ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (11): 1063-1074.

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保留的跨通道启动与老化:对于近期观点的总结

Soledad Ballesteros and Julia Mayas   

  1. Cognitive Aging Laboratory, Department of Basic Psychology II, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain
  • 收稿日期:2009-02-22 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2009-11-30 发布日期:2009-11-30
  • 通讯作者: Soledad Ballesteros

Preserved Cross-modal Priming and Aging: A Summary of Current Thoughts

Soledad Ballesteros and Julia Mayas   

  1. Cognitive Aging Laboratory, Department of Basic Psychology II, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain
  • Received:2009-02-22 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2009-11-30 Published:2009-11-30
  • Contact: Soledad Ballesteros

摘要: 通道内重复启动的研究提示老年人内隐记忆未受损, 这不只体现在视觉通道上还包括其他感觉通道(例如触觉、听觉和嗅觉)。然而很少有研究考察启动任务是否具有通道特异性。在以年轻人为被试的研究中发现跨通道迁移(视觉到触觉和触觉到视觉)和通道内迁移(视觉到视觉, 触觉到触觉)具有相似性。一项最近的研究进一步探索老年人在跨通道启动任务上是否受损。结果显示视觉和触觉间的跨通道启动在年轻被试和老年被试上都是保留的且具有对称性。并且, 对于自然声响、图片的通道内和跨通道启动任务随着年老化发展仍旧保留。这些行为结果和其它最近神经科学结果显示跨通道启动发生于枕叶后纹状皮层区, 而这一区域在老年人中未损坏。这一领域未来的研究方向包括利用不同知觉通道间、利用熟悉的和新异的刺激并结合行为的和脑成像的方法, 通过设计完善的跨通道启动来研究正常老人与阿尔兹海默病人, 还包括将设计得完善的启动任务包括在用于改善老年人记忆功能的项目中。

关键词: 年老化, 跨通道启动, 外显记忆, 内隐记忆, 侧枕叶(LOC), 通道内启动

Abstract: Research on within-modal repetition priming suggests that this form of implicit memory is preserved in older adults not only for visual stimuli but also for stimuli presented to other perceptual modalities (e.g., touch, audition, and olfaction). Fewer studies, however, have examined whether priming is modality specific. Studies conducted with young adults have shown that cross-modal (vision-to-touch and touch-to-vision) transfer was similar in magnitude than within-modal transfer (vision-to-vision and touch-to-touch). A recent study further investigated whether cross-modal priming between these perceptual modalities is preserved in older adults. The results suggest that cross-modal priming between vision and touch is preserved and symmetric in both, young adults and older adults. Moreover, within-modal and cross-modal priming for ecological sounds and pictures is preserved with age. These behavioural findings and other recent neuroscience results suggest that cross-modal priming occurs in posterior extrastriate occipital areas that are preserved in aging. Future directions for research in this area include the performance of well designed cross-modal priming studies conducted in normal elderly and Alzheimer´s disease patients using different perceptual modalities, familiar and novel stimuli combining behavioural and brain imaging measures, and the inclusion of well designed priming tasks in programs directed to improving memory functions in the elderly.

Key words: aging, cross-modal priming, explicit memory, implicit memory, lateral occipital complex (LOC), within-modal priming