ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (11): 1410-1422.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.01410

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

词语型类别属性归纳中分类与属性推理过程的时间特征

李 婧1; 陈安涛1; 陈 杰2; 龙长权1;   

  1. (1西南大学心理学部, 重庆 400715) (2湖南师范大学心理系, 长沙 410081)
  • 收稿日期:2016-04-07 出版日期:2016-11-25 发布日期:2016-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 龙长权,lcq@swu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(31200780)

The neural signs of categorization and property inferences during verbal category-based properties induction

LI Jing1; CHEN Antao1; CHEN Jie2; LONG Changquan1   

  1. (1 Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China) (2 Department of Psychology, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China)
  • Received:2016-04-07 Online:2016-11-25 Published:2016-11-25
  • Contact: LONG Changquan,lcq@swu.edu.cn

摘要:

先前的研究中没有清晰分离类别属性归纳任务中分类过程与属性推理过程的ERP特征。本研究采用了事件相关电位技术(ERPs), 通过在词语型类别属性归纳任务的结论呈现阶段分开呈现结论类别和结论属性, 探讨了类别属性归纳中分类过程和属性推理过程的ERP特征。实验结果显示:在结论类别呈现阶段, 结论无关类别比结论关联类别诱发了更大的N400, 表明N400与类别属性归纳中的语义分类过程密切相关。在结论属性呈现阶段, 无论是在类别关联还是在类别无关条件下, 不一致属性比一致属性均诱发了更大的前部N2成分, 反映了属性知觉上的失匹配或规则的违背。随后, 在300~400 ms的时间窗口发现, 一致属性比不一致属性在前部脑区诱发了更大的类似于P3a的正偏转, 反映了对一致属性的更多关注。同时, 实验还发现, 当结论类别与前提类别关联时, 在300~400 ms的时间窗口, 一致属性比不一致属性在后部脑区也诱发了更大的类似于P3b的正偏转, 反映了推理预期的满意程度; 随后, 在400~600 ms的时间窗口, 不一致属性比一致属性在后部脑区诱发了更大的正偏转, 这与推理规则的违反相关。

关键词: 归纳, 分类, 属性推理, 事件相关电位(ERPs)

Abstract:

Category-based property induction involves in at least two processes, namely, categorization and property inferences. Previous ERP studies in figural category-based induction only focused on categorization, could not generalize their findings to semantic induction. The studies in semantic category-based properties induction failed to acquire ERP parameters related to categorization and property inferences respectively due to their experimental designs where their non-inductive condition contained unrelated categories with consistent properties or related conclusion categories with inconsistent properties. What’s more, in these ERP studies on semantic category-based induction, the conclusion categories and conclusion properties were presented simultaneously in previous studies, which involved complex comparison that was not helpful to explore the ERP responses to category-related and property-related processes clearly. Therefore, this study was aimed to find distinct ERP characteristics between categorization and property inferences during verbal category-based property induction. The present study employed ERPs and adopted single-premise verbal category-based property induction. Thirty-four undergraduates participated in this experiment, they were presented with premise stimuli including category and property first, next conclusion category (category-presenting stage) and conclusion property (property-presenting stage) would be presented separately. Experimental premise and conclusion stimuli in tasks composed with specific categories and blank properties including capital letters plus Arabic numeral (e.g. premise: 苹果 X1 (apple X1)), which represented the category item has the blank property. (e.g. apple has property X1). In the experiment, premises involving premise categories and premise properties were presented firstly (apple X1), and then conclusion categories involving related (e.g., pear) and unrelated categories (e.g., rose) were presented (categorization stage); Finally, the conclusion properties involving consistent (e.g., X1?) and inconsistent properties (e.g., B3?) were presented with question mark (properties stage). Participants were required to make response in property-presenting stage to judge whether this conclusion based on premise stimuli was acceptable or not. In the categorization stage, the results found compared to related categories, unrelated categories elicited greater N400 that indicated N400 is closely related to the processing of semantic categorization; In the properties stage, consistent property elicited smaller frontal N2 than that did by inconsistent property regardless of conclusion category condition, which suggested that N2 is associated with mismatch of perceptual property or multi-dimensional rule inconsistence. What’s more, consistent property elicited greater P3a than inconsistent property at the frontal brain region during 300~400 ms regardless of conclusion category condition, which provided that attention transfer or allocation with unconsciousness could be attribute to the activation of P3a. Meanwhile, at the parietal brain region, consistent properties elicited greater P3b than inconsistent properties under related conclusion categories, which indicated that P3b has a link with the degree of expectation in reasoning. The present study also found on the properties stage, inconsistent properties yielded a greater P600-like component than consistent properties at parietal brain region during 400~600 ms under related conclusion categories, which showed that P600-like LPC400–600 is related to the violation of rule-based logical inference. Therefore, The ERP responses to categorization and properties inferences were dissociated in this study. Besides, previous studies mainly employed explicit paradigm (e.g. semantic categorization task) or implicit paradigm (e.g. semantic priming paradigm) in ERP studies on semantic categorization, category-based property induction employed in this study to uncover ERP characteristics of categorization is beneficial for extending findings in this field.

Key words: induction, categorization, property inferences, ERPs