ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (1): 24-35.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00024

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


吕馨1, 刘景瑶1, 魏柳青1, 张学民1,2,*   

  1. 1 北京师范大学心理学部, 应用实验心理北京市重点实验室, 心理学国家级实验教学示范中心(北京师范大学)
    2 北京师范大学认知神经科学与学习国家重点实验室, 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-18 发布日期:2018-11-26 出版日期:2019-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 张学民
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金项目“多目标视觉追踪中注意分配的认知神经机制研究”(31271083);国家自然科学基金重点项目“注意神经机制的可计算模型研究”资助(61632014)

The effects of field dependent-independent cognitive style and abrupt rotation of the reference frame on multiple object tracking

LÜ Xin1, LIU Jingyao1, WEI Liuqing1, ZHANG Xuemin1,2,*   

  1. 1 Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology; National Demonstration Center for Experimental Psychology Education (Beijing Normal University); Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University
    2 State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2017-12-18 Online:2018-11-26 Published:2019-01-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Xuemin


通过改变目标数量、运动框架突变旋转角度探究不同场认知风格被试在多目标追踪任务中的表现。结果发现:(1)在任务难度较低(运动参考框架稳定, 目标数量为3和4)和任务难度中等(运动参考框架突变向右旋转20°, 目标数量为4)条件下, 场独立型被试的多目标追踪表现均显著好于场依存型被试。在任务难度较高(运动框架稳定, 目标数量为5以及运动参考框架突变向右旋转40°, 目标数量为4)条件下, 两组被试差异不显著。表明不同场认知风格被试追踪表现受任务难度影响; (2)随着目标数量由3至5增多, 追踪负荷增大使被试的追踪成绩显著下降; (3)相比运动框架稳定, 运动框架向右突变旋转20°和40°均显著削弱了被试的追踪表现。旋转角度变化破坏了场景连续性, 影响了追踪表现。

关键词: 多目标追踪, 场认知风格, 运动参考框架, 旋转角度


The Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) task was initially designed by Pylyshyn and Storm (1988) and has been widely used to study the visual attentional mechanisms people use when viewing dynamic scenes. Previous research has usually used this task to explore participants’ abilities to track multiple moving objects in a static reference frame. But more recently, some researchers have started to investigate observers’ tracking performance in nonstable scenes. However, few studies have explored the effects of field dependent-independent cognitive style on tracking tasks from the point of view of individual differences. Previous research has revealed that field dependent-independent cognitive style affects people’s ways of perceiving and thinking. Field-independent individuals rely on an internal reference frame and tend to perceive objects separately from the background, while field-dependent individuals are more likely to rely on an external reference frame and perceive objects as a whole. We tested the effects of field dependent-independent cognitive style and abrupt rotation of the reference frame on tracking performance in the MOT task.
This study included two experiments. Experiment 1 compared performance differences between field- independent individuals and field-dependent individuals in the MOT task. Nineteen participants who scored ≥15 in the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) were classified as the extreme field-independent group, and twenty-three participants who scored ≤11 were classified as extreme field-dependent group. The two groups of participants were required to track 3, 4, or 5 targets in a static reference frame. Experiment 2 explored the tracking differences of the two groups in a nonstable reference frame with four targets. The procedure of Experiment 2 was the same as Experiment 1, except that after the motion of 6s in each trial, the reference frame abruptly changed 0°, 20°, or 40°. Meanwhile, the participants still needed to keep track of the targets.
The two experiments found significant differences between field-independent individuals and field-dependent individuals. In the low-difficulty conditions (stable reference frame, 3 and 4 targets) and the medium-difficulty condition (reference frame abruptly changed 20°, 4 targets), the field-independent group performed significantly better than the field-dependent group. But in the high-difficulty conditions (stable reference frame, 5 targets and reference frame abruptly changed 40°, 4 targets), the performance of the field-independent group did not significantly differ from the field-dependent group. The results revealed that the tracking differences between the two groups of participants were influenced by task difficulty. In addition, participants’ tracking accuracy significantly decreased along with increases in the number of targets and the abrupt rotation of the reference frame. We speculate that the increased cognitive load and discontinuous scene made it more difficult for participants to track the targets, which contributed to the significant decline of tracking accuracy.
In general, by using the MOT task and changing the motion reference frame, we explored the different performances of field dependent-independent individuals in the classic MOT task and an MOT task with a changing reference frame. This study offers an explanation for the different characteristic of field dependent- independent cognitive style from the perspective of multiple object tracking. In addition, changing the MOT to include rotation of the reference frame allows us to study tracking in a situation that is similar to shifts of perspective in the real world, which provides some evidence for how people deploy attention while processing in dynamic scenes.

Key words: multiple object tracking, field dependence-independence, reference frame, scene rotation