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心理学报
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文化图式影响亲属词语义加工中的空间隐喻 ——来自汉族人和摩梭人的证据
和秀梅1,4;张夏妮2;张积家3;肖二平5;王 娟6
(1华南师范大学心理应用研究中心, 广州 510631) (2广东青年职业学院社会工作系, 广州 510507) (3中国人民大学心理学系, 北京 100872) (4大理学院教育科学学院, 大理 671000) (5杭州师范大学教育科学学院, 杭州 310036) (6江苏师范大学教育科学学院, 徐州 221116)
Cultural Schema Affect the Spatial Metaphors in the Semantic Processing of Kinship Words: The Evidence from the Han and the Moso
HE Xiumei1,4; ZHANG Xiani2; ZHANG Jijia3; XIAO Erping5; WANG Juan6
(1 Center for Psychological Application, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China) (2 Department of Social Work, Guangdong Youth Vocational College, Guangzhou 510507, China) (3 Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China) (4 Department of Education Science, Yunnan Dali College, Dali 671000, China) (5 Department of Education Science, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036, China) (6 Department of Education Science, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, China)
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摘要 

采用亲属词判断任务, 比较汉族人和摩梭人在亲属词的语义加工中的上下、左右、内外空间隐喻, 揭示文化图式对亲属词语义加工中空间隐喻的影响。实验1表明, 汉族人和摩梭人在亲属词的语义加工中均存在着上下隐喻一致性效应:高辈分亲属词呈现在屏幕的上方加工快, 低辈分亲属词呈现在屏幕的下方加工快。实验2表明, 摩梭人对呈现在屏幕右边的年幼平辈亲属词的加工比呈现在屏幕左边快, 出现部分的左右隐喻一致性效应, 汉族人对长、幼平辈亲属词的加工不受呈现位置影响。实验3表明, 摩梭人对母系亲属词的加工显著快于对父系亲属词, 汉族人对父系亲属词、母系亲属词的加工无显著差异。当父系亲属词呈现在圆圈中心和圆圈外时, 摩梭人的反应显著慢于汉族人; 当父系亲属词呈现在圆圈边缘时, 两个民族的反应时差异不显著。当母系亲属词呈现在圆圈中心时, 两个民族的反应时差异最大。整个研究表明, 汉族人和摩梭人在对亲属词的语义加工中存在着空间隐喻一致性效应, 但隐喻方式却受各自的文化图式影响, 而且文化图式的变化引起亲属词的空间隐喻方式的变化, 体现了人类认知的情境性和具身性。

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和秀梅
张夏妮
张积家
肖二平
王 娟
关键词 摩梭人汉族亲属词空间隐喻    
Abstract

Metaphor is a kind of cognitive style that is pervasive in everyday life. Our ordinary conceptual system is fundamentally metaphorical in nature. Spatial metaphor is the mapping between concepts of space and concept of non-space. Spatial metaphor plays an important role in cognition. By studying a large number of corpuses, researchers found that many abstract concepts are constructed and understood through spatial concepts, such as time, quantity, emotion, and moral etc. The kinship, the initial social relationship of individuals, is formed on the basis of blood relationship and marriage. There are corresponding words to represent kinship in each language, and these words are termed as kinship words. Kinship words contain abundant information about genetics, marriage, sociology and culture. This study aimed to explore whether the kinship words could be represented by more concrete spatial concepts, such as up-down, left-right, and within -outside. Generally speaking, “up” implies the higher authority, stronger and upper social status and more respect, “down” means the lower authority, weaker and lower social status and more care; “left” represents the past, “right” on behalf of the future; “inside” on behalf of one of their own, worthy of trust; “Outside” on behalf of others, should be on guard. In this study, three experiments were adopted to explore the effects of culture schemas on the spatial metaphors in the semantic processing of kinship words. The participants were young people of the Han and the Moso. Kinship word judgment task were introduced to examine the impact of the spatial image schema on the semantic processing of kinship words. In experiment 1, 28 kinship words (14 senior generational kinship words and 14 junior generational kinship words) were used to survey the role of up-down metaphor. In experiment 2, 24 kinship words (12 the elder kinship words and 12 the younger kinship words) were used to inspect the role of left-right metaphor. In experiment 3, 26 kinship words (13 the matriarchal kinship words and 13 the patriarchal kinship words) were used to investigate the role of container metaphor. Results showed that: (1) the concepts of kinship words and space vertical dimension existed implicit contact: the senior generational kinship words corresponds to the space "up" and generational kinship words corresponds to the space "down". The results produced by the Moso and the Han people are similar; (2) to elder or young kinship words which belong to the same generational, there were no left-right metaphor consistency effect in the semantic processing of the Han, whereas there were part of left-right metaphor consistency effect in the semantic processing of the Moso. That is, comparing with kinship words displaying on the left of the screen, the Moso reacted much faster when young words appeared on the right of the screen; (3) "circle" can be used as container metaphor to determine the internal and external relations. There were inside-outside metaphor consistency effect in the Moso’ semantic processing of maternal and paternal kinship words. By contrast, no significant difference occurred when Han people responded to the maternal and paternal kinship words. In sum, results in the present study suggested that space metaphors of kinship words of the Han and the Moso have both generality and uniqueness. There were spatial metaphor consistency effect in the kinship words’ semantic processing of the Han and the Mosuo, but the way of metaphor is influenced by their respective cultural schema and body experience. The changes of cultural schema of the Han and the Mosuo determine the changes of the their relative concept space metaphor.

Key wordsthe Moso    the Han    kinship words    spatial metaphor    culture schema
收稿日期: 2014-09-26      出版日期: 2015-05-25
基金资助:

国家社会科学基金项目成果(项目批准号:10BSH044); 中国人民大学科学研究基金(中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助)项目成果(项目批准号:14XNLQ05); 教育部人文社会科学研究项目青年基金项目成果(项目批准号:12YJC850023)。

通讯作者: 张积家, E-mail: Zhangjj1955@163.com   
引用本文:   
和秀梅;张夏妮;张积家;肖二平;王 娟. 文化图式影响亲属词语义加工中的空间隐喻 ——来自汉族人和摩梭人的证据[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00584.
HE Xiumei; ZHANG Xiani; ZHANG Jijia; XIAO Erping; WANG Juan. Cultural Schema Affect the Spatial Metaphors in the Semantic Processing of Kinship Words: The Evidence from the Han and the Moso. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(5): 584-599.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00584      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2015/V47/I5/584
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