ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (8): 915-923.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.00915

• 论文 •    下一篇

声调在汉语音节感知中的作用

赵荣;王小娟;杨剑峰   

  1. (陕西师范大学心理学院, 西安 710062)
  • 收稿日期:2015-01-28 出版日期:2016-08-25 发布日期:2016-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 杨剑峰, E-mail: yangjf@snnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(31400966, 31171077), 教育部人文社会科学青年项目(14YJC190019)。

The role of tone in Chinese syllable perception

ZHAO Rong; WANG Xiaojuan; YANG Jianfeng   

  1. (School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, China)
  • Received:2015-01-28 Online:2016-08-25 Published:2016-08-25
  • Contact: YANG Jianfeng, E-mail: yangjf@snnu.edu.cn

摘要:

探讨超音段(如声调)与音段信息的共同作用机制, 对口语词汇识别研究具有重要的理论意义。有研究探讨了声调在口语词汇语义通达阶段的作用, 但在相对早期的音节感知阶段, 声调与声母、韵母的共同作用机制还缺乏系统的认识。本研究采用oddball实验范式, 通过两个行为实验考察了声调在汉语音节感知中的作用。实验1发现检测声调和声母变化的时间没有差异, 均比检测韵母变化的时间长, 表明在汉语音节感知中对声调的敏感性不及韵母。实验2发现声母和韵母的组合并没有明显优于对韵母的觉察, 但声调与声母或韵母的同时变化都促进了被试对偏差刺激的觉察, 表明声调通过与声母、韵母的结合来共同影响汉语音节的感知加工。研究结果在认知行为层面为声调在音节感知中的作用机制提供了直接的实验证据, 为进一步探讨超音段与音段信息共同作用的认知神经机制提供了基础。

关键词: 音节感知, 音段信息, 声调

Abstract:

An increasing interest in spoken word recognition has focused on studies of tonal language recently since previous cognitive and neuroanatomical models of speech perception were proposed based on studies of non-tone language. To examine the language general of these models, some studies have attempted to investigate the difference between the processing of segmental and suprasegmental information in tonal language. Consequently, Chinese tone becomes topical and receives an increasing attention. However, previous studies have examined the processing of tone in semantic access in spoken words, speech development, as well as word reading. The role of tone and its combined impact with segmental information (initial consonant and vowel) in Chinese syllable perception are not well understood yet. The current study conducted two behavioral experiments to test the influence of tone in Chinese syllable perception. To compare the role of tone and segmental information, Experiment 1 used an oddball paradigm by presenting a stream of standard syllables interrupted by deviant syllables. Deviants were created from standard syllable (“da1”)by changing the initial Consonant (C change, “ga1”), Vowel (V change, “du1”) and Tone (T change, “da4”). The rate of standard and deviant syllables was 8:1 and the interval between each pair of deviant syllables included, at least, five standard syllables. Experiment 2 used the same paradigm to test the combined effect of tone and segmental information. Five types of deviant syllables were created by changing the vowel (V, “du1”), consonant plus vowel (C+V, “gu1”), tone plus consonant (T+C, “ga4”), tone plus vowel (T+V, “du4”), and tone plus consonant plus vowel (T+C+V, “gu4”). Twenty-eight university students took part in Experiment 1 and another 31 students participated in Experiment 2. In both experiments, participants listened to the auditory stimuli in the earphone with their eyes fixing at the cross on the screen. They were instructed to response correctly and quickly by pressing a button when they detected a deviant syllable from the stream of the standard syllables. Stimulus presentation and response latency collection were controlled using E-prime 1.1 software. Experiment 1 observed a significant difference in the reaction time among three types of deviant syllables. Detecting vowel change was faster than detecting initial consonant and tone changes, whereas there was no difference between the latter two conditions. Experiment 2 observed an increasing impact on syllable perception for combined information. For the deviant syllables, detecting the changes in tone plus segmental information (T+C, T+V, and T+C+V) was faster than vowel change alone. Even for tone plus consonant (T+C), two slower changes in Experiment 1, the detecting time was faster than vowel change alone. However, no further difference was observed among combined conditions. These results showed that tone involved in Chinese syllable perception. The influence of tone alone was weaker than vowel and stronger than the consonant, but its combined effect with segmental information was dramatic. The findings indicate an integrating effect between segmental and suprasegmental information in Chinese syllable perception. It suggests a future approach to investigate the integrating processing using cognitive neuroscience techniques.

Key words: syllable perception, segmental information, tone