ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2024, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (1): 29-43.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2024.00029

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


田杨阳, 李东, 闫向博, 李曌, 崔倩(), 蒋重清()   

  1. 辽宁师范大学心理学院, 大连 116029
  • 收稿日期:2023-05-07 发布日期:2023-11-23 出版日期:2024-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 崔倩,蒋重清;

The representational momentum effect and the reference dependence effect on the evaluation of dynamic happy expressions

TIAN Yangyang, LI Dong, YAN Xiangbo, LI Zhao, CUI Qian(), JIANG Zhongqing()   

  1. College of Psychology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China
  • Received:2023-05-07 Online:2023-11-23 Published:2024-01-25
  • Contact: CUI Qian, JIANG Zhongqing;


已有的表情面孔研究大多使用静态面孔图片材料, 对动态表情研究相对不足。然而, 在生活中人们的表情往往是动态的。为了探究动态表情的情绪加工特点, 本研究通过3个包含了动态和静态高兴表情图片材料的实验, 考察了动态高兴表情的强度变化方向和总体平均表征对情绪三维度评价的影响。结果发现:总体平均表征越高的动态表情面孔会得到更高的唤醒度评分。以与动态表情最后一帧表情强度相同的静态表情为对比条件, 从强到弱变化的动态表情会获得更低的效价评分和更高的优势度评分, 而从弱到强变化的动态表情则获得更高的效价评分, 即出现了表征动量效应。相对于从弱到强, 从强到弱变化的动态表情所产生的知觉表征动量效应更大。此外, 知觉者会基于实验中所见过的表情图片形成内部参照标准, 进而影响当前表情图片的情绪评价, 内部参照标准越低, 目标表情图片所得情绪评分越高, 反之亦然, 表现出参照依赖效应。这些加工特征提示今后研究者采用表情材料进行研究时, 需要注意动静差异以及材料间的影响。

关键词: 动态表情, 情绪三维度, 表征动量, 参照依赖效应


The majority of current research on facial expression perception uses static face images, and there is comparatively little study on dynamic expression. However, facial expressions are highly dynamic phenomena capable of conveying complex psychological states: the motion inherent in dynamic stimuli is crucial for social perception and improves coherence in identifying facial affect. Previous studies have found that perceptual processing of dynamic expressions may involve a variety of mechanisms, and some of these mechanisms have inconsistent effects. Therefore, it is important to study dynamic expressions to understand the nuances of human communication and support the naturalistic assessment of affective disorders.

Three experiments involved 96 participants, which provided 94 valid samples. The experimental material came from the Chinese Affective Picture System (CASP). Dynamic expression sequences were created from the happy and neutral expressions of the same individual. In Experiment 1, the impact of direction change and the average summary representation were examined. Experiments 2a and 2b combined static expressions to systematically explored the representational momentum effect of dynamic happy expressions. As such, the average summary representation of dynamic expressions differed across the two experiments. Participants were asked to evaluate the valence, arousal, and dominance of the final emotion of dynamic expressions or static expressions on a seven-point scale. ANOVA, independent sample t-test, and one sample t-test were used to analyze the results.

In this study, it was found that when the faces changed from strong to weak (versus weak to strong), they were rated with lower valence scores and higher dominance scores. In addition, faces that went from strong to weak had lower valence scores and higher dominance scores than static faces with the same intensity of expression in the previous frame. Indicative of the the representational momentum effect, faces that went from weak to strong had higher valence scores. Furthermore, the dynamic happy expressions that moved from strong to weak had a larger impact on perceived representational momentum than the dynamic happy expressions that moved from weak to strong. The arousal ratings were higher for the dynamic happy expression with a higher average summary representation. Valence, arousal, and dominance scores for the same expression image differed across experimental designs and material groups, according to this study's thorough analysis of repeated stimulus conditions (such as static 50% smiling).

According to the results, representation momentum impact extends to the assessment of dynamic happy expression on valence and dominance dimensions. Additionally, when assessing a facial expression, the perceiver will make a relative assessment based on the internal reference standard: a lower the standard is associated with a higher the score, and vice versa. This finding is consistent with reference dependence effect on expression perception. These processing characteristics are used as a reminder to academics to consider the difference between dynamic and static expressions and to think about the impact of various materials when using facial expression data in the future.

Key words: dynamic expressions, three dimensions of emotions, the representational momentum effect, the reference dependence effect