ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (2): 188-195.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00188

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


过继成思, 黄建平, 宛小昂()   

  1. 清华大学心理学系, 北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-18 发布日期:2018-12-24 出版日期:2019-02-25
  • 通讯作者: 宛小昂
  • 基金资助:

The influence of target knowledge on path integration

GUO Jichengsi, HUANG Jianping, WAN Xiaoang()   

  1. Department of Psychology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • Received:2016-10-18 Online:2018-12-24 Published:2019-02-25
  • Contact: WAN Xiaoang


本研究采用头盔式虚拟现实与返回起点或路标的路径完成任务, 通过指导语来调控被试对于返回位置的预知, 检验目标预知对人类路径整合的影响。实验结果表明, 对于返回起点这一目标的预知可以使被试有效地忽略由于路标出现或路标数量增加而导致的干扰, 而对于返回路标这一目标的预知程度越高, 可以促使被试做出更准确的反应。这样的结果体现了目标预知作为一种非感知觉因素对于人类路径整合的影响, 也体现了人类路径整合的策略性和灵活性。

关键词: 路径整合, 目标预知, 路标, 虚拟现实, 空间巡航


Navigation can be classified into piloting and path integration based on the types of information used. Piloting allows navigators to use direction sensory cues regarding the environment and landmarks, but in path integration, navigators rely on self-motion information. Previous research has revealed that the presence of landmarks might influence human path integration, but it remains unclear how this process might be influenced by the participants’ knowledge about which target location to which they would be asked to return. Here, we report a study designed to investigate the effect of target knowledge in human path integration.
In the present study, we used Head-Mounted-Display Virtual Reality to present hallway-mazes, and employed a modified return-to-origin task used by Wan, Wang, and Crowell (2012). That is, the participants first traveled along 5-segment pathways where 0, 1, or 2 landmarks were present at the intersections. When arriving at the end of the outbound pathways, they were asked to return directly to the origin or one of the landmark locations. In order to manipulate target knowledge, we gave different instructions to three groups of participants at the beginning of each trail: the first group was not given any information about where to return; the second group was told about whether they would be asked to return to the origin or one of the landmark locations (without knowing which landmark exactly); and the third group was told about which specific location they would be asked to return to.
The results showed the effects of target knowledge on both the return-to-origin and return-to-landmark responses. When attempting to return to the origin, the uninformed group showed longer RTs when there were two landmarks than when there was no landmark; whereas the other two groups showed no such patterns. For another, when attempting to return to the specified landmarks, the uninformed group showed greater position errors than the other two groups. That is to say, target knowledge might diminish interference from the presence or increase of the landmarks on the return-to-origin responses, and lead to more accurate return-to-landmark responses.
Taken together, these results revealed that more knowledge about where to return might facilitate human path integration. One possibility is that more knowledge about the target might allow the participants to use a more adaptive strategy to reduce their working memory load and to simplify the structure of the outbound paths they need to process. These findings highlight the influence of non-perceptual factors on human path integration, and they indicate that path integration in humans might be an adaptive and strategic process.

Key words: path integration, target knowledge, landmark, virtual reality, spatial navigation