ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (3): 375-388.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00375

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  1. (1西北师范大学心理学院, 兰州 730070)  (2上海师范大学心理学系, 上海 200234)
  • 收稿日期:2012-11-19 发布日期:2015-03-25 出版日期:2015-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 王沛, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:


The Effect of Familiarity and Compatibility on Mental Representation of the Stereotype in Compound Social Categories

CHEN Li1; WANG Pei2; XIE Yiwen2; ZHANG Qin2   

  1. (1 School of Psychology, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China) (2 School of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China)
  • Received:2012-11-19 Online:2015-03-25 Published:2015-03-25
  • Contact: WANG Pei, E-mail:


通过对启动任务范式的改进, 运用3个实验全面考察了复合社会范畴本身的熟悉性和兼容性对复合社会范畴刻板印象中抽象表征和样例表征策略运用的影响。实验1分别以熟悉的、不熟悉且在刻板印象上不兼容的复合范畴为研究对象, 研究发现对熟悉的复合范畴采用抽象表征, 而对不熟悉且在刻板印象上不兼容的复合范畴的表征采用样例表征; 实验2以熟悉且在刻板印象上不兼容的复合范畴为研究对象, 研究发现对于熟悉但构成范畴不兼容的复合范畴的表征也采用样例表征; 实验3采用相同的实验范式, 在描述和定义两种启动任务中设置子范畴间兼容的刻板特质词和不兼容的刻板特质词, 选择与实验2相同的复合范畴“男中学教师”为目标群体, 更加严密地证实和整合了实验1与实验2的研究结论。3个实验的结果说明复合范畴刻板印象的表征关键取决于兼容性, 一旦复合社会范畴的构成范畴在刻板印象上不兼容, 那么对于这一复合社会范畴刻板印象的表征采用样例表征。当构成复合范畴的两个子范畴之间兼容时, 熟悉性成为刻板印象运用抽象表征还是样例表征的影响因素, 无论是对内群体的刻板印象还是外群体的刻板印象, 对熟悉的刻板特质词的表征运用抽象表征。

关键词: 复合社会范畴的刻板印象, 抽象表征, 样例表征, 熟悉性, 兼容性


In previous research, little social cognitional work has focused on the mental representation of the stereotype about compound social categories, which are defined as the intersection of two or more constituent categories and can be construed as subcategories. There are two models of social subcategory representation which can explain how to form the stereotype presentation of compound categories. Brewer’s abstraction model and Smith’ exemplar model can both be right, but maybe in different circumstances, because the stereotype presentation of compound categories may be influenced by familiarity, compatibility and some other factors such as perceiver’ own category attributes. Thus, in present study, we explored the interaction among compound categories’ familiarity, compatibility and participant’ category attributes (in-group or out-group). We hypothesized that people would make exemplar-based trait judgments of social compound categories, consistent with Smith’s model, when those compounds were relatively unfamiliar. The stereotype representation of compatible and familiar compound category might depend on abstract knowledge. Maybe there were differences in the stereotype representation between in-group and out-group memberships. We conducted three experiments in present study and improved priming paradigm to explore the issues above. In Experiment 1, we chose female kindergarten teachers as familiar compound category and male kindergarten teachers as unfamiliar compound category to test the effect of compound familiarity on the stereotype representation of the compound social categories. And in Experiment 2, we chose female secondary school teachers as the target group. In addition, “rational” and “exquisite” were respectively chosen as compatible stereotypical trait word and incompatible stereotypical trait word to explore the effect of compatibility on the representation of compound category’ stereotype when the target was familiar. Based on experiment 2, male secondary school teachers and female secondary school teachers were recruited to explore whether there are differences in the response to compatible stereotypical trait word and incompatible stereotypical trait word between in-group and out-group memberships in Experiment 3. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that when the target was male kindergarten teachers, participants’ response in description group was faster than that in definition group during recall tasks. However, there were no such differences in reaction time when the target was female kindergarten teachers. In other words, participants had exemplars of male elementary school teachers but had abstract presentation of female kindergarten teachers. The results of experiment 2 showed that participants activated the exemplars of male secondary school teachers when they rated incompatible stereotypical trait word “exquisite” in description group but when the stereotypical trait word was “rational”, there was no exemplar activation. So the stereotype representation of male secondary school teachers relied on the stereotype compatibility of the subcategories (male & secondary school teacher). The results of experiment 3 demonstrated that the effect of familiarity and compatibility on the stereotype presentation of compound categories is not moderated by in-group and out-group memberships. In conclusion, the stereotype representation of compatible and familiar compound categories depend on abstract knowledge, whereas when compound social categories are unfamiliar, perceivers can activate individual category members (i.e., exemplars). In addition, the stereotype representation of incompatible and familiar compound categories also depends on exemplars.

Key words: the stereotype of compound social categories, abstract representation, representation on exemplars, familiarity, compatibility.