ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (12): 1438-1448.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01438

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

解释框架对文化混搭产品评价的影响——比较焦点和解释策略的调节效应

聂春艳1, 汪涛2(), 赵鹏2, 崔楠2   

  1. 1 江西财经大学工商管理学院, 南昌 330032
    2 武汉大学组织营销研究中心, 武汉 430072
  • 收稿日期:2017-06-15 出版日期:2018-11-30 发布日期:2018-10-30
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金重点项目“全球化和网络化背景下的中国企业品牌国际化营销战略研究”(71532011);* 国家自然科学基金重点项目“全球化和网络化背景下的中国企业品牌国际化营销战略研究” (71532011)、国家自然科学基金面上项目“品牌全球化中来源国文化符号及其对消费者品牌支持的影响:文化情感和文化认同视角”资助(71672054)

The influence of interpretation frame on the evaluation of culturally mixed products: The moderating effect of comparison focus and interpretation strategy

NIE Chunyan1, WANG Tao2(), ZHAO Peng2, CUI Nan2   

  1. 1 School of Business Administration, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang 330032, China
    2 Research Center For Organizational Marketing of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
  • Received:2017-06-15 Online:2018-11-30 Published:2018-10-30

摘要:

文化混搭产品因涉及到不同国家的文化符号的同时呈现, 可能导致母国文化的完整性与生命力受到威胁, 引发外国文化入侵母国文化的感知进而降低消费者的产品评价。本研究从文化混搭产品的营销传播视角出发, 基于前人的研究基础之上, 探讨了不同信息表述框架策略的采用会如何影响消费者的文化入侵感知进而影响他们对文化混搭产品的评价, 并重点探究了它可能存在的两个边界条件, 即消费者的比较焦点和企业的不同解释策略。两个实验的结果不仅再一次验证了前人所得出的研究结论, 即文化混搭产品采用“外国文化-母国文化”的框架策略时, 会使消费者产生外国文化改变了母国文化的感知, 导致消费者对产品的评价要显著低于采用“母国文化-外国文化”的框架策略, 其中感知文化入侵起着完全中介的作用。更重要的是, 深入揭示出上述的这种不同文化混搭框架效应只有在启动的是消费者的差异性聚焦以及企业采用的是属性解释策略时才存在, 而当启动的是消费者的相似性聚焦以及企业采用关系解释策略时, 这一效应将会消失。本研究不仅深入剖析出了引发消费者对文化混搭现象产生排斥性反应的内在机理, 拓展了前人研究结论的普适性, 也为企业的文化混搭产品的营销推广提供了有用的实践启示。

关键词: 文化混搭, 文化入侵, 框架策略, 比较焦点, 解释策略

Abstract:

Culturally mixed products are products in which cultural symbols from two or more countries are presented simultaneously. This perception promotes categorical perceptions of culture and draws attention to cultural differences, which in turn enhances the perceived incompatibility of the two cultures. This perception, when coupled with a situation-induced cultural defense mindset, can lead to exclusionary reactions for culturally mixed products. The articles in the present special issue studied four major features of culturally mixed products: (a) the involvement of in-group culture, (b) the extent of mixing between cultures, (c) the level of cultural symbolism, and (d) the direction of cultural influence, all of which lack the perspective of marketing communication to discuss how to weaken consumers’ exclusionary reactions for culture mixing stimuli. From the perspective of enterprises’ marketing communication, this study explored how the bicultural framing strategy (“foreign-culture home-culture” vs. “home-culture foreign-culture”) influence consumers’ culturally mixed products evaluation, and further examined the moderating effect of comparison focus and interpretation strategy

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This study used two main experiments to test the hypothesis. Experiment 1 sought evidence of how people evaluate culturally mixed products under a different framing strategy and how they evaluate the moderating effect of comparison focus. A total of 279 undergraduate students from a university in central China participated in experiment 1. Participants were randomly assigned to six conditions in a 2 (bicultural framing) × 3 (comparison focus) between-subjects design. The participants were informed to participate in two unrelated studies. First, they were told to participate in an “observation and comprehension study”, which functioned to serve its real purpose of manipulating the comparison focus. Then, the second study was a “new product survey”, in which the participants were asked to assess a new American-designed product entering the Chinese market. Experiment 1 used a culturally mixed product made up of moon-cake (Chinese culture) and hamburger (Western culture). In the “foreign-culture home-culture” strategy condition, the product is titled “Hamburger moon-cake”. In the condition of “home-culture foreign-culture” strategy, the title is “Moon-cake hamburger”. The objective of experiment 2 was to examine the moderating effect of interpretation strategy. A total of 177 undergraduate students participated in the “new product survey”. The participants were randomly assigned to four conditions in a 2 (bicultural framing) × 2 (interpretation strategy) between-subjects design. Experiment 2 used a culturally mixed product made up of paper-cutting (Chinese culture) and Mickey Mouse (Western culture)

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The results of experiment 1 showed a significant effect of bicultural framing strategy on the evaluation of culturally mixed products (F(1,273) = 24.08, p < 0.001) as well as a significant interaction of bicultural framing strategy and comparison focus (F(2,273) = 7.19, p < 0.01). In the difference comparison group, when culturally mixed products adopted the “foreign-culture home-culture” (i.e., “Hamburger moon-cake”) strategy, it led to a less favorable evaluation relative to the “home-culture foreign-culture” (i.e., “Moon-cake hamburger”) strategy (MMoon-cake hamburger = 5.45, SD = 1.64 vs. MHamburger moon-cake = 3.97, SD = 1.61, t(91) = 4.39, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.92). However, in the similarity comparison group, the product evaluations did not differ significantly between the two framing strategy conditions (M Moon-cake hamburger = 4.71, SD = 1.61 vs. M Hamburger moon-cake = 4.80, SD = 1.57, t(90) = -0.27, p = 0.78). This study also found that the effect of bicultural framing strategy on culturally mixed products was fully mediated by perceived cultural intrusion. The results of experiment 2 showed a significant interaction between bicultural framing strategy and interpretation strategy (F(1,173) = 8.81, p < 0.01). When the enterprises adopted the property interpretations, the product evaluation in the “foreign-culture home-culture” condition was lower than that in the “home-culture foreign-culture” condition (MPaper-cut Mickey Mouse = 6.63, SD = 1.78, vs. MMickey Mouse paper-cut = 4.96, SD = 1.81, t(84) = 4.28, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.93). However, when the enterprises adopted the relational interpretations, the product evaluations did not differ significantly between the two framing strategy conditions (MPaper-cut Mickey Mouse = 5.80, SD = 1.83, vs. MMickey Mouse paper-cut = 5.77, SD = 1.85, t(89) = 0.09, p = 0.93)

.

Our research contributes to the existing literature on culturally mixed products. Though previous research on culturally mixed products is mostly from the consumers’ perspective and the product design perspective, it lacks work from the perspective of marketing communication that discusses how to improve the consumers’ product evaluation. Our research, through exploring the influence of the bicultural framing strategy on the evaluation of culturally mixed products, opens up a new perspective to study the phenomena of culture mixing. We also found boundary conditions for the effect of bicultural framing strategy. The different bicultural framing effects only exist when the consumers focus on differences and when the enterprises adopt property interpretations. When the consumers focus on similarities and when the enterprises adopt relational interpretations, this effect disappears. Furthermore, our research tells the companies that a “home-culture foreign-culture” strategy will be an effective way to form a positive evaluation on culturally mixed products.

Key words: culture mixing, cultural intrusion, framing strategy, comparison focus, interpretation strategy

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