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心理学报
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从母亲的敏感性到学步儿的依恋安全性:内部工作模式的桥梁作用
林青;王争艳;卢珊;梁熙;贺琼;王朝;胡若时
(首都师范大学教育学院心理学系, 北京市“学习与认知”重点实验室, 北京 100048)
Internal Working Models of Toddlers: A Bridge from Maternal Sensitivity to Toddlers’ Attachment Behaviors
LIN Qing;WANG Zhengyan;LU Shan;LIANG Xi;HE Qiong;WANG Zhao;HU Ruoshi
(Department of Psychology, Learning and Cognitive Key lab, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China)
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摘要 

采用视觉习惯化实验程序、陌生情境技术及母亲行为Q分类方法对41名14个月的学步儿及其母亲进行了学步儿内部工作模式、学步儿在陌生情境中的依恋类型以及母亲在母婴互动中的敏感性的评估。结果发现:(1)不安全型的学步儿预期看护者对他们痛苦的信号是无回应的。(2)以自身为中心的母亲的学步儿预期看护者是无回应的。(3)潜类别分析的结果发现母亲敏感性影响学步儿依恋行为的2种关系模式:类别1, 以孩子为中心的母亲的学步儿更容易形成看护者是有回应的预期, 持这种预期的学步儿在陌生情境程序中表现出安全依恋行为; 类别2, 以自身为中心的母亲养育出的学步儿更容易对看护者形成无回应的预期, 并在陌生情境中表现出不安全依恋行为。研究表明:内部工作模式在母亲的敏感性和学步儿的依恋安全性之间起着重要的内部机制作用—— 母亲的敏感性行为的累积促进了学步儿内部工作模式关于母亲的预期, 这种预期又进一步引导着学步儿的依恋行为。

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林青
王争艳
卢珊
梁熙
贺琼
王朝
胡若时
关键词 学步儿依恋内部工作模式母亲敏感性    
Abstract

Internal working models are based on young children’s expectations for the behavior of their attachment figures that develop into broader representations of their relational experiences, and decision rules about how to interact with others. These internal working models are thought to influence the child’s subsequent processing of social experiences and allow the child to anticipate, plan for, and adapt to his or her social world. Current research studies largely concentrated on the internal working models of attachment in childhood and adulthood; very little inquiry has been conducted on internal working models of preverbal infants and toddlers. It was not until 2007 that a study by Johnson, Dweck and Chen had found evidence for infants’ internal working models of attachment using a habituation paradigm. In addition, some theorists and researchers have indicated that maternal sensitivity is associated with internal working models in childhood; and also it has been suggested that maternal sensitivity may affect toddler’s attachment status. Therefore, internal working models may play an important role in relationship between maternal sensitivity and toddler’s attachment status. However, there is inadequate research on maternal sensitivity and internal working models in infancy. The present study explored the relationship between toddlers’ attachment status, maternal sensitivity and internal working models of toddlers. We hypothesized that toddlers of different attachment status might have unique patterns of expectations about their mother’s responsive behavior, and the expectations might correspond to maternal sensitivity in caregiver-infant interactions. Forty-one toddlers (M = 14.01 months, SD = 0.81) and their mothers from middle class backgrounds participated in the study. A visual habituation study using abstract animations with separation and reunion events was conducted to test a part of the toddlers’ internal working models—their expectations of a caregiver’s responsiveness. Toddlers’ attachment status was assessed by the Strange Situation procedure. Maternal sensitivity in caregiver–toddler interactions was measured by Maternal Behavior Q-Sort. The data was analyzed using repeated-measure analysis of variance, chi-square analyses, paired t tests, q-factor analysis and LCA. Results were as follows: (1) Toddlers’ expectations of a caregiver’s responsiveness depended on their own attachment status: insecure toddlers expected their caregivers to withhold comfort; (2) Toddlers’ expectations of a caregiver’s responsiveness depended on their mother’s behavior: the toddlers of Self-centered mothers expected caregivers to be unresponsive; (3) The results found by LCA indicated that there were two types of attachment system: Category 1, the toddlers of Child-centered mothers tended to expect their caregivers to be responsive, and showed secure attachment behaviors. Category 2, the toddlers of Self-centered mothers tended to expect their caregivers to be unresponsive, and showed insecure attachment behaviors in Strange Situation procedure. These results indicated that it was effective to using a visual habituation procedure to measure internal working models of preverbal toddlers. The claims that toddlers’ internal working models play an important role in the relationship between maternal sensitivity and toddler’s attachment status can be supported. If we want to change the attachment status of toddlers through their internal working models, we should pay attention to the behavior of their mothers.

Key wordstoddler    attachment    internal working models    maternal sensitivity
收稿日期: 2013-01-11      出版日期: 2014-03-25
基金资助:

北京市哲学社会科学规划项目(11JYB009)、教育部青年人文社会科学研究基金(09YJCXLX022,10YJCXLX031)、2010年度北京市属高等学校人才强教深化计划中青年骨干人才项目(PHR201008060)资助。

通讯作者: 王争艳   
引用本文:   
林青;王争艳;卢珊;梁熙;贺琼;王朝;胡若时. 从母亲的敏感性到学步儿的依恋安全性:内部工作模式的桥梁作用[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00353.
LIN Qing;WANG Zhengyan;LU Shan;LIANG Xi;HE Qiong;WANG Zhao;HU Ruoshi. Internal Working Models of Toddlers: A Bridge from Maternal Sensitivity to Toddlers’ Attachment Behaviors. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2014, 46(3): 353-366.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00353      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2014/V46/I3/353
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