ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2001, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (5): 48-53.

• • 上一篇    下一篇

小学儿童假设检验思维策略的发展

张庆林;司继伟;王卫红   

  1. 西南师范大学心理学系,西南师范大学心理学系,西南师范大学心理学系 重庆400715 ,重庆400715 ,重庆400715
  • 出版日期:2001-10-25 发布日期:2001-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 张庆林

THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN'S HYPOTHESIS-TESTING THINKING STRATEGIES

Zhang Qinglin Si Jiwei Wang Weihong (Department of Psychology,Southwest China Normal University,Chongqing 400715)   

  • Online:2001-10-25 Published:2001-10-25

摘要: 采用自创的“固定样例”程序 ,利用自行设计的两种不同任务的图形推理材料 ,研究了小学儿童假设检验策略的发展。 5 5 0名不同年级的被试参加了本研究。结果发现 ,在该研究条件下 :(1)答案存在多种可能性的任务Ⅰ明显难于答案确定的任务Ⅱ ;(2 )小学儿童假设检验能力随年级提高而增长 ,但增长的速度因任务不同而不同 ;(3)随着年级的提高 ,小学儿童使用的不成功策略逐步下降 ,成功策略显著上升 ,但这也受任务不同的影响 ;(4 )固定样例程序较好地克服了变化样例程序所带来的假设检验研究的缺陷。

关键词: 小学儿童, 思维策略, 假设检验, 人工概念形成

Abstract: This study examined the development of hypothesis-testing thinking strategies of elementary school children. In a sample of 550 children representing different grades,we obtained the following results. First,Task 1 with multiple probable solutions was more difficult than Tast Ⅱ that contained definite solutions. Second,the development of these children's probability thinking,which was a linear function of age,also differed depending on the probability tasks provided to them. Third,the interaction between probability thinking development and task complexity also applied to the use of successful and unsuccessful problem solving strategies. Finally,to conduct our research,we developed and used a fixed-example procedure. We believe this new procedure is better suited for assessing hypothesis-testing strategies than the variable-example procedure that had been used in the past.

Key words: elementary school child, thinking strategy, hypothesis testing, artificial concept formation