to be effectively removed, it may cause maladaptation to the environment and mood disorders. Therefore, the characteristics of attention to emotional stimuli in both the recognition and the disengagement stage must be investigated. The current study included two experiments. In experiment 1, we adopted a two-choice oddball task and used neutral faces as standard stimuli; crying and smiling faces were used as deviant stimuli. An EyeLinkⅡ desktop eye tracker with a 250 Hz sample rate was used to record the participants’ eye movements. In experiment 2, we used a cue-target paradigm to imitate the process of disengagement from emotional stimuli. We classified crying, smiling and neutral faces as the cue stimuli and asked the participants to respond according to the position of the target stimulus. We hypothesized that crying faces would be recognized with a shorter reaction time and higher accuracy than smiling faces in the recognition stage. Although the mouth was important for the detection of smiling faces, the eyes were more relevant for crying faces. In the disengagement stage, the types of facial expressions could affect the inhibition of return. Under valid cue conditions, processing of the target stimulus was faster after crying facial expressions were presented than after other facial expressions were presented. The results of experiment 1 suggested that compared to smiling faces, crying faces were recognized faster and with higher accuracy. In addition, the eye movement data indicated that whether shown a crying face or a smiling face, the participants’ fixation time, fixation time ratio and fixation count ratio were significantly greater in the eyes and nose area than in the mouth area. Furthermore, there was an interaction effect between facial expression types and AOIs (areas of interest). The fixation time and fixation time ratio were higher in the eyes area than in the mouth area when recognizing crying faces, whereas the fixation indexes were higher in the mouth area than in the eyes area when recognizing smiling faces. Experiment 2 showed that there was an IOR, and in accordance with the hypothesis, there was an interaction effect between cue validity and facial expression type. Under valid cue conditions, the average fixation time and saccade latency for the target stimuli after a crying facial expression was presented were significantly shorter than those after other facial expressions were presented. In conclusion, there are different attention biases to the crying facial expression in recognition and disengagement. In the recognition stage, individuals can recognize crying facial expressions accurately and react quickly. In addition, the eye-movement patterns of crying faces and smiling faces have both similarities and subtle differences. In the disengagement stage, crying facial expressions can facilitate the orienting and visual processing of target stimuli under valid cue conditions.

Key wordscrying facial expression    attentional bias    recognition    disengagement    eye-movement
收稿日期: 2016-01-18      出版日期: 2017-02-25
基金资助:

教育部人文社会科学研究(15YJA190006)资助。

通讯作者: 石荣, E-mail: qfshirong2013@163.com   
引用本文:   
孙俊才; 石荣. 哭泣表情面孔的注意偏向:眼动的证据[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00155.
SUN Juncai; SHI Rong. Attentional bias to crying facial expressions: Evidence from eye movements. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(2): 155-163.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00155      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2017/V49/I2/155
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