ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (3): 404-415.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00404

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

权力感对个体的影响:调节定向的视角

杨文琪1; 李 强1; 郭名扬2; 范 谦2; 何伊丽3   

  1. (1南开大学周恩来政府管理学院, 天津 300350) (2北京师范大学心理学院, 北京 100875) (3东莞理工学院城市学院财经系, 广东 东莞 523419)
  • 收稿日期:2016-07-11 出版日期:2017-03-25 发布日期:2017-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 李强, E-mail: liqiangp@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家社科基金重大招标项目(12&ZD218)资助。

The effects of power on human behavior: The perspective of regulatory focus

YANG Wenqi1; LI Qiang1; GUO Mingyang2; FAN Qian2; HE Yili3   

  1. (1 Zhou Enlai School of Government, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China) (2 School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China) (3 Department of Finance and Economics, City College of Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan 523419, China)
  • Received:2016-07-11 Online:2017-03-25 Published:2017-03-25
  • Contact: LI Qiang, E-mail: liqiangp@126.com

摘要:

采用4个研究探究了权力感对调节定向的影响。研究1通过测量被试的特质性权力感和特质性调节定向初步探索权力感水平与调节定向的关系。研究2和研究3分别通过外显角色扮演和故事回忆法来探究状态性权力感对调节定向目标表征和策略选择的影响。研究4采用身体姿势法启动权力感, 进一步探究在内隐层面权力感对调节定向的影响。结果发现, 高权力感个体更倾向于促进定向; 而低权力感个体更倾向于预防定向, 并且排除了其中可能的无关变量(情绪)的影响。本研究有助于更好地理解和整合现有的权力感研究结果, 并能预测更多未知的权力感效应。

关键词: 权力感, 调节定向, 促进定向, 预防定向

Abstract:

Research on power has been going on for decades and it has been found to have considerable effects on cognitive, emotional and behavior aspects. This article presents an integrative theory accounting of the effects of power on humans. In particular, high power means the ability to control others and to get rid of the control of others, powerful individuals have the ability to fill with one's will, as a consequence, triggers promotion-related goal and strategy. In contrast, low power is associated with no ability to control others and get rid of the control of others and thereby activates prevention-related goal and strategy. This framework allows us to integrate disparate literatures and to generate a significant number of novel hypotheses about the consequences of power. In order to empirically verify the hypotheses mentioned, 4 studies are presented to explore the influence of power (high or low) on regulatory focus (promotion or prevention). Study 1 investigated the relationship between trait power and chronic regulatory focus. Results showed that the powerful, compared to the powerless participants, were more likely to promotion focus. Study 2-4 investigated the effects of priming power on situated regulatory focus. In Study 2, after role playing of manipulating power, the accessibility to ideals and duties to goal were measured. Results showed that powerful participants showed greater accessibility to their ideals while powerless participants showed greater accessibility to their duties. In Study 3, after recalling manipulating sense of personal power, the accessibility to eager and vigilant of strategy were measured. Results showed that powerful participants showed greater eager strategy while powerless participants showed greater vigilant strategy. In Study 4, we priming power with gesture implicitly, then measured participants' strategy in the same way with Study 3. Results showed that powerful participants showed greater eager strategy while powerless participants showed greater vigilant strategy. We also showed that this effect occurred as a consequence of the level of power rather than as an incidental result of a change in mood. In short, the results indicated that individuals with high power are more likely to promotion focus and individuals with low power tend to prevention focus. The results of these four studies provided supports for our theorizing: (1) individuals with high power are more likely to promotion focus, whereas those in low power tend more to prevention focus. (2) The regulatory focus effect of power occurred as a consequence of the level of power rather than as an incidental result of a change in mood. The importance of these results is discussed in line with recent theorizing within social psychology of power. We propose a new means to broaden the understanding of effect of power, which enriches the relevant research on power. In addition, the result is a beneficial supplement to Approach-Inhibition Theory of power.

Key words: power, regulatory focus, promotion focus, prevention focus