ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 1964, Vol. 8 ›› Issue (3): 37-47.

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小学低年級儿童掌握算术可逆推理与思維的灵活性

吕静 ;汪文鋆 ;郑月旦   

  • 出版日期:1964-09-25 发布日期:1964-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 吕静

MASTERY OF REVERSE OPERATION AND FLEXIBILITY OF THINKING IN ARITHMETIC IN SCHOOL CHILDREN

L(?) CHING, WANG WEN-CH(?)N, CHENG Y(?)E-TAN   

  • Online:1964-09-25 Published:1964-09-25

摘要: <正> 在前一个研究中,发現小学低年級儿童在解答算术加減法应用題时,常常根据題目中个别文字,如“多”或“少”来做加或减;对某种类型的題目稍加变化就不会解答。針对这些現象,我們曾采用加強可逆对比的教学实驗,以提高儿童思維的灵活性。关于加強可逆对比教学能否提高思維的灵活性,这不仅具有理論意义,而且还有实践意义,因为它涉及到算术教材教法的問題。在算术概念中有着成对相反的概念,对这些概念采取同时可逆

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Abstract: Two instruction methods were used in teaching children of the first and second grades to solve verbal arithmetical problems. The experimental group was instructed with the "contrast method" (the reverse operation of a problem was taught), while the control group with the "successive method" (only one-way operation of a problem was taught). One year of systematic observation indicated that the former method is better than the latter, in that it not only promotes the ability to solve verbal arithmetical problems, but also develops the flexibility of thinking. These experiments revealed two types of difficulties in solving verbal problems. Firstly, the children took only the superficial features and grasped only one or two words in question in the attempt to solve the problems; secondly, they failed to solve the problem because of their limited knowledge and little experience of applying the knowledge in new situations. These difficulties could be overcome by the contrast method of instruction and by increasing the knowledge of the children.

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