ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2001, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (5): 33-41.

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不同概化的问题原型对问题归类和解决的影响

莫雷;吴思娜   

  1. 华南师范大学心理应用研究中心,华南师范大学心理应用研究中心 广州510631 ,广州510631
  • 出版日期:2001-10-25 发布日期:2001-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 莫雷

THE EFFECTS OF EVENT PROTOTYPES WITH DIFFERENT GENERALIZATIONDEGREE ON PROBLEM CATEGORIZING AND SOLVING

Mo Lei Wu Sina (South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631)   

  • Online:2001-10-25 Published:2001-10-25

摘要: 探讨原理学习过程中形成不同概化程度 /问题原型对解决不同适宜程度问题的影响。实验 1探讨个体形成不同概化程度问题原型对解决表面内容不同适宜程度的问题的效果 ;实验 2探讨形成不同概化程度问题原型的被试解决问题的信息加工方式与机制 ;实验 3进一步探讨形成不同概化程度问题原型的个体解决复杂问题的效果与机制。结果表明 :(1)形成概化程度较高的问题原型有利于个体对表面内容不适宜题目的解答 ;(2 )形成概化程度较高问题原型的被试在解答适宜或不适宜问题时均能迅速激活问题原型而通达原理图式 ,因此 ,更多地采用图式的方法解决问题 ;(3)形成概化程度较高的问题原型会有助于被试排除题目的无关信息 ,正确进行解答。

关键词: 概化, 问题原型, 原理学习, 样例

Abstract: This study mainly explored the effects of event prototypes with different generalization degrees formed during the course of the principle study on solving problems. In Experiment 1, the effects of event prototypes with different generalization degrees in solving problem with different concrete contents were investigated. Experiment 2 focused on the forms and the mechanisms of the information processing in solving problems by which the subjects who had formed the different event prototypes in generalization degrees in problem solving. Experiment 3 probed further into the result and the mechanisms of the subjects with the different event prototypes in generalization degrees in solving complex problems. The results suggested: (a) Having formed the event prototypes of higher generalization degree facilitated the subjects to solve the problems with the inappropriate superficial contents. (b) The subjects who had formed the event prototypes with higher generalization degree could quickly activate the event prototype and access the principle schema, as a result, to use the schema-based method to solve both the problems with the appropriate concrete contents and the problems with the inappropriate contents. (c) Having formed the event prototypes of higher generalization degree enabled the subjects to remove quickly the influence of the irrelevant information in solving the complex problems.

Key words: generalization, event prototype, principle study, example