ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2023, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (7): 1133-1147.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01133

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


宋文静, 陈怡煖, 黄韫慧()   

  1. 南京大学商学院, 南京 210093
  • 收稿日期:2021-08-29 发布日期:2023-04-21 出版日期:2023-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 黄韫慧, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

Emphasizing recovery or improvement in charitable fundraising should depend on event controllability

SONG Wenjing, CHEN Yixuan, HUANG Yunhui()   

  1. School of Business, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
  • Received:2021-08-29 Online:2023-04-21 Published:2023-07-25


求助者境况是募捐信息的重要内容之一, 对境况的不同描述理应影响募捐效果, 却未引起学者们的关注。本研究根据对求助者境况变化过程的不同描述, 将募捐信息分为两类:“恢复/重建” (强调求助者过去境况较好, 当前变得很差, 捐赠使其由损失境况恢复至原状)和“改善/提高” (强调捐赠使求助者由当前很差的境况变得更好)。通过1个二手数据(N = 978, 研究1)和6个实验(N = 1163, 研究2/3a/3b/4/5a/5b)发现, “恢复/重建” (vs.“改善/提高”)类描述使捐赠者感知慈善项目更有利于求助者减少损失(vs.增加获得), 而当捐赠者面对不可控(vs.可控)事件时也更关注减少损失(vs.增加获得)。因此, 基于调节焦点的匹配, 对不可控事件采用“恢复/重建” (vs.“改善/提高”)类描述, 对可控事件采用“改善/提高” (vs.“恢复/重建”)类描述, 个体的捐赠意愿(研究5)和实际捐赠(二手数据)更高。本文在理论上提出了新的募捐信息分类并证明其后续影响, 在实践上可以指导慈善组织根据事件可控性合理设计募捐信息。

关键词: “恢复/重建”信息类型, “改善/提高”信息类型, 事件可控性, 调节匹配, 捐赠意愿


The framing of charity advertising is important for charitable fundraising and common prosperity. Using a static perspective, previous research has identified different ways to classify charitable fundraising information, with framing such as positive vs. negative or for-self vs. for-other. In contrast, the current research focuses on the process of change and suggests classifying fundraising information from a new perspective that emphasizes recovery vs. improvement.

This research examines the following hypotheses: 1) a description of recovery focuses on reducing loss, while that of improvement focuses on increasing gain; 2) uncontrollable events lead people to focus on reducing loss, while controllable events lead people to focus on increasing gain; and 3) matching the fundraising description and event controllability increases willingness to donate. One secondary data analysis and six experiments were conducted to test these hypotheses.

Study 1, the secondary data analysis, confirmed that classifying fundraising information by a “recovery-improvement” framework is reasonable, and found that recovery-description (vs. improvement- description) and uncontrollable events (vs. controllable events) often appear together in charity advertising. Study 2 adopted a one-factor (fundraising information: recovery vs. improvement) between-subjects design to conceptually replicate that association. The results showed that participants wrote down more uncontrollable events (vs.controllable events) when recalling a charity advertisement emphasizing recovery (vs. improvement). Using real and recalled fundraising information generated from Studies 1 and 2, Studies 3a and 3b adopted a one-factor within-subject design to demonstrate H1. Participants reported that recovery-description (vs. improvement-description) tended to focus more on reducing loss rather than increasing gain. Study 4 adopted a one-factor between-subjects design to demonstrate H2. Participants who encountered an uncontrollable (vs. controllable) event focused more on providing aid to help-seekers for reducing loss (vs. increasing gain).

Studies 1-4 showed that participants encountering uncontrollable events focused more on reducing loss, which is also the focus of recovery-description; whereas those encountering controllable events focused more on increasing gain, which is also the focus of improvement-description. Drawing on regulatory fit theory, Studies 5a and 5b aimed at showing that matching fundraising information and event controllability through their regulatory focus contributed to willingness to donate (i.e., H3). The results of these two studies showed that for uncontrollable events, recovery-description led to higher willingness to donate than improvement-description; for controllable events, improvement-description led to higher willingness to donate than recovery-description.

This research is the first to propose and demonstrate the validity of classifying fundraising information into recovery-description and improvement-description, and thus it contributes to the comprehensive understanding of how charitable appeal makes an effect. Moreover, by demonstrating that the regulatory fit between fundraising information and event controllability increases willingness to donate, this research adds to regulatory fit theory and offers practical strategies to increase personal donation.

Key words: recovery-description, improvement-description, event controllability, regulatory fit, willingness to donate