ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

中国科学院心理研究所

• 研究报告 •

### 奖励和惩罚在注意控制过程中的优化和分离：眼动研究

1. 1. 南开大学周恩来政府管理学院社会心理学系, 天津 300071
2. 天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300074
• 收稿日期:2018-06-13 出版日期:2019-11-25 发布日期:2019-09-24
• 通讯作者: 王敬欣 E-mail:wjxpsy@126.com
• 基金资助:
* 国家自然科学基金项目(81771823)

### Optimization and asymmetry effects of reward and punishment on control attention: Evidence from eye movements

ZHANG Kuo1, ZHAO Ying2, WANG Jingxin1, 2()

1. 1. Department of Social Psychology, Zhou Enlai School of Government, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
2. Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China
• Received:2018-06-13 Online:2019-11-25 Published:2019-09-24
• Contact: E-mail:wjxpsy@126.com

Abstract:

A wealth of research shows that positive and negative reinforcement critically influence behavior. While it is well established that rewards and penalties can strongly influence mechanisms of executive control, it is unclear whether these two factors exert symmetric or qualitatively distinct behavioral effects. In the current research, we conducted two eye-movement experiments to investigate the influence of monetary reward or punishment on attentional control. We employed these cues in Pro/Anti-saccade tasks in Experiment 1 and Go/No-go tasks in Experiment 2. Crucially, we investigated how either a reward (also referred to as “gain”) or penalty (also referred to as “loss”) influenced inhibitory control in the following trial.

In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to produce simple pro-saccades or more difficult anti-saccades, in conditions in which they received a reward for correct responses or a punishment for incorrect responses or either a reward or punishment. The results showed that, while the accuracy of the pro-saccades was facilitated by reward, the accuracy of the anti-saccades was facilitated by punishment. And the velocity of pro-saccades and anti-saccades were significantly improved by both reward and punishment. In Experiment 2, we further adopted the Go/No-go tasks to explore how reward and punishment affect attentional control via exogenous parafoveal visual cues. This showed essentially the same pattern of effects as Experiment 1. For the Go task, saccade latency significantly decreased when rewards were given relative to punishment or no motivation conditions. And for the No-go task, accuracy increased more in the punishment condition compared to the reward or no motivation conditions. An increase in saccade velocity was observed in the no motivation condition, similarly to in Experiment 1.

In sum, the overall results suggest that both reward and punishment can facilitate the oculomotor control, although the findings reveal a striking asymmetry in the effects of the reward and punishment on behavior. Specifically, positive reinforcement appears to improve approach behaviors, while punishment influences inhibitory behavior. These findings suggest that the two forms of reinforcement are distinct in their influence on behavior.