ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (6): 727-739.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00727

• 论文 •    下一篇

视听通道双任务对多目标追踪的影响:干扰还是促进?

魏柳青;张学民;李永娜;马玉   

  1. (1北京师范大学心理学院, 应用实验心理北京市重点实验室, 北京 100875) (2河南省体育科学研究所, 郑州 450044) (3认知神经科学与学习国家重点实验室, 北京 100875) (4中国人民大学心理学系, 北京 100872) (5宁夏工商职业技术学院思想政治教学部, 银川750021)
  • 收稿日期:2012-10-19 出版日期:2014-06-30 发布日期:2014-06-30
  • 通讯作者: 张学民
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目“多目标视觉追踪中注意分配的认知神经机制研究” (31271083)和国家重点基础研究计划(973项目) (2011CB711000)资助。

The Effects of Visual and Auditory Dual-task on Multiple Object Tracking Performance: Interference or Promotion?

WEI Liuqing;ZHANG Xuemin;LI Yongna;MA Yu   

  1. (1 School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China) (2 Henan Institute of Sport Science, Zhengzhou 450044, China) (3 State Key Lab of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing 100875, China) (4 Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China) (5 Department of Ideological and Political Education, Ningxia Business Technology Institute, Yinchuan 750021, China)
  • Received:2012-10-19 Online:2014-06-30 Published:2014-06-30
  • Contact: ZHANG Xuemin

摘要:

通过3个实验分别考察了视觉和听觉任务对同时进行的多目标追踪任务干扰程度的差异, 以及当视觉与听觉任务的信息加工与多目标追踪的身份特征相一致时, 视觉与听觉任务是否会对多目标追踪产生促进作用。在控制眼动的情况下, 听觉任务对多目标追踪的干扰程度大于视觉任务; 而在不控制眼动的情况下, 听觉任务对多目标追踪的干扰程度小于视觉任务。说明多目标追踪过程既要占用编码阶段的视觉注意资源, 又要占用中央加工阶段的中央注意资源。当视觉或听觉数字判断任务中的数字与多身份追踪任务中目标的数字身份相一致时, 该相容性会对追踪表现产生促进作用并降低两任务间的干扰程度。这是由于追踪过程中目标的数字身份被储存在视觉工作记忆中, 节约了用于数字加工的认知资源, 从而促进了两项任务的表现。最后, 对多目标追踪中的注意分配机制进行了讨论。

关键词: 多目标追踪, 双任务, 视觉注意资源, 中央注意资源

Abstract:

Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) developed by Pylyshyn and Storm (1988) has been widely used in the study of capacity-limited and object-based attention. Many researchers interested in finding out whether or not the tracking processes in MOT occupy attentional resource and what type of resource is used. The typical paradigm used in this line of research is dual-task paradigm. Participants were asked to perform a visual or auditory task and the MOT task simultaneously. MOT performance was interfered by both the visual and the auditory task. However, the interference of visual task and auditory task with MOT occurred at different levels. The previous studies demonstrated that the MOT task and visual task occupy visual attention resources. Although the MOT task and auditory task don’t occupy visual attention resources, they share more central attention resources (such as executive function). Multiple Identity Tracking (MIT) is a variant of MOT, in which each object carries a unique identity. The previous studies also included both visual or auditory task and MIT task, but those studies have not examined how the visual/auditory task affects the MIT task when the two tasks shared the same properties. The current study included 3 experiments and aimed to investigate the influence of a visual or auditory task on either MOT or MIT task. The first two experiments manipulated participants’ eye movement to compare the different effects of visual task and auditory task on MOT performance. The result of experiment 1A showed that the auditory task interfered more with MOT than did the visual task when eyes were fixated at the center of the screen. However, the auditory task yielded less interference with MOT when there was no eye movement control in experiment 1B. The results indicated that the tracking processes in MOT not only occupy visual attention resources, but also occupy central attention resources (such as executive function). The experiment 2 applied visual and auditory digit judgment task and MIT task. When the object identity (marked by a digit) was identical to the number in the digit judgment, the MIT performance was facilitated by both the visual and auditory task. It is possible that the process of digit activated the target identities (the same digits) that was stored in visual working memory during tracking.

Key words: Multiple Object Tracking, dual-task, visual attention resources, central attention resources