ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (10): 1334-1343.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01334

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  1.  (1浙江大学心理与行为科学系, 杭州 310028) (2深圳大学心理与社会学院, 深圳 518060)
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-08 发布日期:2017-08-13 出版日期:2017-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 杨鑫蔚, E-mail:; 蒋多, E-mail: E-mail:E-mail:; E-mail:
  • 基金资助:
     国家自然科学基金面上项目(71271189)资助; 广东省自然科学基金博士启动项目(2016A030310044)资助。

 The effect of altruism on social discounting of environmental gain and loss

 HE Guibing1; YANG Xinwei1; JIANG Duo2,1   

  1.  (1 Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, China) (2 College of Psychology and Sociology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China)
  • Received:2016-10-08 Online:2017-08-13 Published:2017-10-25
  • Contact: YANG Xinwei, E-mail:; JIANG Duo, E-mail: E-mail:E-mail:; E-mail:
  • Supported by:

摘要:  他人与自我之间的社会距离越远, 则他人的获益或损失带给自我的效用就越小, 此现象被称为社会折扣。虽然有一些研究探讨了金钱结果的社会折扣现象, 但作为公共品的环境结果的社会折扣规律及其影响因素并未得到应有的研究。本研究以优劣空气天数为例, 采用选择滴定程序, 在损益两种情境下探索环境结果的社会折扣现象, 并考察利他人格对社会折扣的影响。结果发现:(1)相比双曲模型, 指数模型在损益两种情境下皆能更佳地拟合环境结果的社会折扣函数; (2)损益情境与社会距离的交互作用影响环境结果的社会折扣程度, 损失情境下的社会折扣程度随社会距离的增加而变大的幅度大于收益情境; (3)利他人格在社会距离对社会折扣的影响中起调节作用。相比高利他人格者, 低利他人格者的社会折扣受社会距离的影响较大。本研究对理解环境结果社会折扣和环保决策行为具有重要意义。

关键词:  环境结果, 社会距离, 社会折扣, 损益情境, 利他人格

Abstract:  After decades of rapid economic growth, societies around the world are facing severe challenges with environmental pollution. In some developing countries, environmental issues are threatening their sustainable development and people’s health. In economic and psychological literatures, environmental problems are usually recognized as social dilemmas because natural resources are public goods, which imply conflicts between individual and collective benefits. Empirical studies found that social distance had an effect on cooperative behavior in social dilemmas. Meanwhile, the phenomenon of social discounting on monetary outcomes was also revealed by many studies. However, the impact of social distance on environmental decisions remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the phenomenon of social discounting of environmental outcomes, fit the behavioral data of social discounting, and investigate the effect of altruism on social discounting under gain and loss frames. The experiment was designed as a 4 (social distance level: a family member, friend, mere acquaintance, and stranger) × 2 (task frame: environmental gain, environmental loss) study in which social distance was manipulated within the subject, but task frames were assigned between subjects. The choice titration procedure was used to measure the social discounting rate of environmental outcomes. Participants were asked to make a series of choices between “I live in high (or poor in environmental loss frame) quality air for X days” and “Another person (in different social distances) lives in high (or poor) quality air for 110 days.” The value of “X” in the choice series varied from 10 days to 100 days with an interval of 10 days. In addition, participants’ altruism was measured by the Self-report Altruism Scale. The results showed that: (1) in both environmental gain and loss frames, exponential models could fit social discounting of environmental outcomes better than hyperbolic model; (2) the interaction between social distance and task frame could influence the social discounting rate. As social distance increased, the discounting rate increased more rapidly for environmental gain than for environmental loss; (3) altruism had moderate effect on the relationship between social distance and social discounting. For participants with high level of altruism, social distance had less impact on social discounting. In conclusion, this study suggests that social distance, altruism, and task frame may play important roles in people's environmental decision-making. These findings enlighten us that decision makers may become more pro-environmental if some measures are taken to enhance their altruistic tendencies and reduce their psychological distance with others.

Key words:  environmental outcome, social distance, social discounting, task frame, altruism