ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2023, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (3): 455-468.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00455

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


贾成龙, 吴婷, 孙莉, 秦金亮()   

  1. 浙江师范大学杭州幼儿师范学院国际儿童研究院, 杭州 311231
  • 收稿日期:2021-09-15 发布日期:2022-12-22 出版日期:2023-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 秦金亮

The effects of attachment figure’s response pattern on the support-giving expectation revision of young children with different attachment styles

JIA Chenglong, WU Ting, SUN Li, QIN Jinliang()   

  1. The International Institute for Child Study, Hangzhou College of Early Childhood Education, Zhejiang Normal University, Hangzhou 311231, China
  • Received:2021-09-15 Online:2022-12-22 Published:2023-03-25
  • Contact: QIN Jinliang


依恋对象的敏感性回应是儿童安全依恋发展的重要前因。研究采用改编版依恋预期范式考察实时互动情境中依恋对象确定性和概率性回应对幼儿支持提供预期及预期修正的影响。结果发现:相对不安全型依恋幼儿, 初始预期中安全型幼儿更多预期依恋对象会向依恋者提供支持; 幼儿能够基于依恋对象的确定性和概率性回应一致地修正对该对象是否提供支持的预期。同时, 低水平回应对幼儿预期修正的影响高于高水平回应。研究表明5岁左右幼儿能够基于实时互动中依恋对象的回应信息修正其对该依恋对象的预期, 这对理解幼儿依恋表征的发展具有重要启示。

关键词: 支持提供预期, 依恋预期修正, 回应方式, 依恋类型, 幼儿


The sensitivity of caregivers plays a crucial role in developing secure attachment relationships. According to the attachment theory, children internalize their interactions with attachment figures as the Internal Working Models (IWMs), which guide their information processing and behavioral performance later in intimate relationships. As a basic structure of IWMs, the attachment script is conceptualized as a set of attachment expectations. However, little has been known about how young children represent those attachment interactions. Studies have found that attachment figures’ response patterns are related to young children’s support-giving expectations. However, few studies have directly explored how attachment figures’ responses influence young children’s attachment expectations. The present study used a real-time interaction task to examine how attachment figures’ response patterns affected children’s expectations of attachment figures’ support-giving behavior and willingness.

In both experiments, the Attachment Expectation Task (AET) was used to manipulate attachment figures’ response patterns, and the Attachment Story Completion Test (ASCT) was used to measure children’s attachment styles. Experiment 1 adopted a 2 (response pattern: response/non-response) x 2 (attachment style: secure/insecure) mixed design to investigate how attachment figures’ response pattern influenced children’s support-giving behavior and willingness expectations under deterministic conditions. A total of 161 children 5~6 years of age were recruited (82 boys, mean age =5.66 ± 0.29 years). Experiment 2 adopt a 3 (response pattern: 20% / 50% / 80%) x 2 (attachment style: secure/insecure) mixed design to investigate the effects of response pattern on children’s support-giving expectations under probabilistic response conditions. A total of 95 children 5~6 years of age participated (45 boys, mean = 5.46 ± 0.29 years). Participants in both experiments were asked to finish the AET and the ASCT in two sessions.

The results showed: (1) in new intimate relationships, secure children were more likely to expect attachment figures would and were more willing to provide support than insecure children (Experiments 1 & 2); (2) children’s expectation of support-giving behavior and willingness increased under response condition but decreased under non-response condition (Experiment 1); (3) children’s expectation of support-giving behavior and willingness significantly decreased under 20% and 50% response condition, however, under 80% response condition, only expectation of support-giving behavior decreased significantly (Experiment 2); (4) low-level response (non-response and 20% response condition) had a higher effect on children’s expectation revision of behavior and willingness than high-level response (response, 80%, and 50% condition) (Experiment 1 and 2).

The results indicate that attachment styles influence 5-and 6-year-old children’s initial attachment support- giving expectations for new attachment figures, and they can revise these expectations based on attachment figures’ response patterns. The current study enriches the empirical evidence on how attachment figures’ response influences children’s attachment expectation revision in interpersonal interactions and extends our understanding of the organization and development of attachment representation. These findings also have important implications for the mechanism underlying secure attachment development in children.

Key words: support-giving expectation, attachment expectation revision, response pattern, attachment style, young children