ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (09): 812-821.

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时距的短时保持: 缩短还是变长


  1. (1河北师范大学教育学院心理学系, 石家庄 050091) (2西南大学心理学院, 重庆 400715)
  • 收稿日期:2008-06-16 修回日期:1900-01-01 发布日期:2009-09-30 出版日期:2009-09-30
  • 通讯作者: 张志杰

Short-term Memory of Duration: Subjective Shortening or Lengthening

JIA Li-Na;ZHANG Zhi-Jie;WANG Li-Li   

  1. (1Department of Psychology, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050091, China)
    (2 School of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China)
  • Received:2008-06-16 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2009-09-30 Published:2009-09-30
  • Contact: ZHANG Zhi-Jie

摘要: 采用Wearden和Ferrara(1993)的经典方法, 分别考察了1s以下(350 ms~650 ms)和1s以上(1000 ms ~ 2000 ms)不同类型(空、实时距)和通道(视、听)时距的短时保持效应。实验1发现, 不同刺激通道条件下, 1s以下时距的短时保持都呈现出主观缩短, 其中视觉条件比听觉条件明显; 实验2表明, 1s以上时距在不同刺激通道条件下都呈现出主观变长, 其中听觉条件比视觉条件明显。分析表明, 主观缩短趋势可能是由主观缩短效应和正的顺序误差效应共同作用所致, 而主观变长趋势是由主观变长效应和负的顺序误差效应造成的。

关键词: 时距, 短时保持, 主观缩短, 主观变长

Abstract: Although many studies revealed a subjective shortening in the human’s short-term memory of time, the conclusions remain ambiguous. The present study aimed to explore whether when the different duration (sub- and supra- second intervals) is retained in short-term memory, the duration becomes subjective shortening or lengthening as retention interval increased.
Based on the method of Wearden and Ferrara, Two experiments ( Experiment 1, 2) were used to investigate the retention effect of temporal intervals from 350ms to 650ms and from 1000ms to 2000ms respectively, and each experiment included two sub-experiments which separately examined the duration retention of the auditory presentation (Experiment 1a, 2a) and that of the visual presentation (Experiment 1b, 2b). 2(stimulus type: filled duration and unfilled duration) ×4 (delay time: 1s, 4s, 8s and 12s) ×3 (trial type: short trial, equal trial and long trial) within-subject factorial design was taken separately for every sub-experiment (Experiment 1a, 2a, 1b and 2b). All participants were required to respond by pressing one of the three keys after judging whether the com-parison was longer, shorter, or of the same duration as the standard duration.
The results of the two experiments showed that, the short-term retention of durations from 350ms to 650ms (Experiment 1) indicated subjective shortening both in auditory (Experiment 1a) and visual conditions (Experi-ment 1b), whereas the short-term retention of durations from 1000ms to 2000ms (Experiment 2) showed subjec-tive lengthening both in auditory (Experiment 2a) and visual conditions (Experiment 2b), and there was neither effect of modality nor the effect of stimulus type that influenced the retention effect.
Conclusions were drawn from this study. For Experiment 1 (several hundred milliseconds), the shortening trend resulted from the interaction of shrink of the positive time order error (TOE) and the effect of subjective shortening. By contrast, for Experiment 2 (the retention of durations above 1s), the lengthening trend resulted from the interaction of shrink of the negative TOE effect and the effect of subjective lengthening. According to these results, the present study compensated and perfected the relative duration hypothesis and the partial proc-essing feature of the scalar timing model. However, apart from duration length and stimulus type, other factors such as experimental methods are likely to affect time duration retention as well, and whether these factors are independent or interacted needs to be investigated in future research.

Key words: duration, short-term memory, subjective shortening, subjective lengthening