ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2023, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (6): 920-929.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00920

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


张丹丹1,2(), 李宜伟1, 于文汶2, 莫李澄1,2, 彭程3, 刘黎黎3   

  1. 1四川师范大学 脑与心理科学研究院, 成都 610066
    2深港脑科学创新研究院, 深圳 518055
    3北京大学第一医院, 儿科, 北京 100034
  • 收稿日期:2022-10-24 发布日期:2023-03-06 出版日期:2023-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 张丹丹
  • 基金资助:

Development of emotional bias in infants aged from 0 to 1 year old: A near-infrared spectroscopy study

ZHANG Dandan1,2(), LI Yiwei1, YU Wenwen2, MO Licheng1,2, PENG Cheng3, LIU Lili3   

  1. 1Institute of Brain and Psychological Sciences, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu 610066, China
    2Shenzhen-Hong Kong Institute of Brain Science, Shenzhen 518055, China
    3Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China
  • Received:2022-10-24 Online:2023-03-06 Published:2023-06-25


“负性偏向”指人们往往优先感知、注意和记忆负性(而非正性)信息, 负性偏向是情绪领域能观察到的最稳定的情绪加工现象, 普遍存在于幼儿、儿童、青少年和成人之中。但是在婴儿中如何呢?本研究采用近红外成像技术, 考察了45名0岁新生儿(日龄5.2 ± 1.7天, 23名男孩)和45名1周岁婴儿(月龄12.7 ± 1.4月, 21名男孩)对快乐和愤怒语音韵律的大脑反应。结果表明, 在大脑右半球的额叶、颞叶和顶叶的脑功能连接中出现了情绪和组别的交互作用:在新生儿组, 快乐语音条件下的脑功能连接强度高于愤怒语音条件; 在婴儿组, 愤怒语音条件下的脑功能连接强于快乐语音条件。此结果证实了我们的假设:人类刚出生时情绪加工偏向是正性的, 之后才转变成为负性。因此, “负性偏向”不是与生俱来的, 情绪加工偏向在个体发展的早期阶段会发生转变。本研究首次从发展的角度揭示了情绪偏向的变化, 该发展规律不但有利于及早发现自闭症等情绪和认知发育障碍, 还能指导家长运用恰当的交流和抚养方式科学育儿。

关键词: 负性偏向, 新生儿, 婴儿, 情绪性韵律, 颞上回, 额下回


People tend to give priority to negative information and allocate more cognitive resources such as perception, attention and memory to negative, compared to positive, information. This phenomenon is called “negativity bias”, which is well established across toddlers, children, adolescents and adults. However, this emotional bias remains controversial in infants, especially in young infants that are less than six months old. Furthermore, it is still unclear whether the emotional bias changes from no bias or positivity bias to negativity bias during infants’ development in the first year of life.
In this study, we used near-infrared spectroscopy to examine the neural responses to angry and happy prosodies in 45 neonates (0 month old) and 45 infants (one year old). The experiment was conducted in the neonatal ward of Peking University First Hospital. NIRS data were recorded when the infants were at active sleeping or staying quietly. Using a passive listening task, we investigated the brain functional connectivity during automatic processing of emotional prosodies of anger and happiness. The experiment was divided into three emotional blocks (using angry, happy and neutral prosodies, respectively). The order of the three blocks was counterbalanced among the participants. Each block contained 10 sentences, which were repeated six times, that is, 60 sentences were presented during the experiment in a random order.
The results showed that emotion category had a significant main effect on 60 pairs of functional connectivity, which revealed that angry and happy prosodies evoked stronger functional connectivity than neutral prosody, whereas there was no significant difference between the angry and happy conditions. The observed significant functional connectivity was mainly distributed within the right hemisphere or across bilateral hemispheres. More importantly, there was an interaction between emotion category and group in the functional connectivity of frontal, temporal and parietal lobe of the right hemisphere. In the neonate group, the functional connectivity in the happy prosody condition was stronger than that in the angry prosody condition. By contrast, the functional connectivity in the infant group showed stronger connectivity in the angry compared to the happy condition.
By examining the neural response to emotional prosodies at two time points (0 and 1 year old), this study revealed for the first time the changes of emotional bias in a developmental perspective. We found that emotional processing has a positive bias at the beginning of postnatal period, revealed by the stronger functional connectivity for happy than for angry prosodies at the right hemisphere of the superior temporal gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, and the angular gyrus. However, the emotional processing bias reverses in 1-year-old infants, that is, the brain functional connectivity within the above mentioned brain regions is stronger for angry than that for happy prosodies. Therefore, the reliable phenomenon of “negativity bias” is not innate, although it is always observed in adults and children. Instead, we propose that there is a developmental change from positivity bias to negativity bias in the first year of human life.

Key words: negativity bias, neonate, infant, affective prosody, superior temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus